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STANLEY niim 1 

i "sity liibraries 



OUR Years of Fighting, 






.-HOR or "thb Bova of '76,' "the story of liberty," "winning hii 






301-305 Washington Strhet, 

L '9 7d 



CopyrittlK. »«<i, i^F 

ItmenA .-lomnlini: lo Au of (:cmgr(:i>!s in tlic year i<S)i6, bf 


ill ihv Cli'ik ' oiiii-c «i \\«! DiHirici (.'uuii i>f ilic iJiiirict i>( MuasacIiiuetiR. 


Tbib Tolunie, though liititoric. is uot a history of the Kotiel* 
UoD, but a record of ponoual obsorrattous and experid&oee 
during the war, with an oooasiouol look at a&irs in goneral to 
give clearness to tho narratiro. Tb^s timo has not arriTod for 
the wrtting of an impartial hiatory of the couflict betwoen 
^▼erj and Freedom in the United States. Reporta of miti- 
tary operations are iuoom{^oto ; documents in tlie arcliires at 
Wasliington oro inaccessible ; much material remain!) to bo 
gathered before tho patioiit historian can aid Uio wheat from 
the chaff. More than this, tho war of ideas is uot yet ouddd. 
Defeated Babels in eome parts of the Houlli uro bent on extor- 
minftWng the African race. Few of thoee lately in rebellion 
plead guilty of having committed a crime ; taking up armi 
against tho gOTommont thoy ooiisidor to liaro henn a blunder 
ouly. We are, therefore, too near tho great ovoute to render 
proper judgment upon questions in which our principles and 
vympatliiob have boon enlisted. 

The ohapter concerning the Ooufedcratu Cotton Loan may 
wem to bo out of place id a volume of which so largo a [wrtiot) 
is given to narrative, but I trust Uiat it will bo acceptable to 
the general reader, inasmuch as it reveals tJte effort of the 
Rebels to array ail Europe against the United Slates in the 
late struggle. The oorrespoudence tu my poesessiou wot picked 
up in the streets of Richmond, and will be of value to the fii- 
turf historian. Tlie chapter in question is but an ouiliuoof 
Ute cperatious of the Confederates abroad. 


In locking orer the sheets u the; cune from the pr«^, seT- 
and errore relative to the organization and formation of iroope 
iu bfttUti littTo l>eeu detected, wtiich, huwerer, will appear in 
bat a few copios. Undoubtedly there are otkere, and the 
vriter will esteem it a faror to he put right wherever he te in 
the wrong. Few official raporta of regimental and brigade 
officon have been puhltslied, while the reports of dividon and 
corps commaudorB are onl; general in their Btatementa. The 
true liletorj of battles cannot be given till the history of regi- 
ments is written. 

Hy stand-point as an observer is that of one whoee iustiacti 
from early childhood have been on the side of Freedom. I 
have ever believed tliat Civil Liliortj is the birthright of all 
men, and from the firing upon Sumter to the dose of the 
oontest had AiU faith that the people, under Ood, would sutv 
duo the BebeUioo, and give freedom to the slavQ. 

The four years have been worth a century of ordinary life ; 
for in tlie mighty oontest Bight has triumphed over Wrong, 
and the human race, with a clearer perception of Truth and 
Juitico as the sure fbundation of government, is moving oo 
to a higher oiviUzatiou. 




BM ukI Prindpin. — BatUM witneMed. — The Lttdtn — Buia of Af- 
fUn. — B&ltliDOfC. — Dnloeu Id the Sbectt. — Baltimore Womea. — 
Bbw TiQOp*. — Tuit to Fort HcHsnry. — WMhington- — Blilanal of 
(hi Krmy — 0«a«nti in Commuiil. — Ociwntl Sooti — Ul* Poddott- 

— Nvwipapor Bepora, — Troop* orxaoiMd- — TTw QftOtertag of <h» 


AJouwlna. — The Ma««achiueui FiAh. — A Song far Bnnkar Hill — Tte 
Bsrtew. — The l>iauQt Gtin. — Tbo ASut at Vlanna. — A DiDnar (• 
Ika Held. — Vallandigliam and the Ohio Bojra — PatriotJam of tlu 

Solditn- ^ The KoRDee' Harrfa. — MotiDj of ihe Oaribaldi (Hard 

Ab Adveoiare. — Brokea EuKlith — UupI«Muani Pociiioo- — Q«D«al 
lfaai6lU'f Wiatb. ^ The Liiftcr-Boer BniineM. — A Faded Ariatocntc^ 

— LMsf oa a Naiae. - The Sirens of Tlrglnla, — A 8otiUi Carolina 
ChaiMl. — Bit Baartb for Clur^ecu. — How he fbnnd Freedom 


llM March. — The Second Slalne. — The Pageant. — The Biroua. — The 
BoahirM. — Beaaresard'i Proclanuuion. — McDowdl'a Order. — The 
OoDtnat. — Virgiaia Ud)0B»iii. — The First 8ho(. — The AitJUerj. — 
Batreat of tbe Rebel*. — The NeKro'* Scory — CentnrilJe. — Bnoff Dtp- 
para- — Afiiira at BlacJcbam'* Ford. — Tha Mortiing. — Prognee of the 
Battle. — The Kebel Priaoimr- — Tba TnmiDg of tbe Tide — At tbe 
9prb«. — Tbs Paak. — Tbe Teaiutan, — The RW>ele oa tbe Point of 


H Hl^fcwnail llJuiitrh "TTil-r'Til Biortaof Um IbbeU.— 
ri UmUh^at UMiiril Hatler — UDton Mm of Virfiote. — 
moT thm KMh- — Sedactjve loltaieiKM of SJsrwj 


TBE FALL or 19BI. 

■vxidoa flf A&in. — DiHtWr M Bdl'i BluT. — Tke N«wi in WaiUiiffUn. 

— How PmiidaBi Unaols ncdved it — Uii teuJ ii i of Hmtv — Ur. 
Liaoolii la hb SpriDsflald Boma. ~ Hli TottpaniMe PrlDdplot. — 
PookrUie. — Ootoaal Bftker'* Body. — 6iarvrj id Wmuhi HArrUnd. — 
Vbtt 10 Bmur) HurUod. — The " WUu llorae." — Ctutncta of th* 
Onaai/7. .— Our lliMt ».l Prnmunkej. — lit* FkouI/.— Viiit U> Aniuptk 
lit. — Afutocnlie I'ritlB. — 8or«Mion in Viubioglon. — TIm Spiilt of 
Sktsrj ia tba Array The UatcliiDiioii Ksmil^ ud OeiMril MeClvllas. 

— WUtdar*! " EIm tow Borg bt oDKr Oou " — &Ujvr Oovld ud hit 
■bou. — A Bflbol MlniNir. — WuUngtoo Jail and iu Iniuuk. — CkM 



LwHitlto rfliliin of KeatadEj Tha Oplntou oft Lojal TeuHi 

■MM. — Otairtl BttU Mid hU I'olioj. — Krenu io Miuooii. — Uaaanl 

Brttrk Order No. 3. — Gencr*! BclioGeld ud Um anerilUi. — N««ro 

Tntimon; — PrctBoni'a Annj. — Vuit lo BolU. — Oeowsl 8i|[«l — 
Badkml U«ntlin«iit« o( iba Ansf- — Cairo. — Dnion 0«n«ral>. — [atny 
4mM ID OaiMnl OruL — Commodon Poom. — Tbe Wadidppl Plo- 
llUk — OipulD Pon«r and the Em«k. — Hii Chalkng* 10 C»|)UiB 
. — M^or-Oenenl Buhop Polk. — HacunactiMUin towudt 
— A KwlBcky Fara-honae. — Batara to Cairo 




Bauic «r Mill Stifioc*. — A (^tune Knatuckian. — DiKuaion of the Nagni 
(^MMtan.— Kmtnckj Fannen. — Laxingtoo. — Sraoaa at tba I'faaBix 
BoMl. — BaoanoD L«dia*. — Amhoaj TroUope- — Tonb of IIsiu7 Cbj. 
- Claf't OplakNt of AboUdmiaia. — How a Prc^f lerian Uinbur woold 
Modan tba War. ~ Badl'a Blcbt Wfaig. — Trip down the Ohio. — Pa*- 
iH^Mt M Board tba Qnf Ba(la. — Tha I^Mlfde of OwanaboroDgti- — 
OrOfMB Blw — X«tMl7 Uaioaiatft. — Vidi to Oalhowi. — A "flrM- 
aUm " BoMl. — Soaaaa 00 tba BMmmt H 




Captun of Port Btarj. — CommoJoni Fooi«'* Accoiioi or ih* HlfbL — Hi* 
Can Tor Um Woudsd. — Hu rreuhiDg on SddiIaj. ~ AAin io MiMl*- 
^pi. — CaptUTv of Fort Doadaon. — MoraiiMfil of Ibe Troops. — Tha 
Bamodor. — Tbs Appousnce of (li« Rebab. — 1^ Town of I>OT«r. — 
SOCDM In tbe Rebel Udw- — Th« rormii Sumodw at tbe Pon- — A|^ 

ptanaoo of Buckner «c4 Oruii K«bvl OfllMn m lbs RaispaK*. — 

Coflimodon Fooui'a Inwntioiu. ~ Uii Pluu frnnimicd bj Halleck. ~ 

HBlllflcuioB of Order No. a. — Occapsiion of Colamboi Tlw SoodMn 

Hum. — Boinb«rdis«u of hlud No. la — Coloiud BiaMll'a CauL — 
Patmfo of TmupoKi u> Sew Msdrid. -~ RansiaK put tbe B*ttenM. — 
Qaaufsl Papa'a Openliotu. — Ci^>ture of Rebel*. — Surrender of blkad 
»o 10 H 



Tbi Oppo«iif FonM. — Tbe Balllo-Fidd. — Tbe Poqf Wbitee of lbs Soath. 
~- 0«oarml Bbennu. — Bcaangard'i Dctpftich- — R«tiMi of tbe Bebele. 
— BaJlacfe'a AdTuux upon Corinib. — Itte Mitsissippi PleM. — Adainl 
Uftvi* ^ Capt&in U*jiutdi«r, — A Trap for tb« Itebdi. — HorenMiit of 

lh« Bstu Fin of tbe Rebel Bktieriee. — E'ucutioQ of Fori Pilluw. ~ 

Oasboftt Figbt U Hempbia. — Bumuder of tbe Citj- — Comnodow 
KUei . . M 



BftOta of **""■" — Colonel BnwdbMd. — ConfldenM of tbt Beb«lii. . 
Oprieinc in Peniuj'lTuue. — Sorrendflr of Hurler's Fen?. — Becftpe of 
tJie Cnioti C^ralrj. — N«gTi> Teanuien. — ExLiicxueat of tbe OitiwM. -^ 
Uagentown. — AatJetam — Vijit to tbe Right Wing. — f'offnbwg'e 
HMUe.^SaiBiwr'e MoTcmeDt —Tbe Cotn-Field — Bunude'e Attark. 
— Th* risbi M tbe BHdce . . 




Tbe OppoelBg Foroee. — Br»4;r'i AdTUice. — Cftpton of FrtsUbn. — Tbt 
Rebel* ID l^ixifigWB. — Xnea^urktion of Governor Ilurii . — Br^f'i R« 
vxM U im Frenkfon — Bettle of I'tfrfvillc — l'i«wdaat'* Prodemuioo 



— Tb« Krawekir PBli«7- — 0«nenl Qlllmore'i Oriler No. b. — Tvanij- 
BhwkI WUii'twiB 404 Cakwal Ctl*;. — Jndgt Roberaon ud Ui Boy 
J«. — Tta Kminfk^ I^illoj TSTCTMd. — An Erenlng In LotiiaTllle m 



Mdlara' F«u. — B«B«<nl of UcClelUn. — Bumiid«'i FUim. - Am; CM* 

— OM 8|Mcnl>H>n. — ExpecwtloMof tfafPHpt* . IM 



Tb* Hrgpai Onn*. — Laying tin Po&(oou — BombudiMQt of th« Cltj. - 
tUU'* BriftMlo. — B«bel BhM|Ml>ooten. — Croulng th* Uirar — B«tmiU 

HkUgu- — TuiiM* in Fndsddubunt. — tiight Sc«d« Tfa« Dnufr 

mwBoj. — R«T. Anhar !)■ KuUor. — Uii Kaavnd UbMqoJH. — Lot'i 

Aimj. — Poaitlou of tba Troop*. — BanuMe't Onlfln u Pmoklln 

TIm HomuDg. — MoTBmnil of the Anny. — Auack on lfa« Left — 
KrukliB'i Dotpaictw*. — B<eade'i AtUck. — Jftduoo'i Urn brakin. — 
Pruklln'i AccoQnL — WouDiled Holdlen. — AlUck on tba Right — 
fU«ioDtti N«w I)uD|Mhira — tiiuixU'i DiTiMon. — Tb« Lwi AlUkclL 
— BacroMiD| lite Ri>«T ....... 




Bmplojani of Um M*d. — Anonoui Tnot SoclMy. — Qmunl BowHrd 

ftad th* Bewiitontiw B41UU17 ud ChriitlAo OodbiImIoiu. — R*- 

HflM la tk* Amy. — Cbftpeb in 



U«Battl Hookar io OomnAuil. — Reorgaoiiatloa of lh» Army. — Baokm^ 

Flu HoTVOMni of ib« Troopa. — Firat and SkxA Oerpt. — Lw 

psaaM- — Ilookvr Id pDaltk>n. — Lat'a HoTwmaL — Jackaos'a Uareb. 

— Hoirard'a Poaitioa. ~ BicUm'b Ailnoce. — JkIuoo'i Attack. — Tba 
Slnanih Oorpa. — SidtlM'a B*tani. — DMth of JidiaoQ. — Tha BmiIb 
•r aui4ir — Bmi'i Amitary. — Stsnn'i Attack. — Tha Baeosd Corf*. 

— Hookar'a laat PoaltioD. — Senmd Daltla of Vradaridkahtifg. — 8«dl^ 
wtck'a Altark. — Marjaa'* Hill. — Bukadal**! IUb«ML — BaUla of 8*> 
ttm Cbonh.. — Loai Oppomnlty . . ■ 




HioBKQui't Prepukdona. —Cnumg tbo lUpidu Rwd ikrough Vb> 

fioim. — KilpAlrick'a AmdatAij- — StMUinji KiclimoBd. — Ub Bwmpa. -~ 
AtoBMBAo'* lUrani . . . , .III 



Km Hojal. — 6oad«j SerricM — Re*. Mr. MurduicD. — Vuil to tka 
KaoutiiMU. — Suicbo'f Addrau. — N«gra Uojic. '-^ Miu-helnU* — 

ScfioQnMr Tretli EiiIi«Unent of HqtT>o Troopa. — CoU>d«I Ulgg^ojo^ 

— Aaiiptthj of WUtv SoMisn. — Vint South Ctmlliu Rogimsni. — 
Bailh'i Fluution ... |M 



DwtnctioB of Uu Nuhvi)l«. — C^puSa Worin Attick on Fort Hc&i- 

UiMr. — Flnt Bombutlinent of 8iiinter — Viali to Uw Vleu. — Capuio 
Etodlgta*. — Dusagv to lh» Port .... Ml 


Oiaral Ltm'* Morwueat*. — Uookar oo tb« Waiob. .— Badlssi la PoDoiTt- 
VBHift. — Ukmabgrg — Baltimore. — Colored Population— K««Lgu«ik>D 
of Otoanl Dookar. — Ocoenl Uaadc — FMtiii^tfl of ibo Boldion, — 
AdruK* to QvUTibnif — Orguiissdon of tlie Annj. — Patriotiain of 
th« Poopls. — BrMd (br ttw Soldkn — Rjda to 0Mt7«)»(f . — Qto 
fnphirfti VMnraa of th« PIam ... . . . . SH 


I BqrnoUa'* Poihkiii. — Bo^diiIdk of ifaa Fight. — llanaral Bew- 
■4*1 AceooBb — Wddnlck'a btiterj. — G«nenU StocBm u Two T«t- 

*fw Hoirud'a Haaaagw. — General lUticock'i Arnral. — OdIot- 

B«*r«ra ol \h* NioatMntti ludiftoa. — Arrival of the Third Corpa. — 


Hsu«bO«T .fMacral llMdaoBlfatrMld.— ThcCaDMMj. — Sli^OT 
Howtfa. — UiiU tiifBg lU Liam. — Ataniurl'f Brifad* — McmI^i 
Umi-iiaamn. — Potltioa at the Bteood Coryt — The Tturi Coipa. 
- HfefcJM'i Poaltioti st Noon. — Lea's InteDBOM. — Coofi'kaM of th« 
lUbtli. — LM|[itf«M'i OoBmaod. — lli« PUa. — Half ptM Thrae. — 
Tb* AhmL — Raalfuan of the Third C<rrp«. — McGilrerr't BMtcriM. 

- - TIm Ninth MMMAbflMtu htturj. — B«rnes'< IHriiirjo. — Th« Bdf 
■Jftn. — HMtetBM* <^ iba PeaDf^Uutia RcMrrta. -~ Ut/oA't Adraan. 

— f>bloti«l f^bMbbarUin'a Pr^ti'^. — Hloram'* M'lTefDMit Dcmbl» 

4Mif sod WUIlASW. — Men tA Venoont. — f ooneenth Maine. — Loai» 
Im« Ti|{«n. — Thibd IJat. — The MuniDg CMinoude. — BaM 
f rfaonan. — Fight oo OnJif'f Ilill. — f 'aralry Optradou. — Lee'a Prep- 
vatioiM ftit tba iMt Auack. — PuitKin of the Tr&r,p«. — Sobm at Moade'i 
flaail-Qiianera. — The raimoaaila- — Ilowaril'i Batterica. — Hascoek 
moan&ad. — Ths Vonnoot KcipmeDU. — H«|itilse of the Bebala. — 
Haaaw akmn tba IJdm- — In the Itcbel Linca. — Midnight. — After the 
Battle f.iee'e Retreat. — Meaile'« MuremeDU. — Lee at WiUiamapon. 

— CViarinK the Potomac. — Battle at Falling Waten . . . . IM 


•>|i«fiigg <>f the (krapaign. — OrKaniuiion uf the KTXaj. — Orant'* Plan. - 
The Ninth (>)rpa. — Pretident r.^ncoln reriewing the Colored Troopa. 
■ -The Annj' in Mutlftn, — Acroet the Rapidan. — Grant and Meade in 
(Vtaodl. — The Wildnmeee. — Poeition or the AnuT'. — Piret liaj'i 

irigbt Arrtral of the Ninth Corpi. — Hecond Da;'. — Mofement to 

H)<FttujlTanl«. — Hheridan'i Fight. — Todd'i Tar«m Warren en- 

gagiMl. — Batde of Hpotujlvania. — Bong of the Wonnded. — The 
Vermont Brigade. — iMatb of Oeneral Bice. — Attack of the Seoond 
iUir^. — A IH7 In Fr«darlckibiirg. — Sanltarj and Chrittian Commit- 
■loni — (kttlng Htraw for the Uotpitali, — Movement to the North Anna. 

- Battle of Jericho Bridge. — A Night in a Cabin. — Hovemeot to 
lUnoTflr. — Battle of BathewU Charch. — OenenJ Smith'i Adraaoe w 
(Jkild Harbor. — Hbaridan'i Morement. — Poeition of the two Aimlea 

Kim Battla of Cold llarbor. — Uocpital Scene, — 8«eond Battle. - 
Uc(.1«llan at Gold ilarbor and the Campaign of '6S. — Qrant'e Opera- 

lloni. -•C'aroliM (^at7. — Tba Planiara and tbair Proper^ Tbe 

IH7 of JaMlea. — Breaking np of Sodetj . . KM 



I'nmaMH iif tba Kabal Newipaper*. — Opiniou of tba SoMlan. — Diaesa 
ikm of Plana. — Oeneral linnter'a Adranee 10 Lynchbarg. - Sherldan'i 



HmU. — Butler Md Oitlmon- — Uar«m«ii to Judm Rjrer. — OUteetili 
F«ilitr«. — Orufi loitnutkini to Smith. — Lee aaTTinnd. — Oeoenl 
irinki'* IMviBtOD or Oolorvd Trooi>« —Their Firti Eagi^antitt ^ 
bmilh't Adrmscs. — Pifm Battle in Proat of Ptowniiutg. — C«|Xur« of 
Itebel lotnocbmcBt*. — Oeni»r«l T«ct)>*i Morement. — Lost Opjiortuii* 
iiM. — Suniinaits of Um I'eople. — Prcaid«nl Liocola. — Uefaiitn of tka 

Coloml Soldieni ArriTall of the Niaih Corpa. — 8eoond Butte in 

Front of Petenburg — Ocnenl ['otter's Dirkion. — mtj-Sertoth Mm- 
MchuMti. — Edmrd M. ScJiaoidor. — Tbird BeiUe in Front of ret«f»- 
barj;. — Berb«neffl of BUve(7. — Pnjudice i^aiiut Ccdomi Troope. — 
Tbe Cluiatuii OomnuMioii. — lUrdthipi of ibe Quppeigo. — BoUflDli 
i> Ibe Anaj , . . 




tt<>ol4oal Pleuuiu. — Ui« PImi for > Miae lo d«Mroj tbo Won.* 
More PDUnburs. — DiAeoltiM be eaeoantond in eoaitmcung ti. — 
Bkitla «t Deep Botton — Completion of tbe Mian- ~ Pr«|>ATetloni tor 

ipria|;lBg it Pdm goee out — Del*;'. — Rcji^btod. — The Explonon, 

— Ootirtcmeiioa of tbo Itebele. — ConfiuioD of Udmd Troopi. — Rebel* 
reaim lo tboir Odd* — Terrible 8Uuj(hter in Ihe Cr»t«r. — K«u(iiia for 
ifaa Feilnio -~ Tbo Itehel l*rw«. — Tbe Kononee of tbe Coikfederary ITt 



OeBCffkl MtwttUMi or ARkin. — Eerljr'e Morcmenl down tbe Vellej — 
Breekenridge uttt w rdnfonx him — The Sixth Oorpc. — BxcilenDanl 
la We«hui|f:toi9— Rwl/'e Porae. — JriaMechiiMtta Sixteealb Regimeet. 
■^ ArrivBl of NisMecnth Oorpe. — Kntbaeiaatic Keeeption. — Ooofldeaee 
feUond. — Bftttle of Monocecj. — Alerming Report*. — AdTanoe of Reb- 
)to npoa Wuhid^n. — Tbeir htttf R«lf«ai .Mi 



Kertew of Sberau'e Canpcign. — Jrff Devli'i tUalike or JehnMon 

ApfMintmeDl of Bood — Uerit'e Speecl] lo Hood'e Arrnjr. — 8b««-. 
men oootrmplalee ■ HoT«me»l to SeTeniub. — Qrant aathorltee It- — 
OryaidiatloD of SbernMB'* Annj- — Coramenu of Rebel i'me* on hie 
Mercb lo tbe Sea- — Compleinu of Shernuin'B InhamaniiT. — He ii 
•OMpoad to AuUe — His Vindicaiioii of [Jiaitclf. — The Bommen. — 
TiMir Buaanity to rnion Kefueeoa 





Hbo-mMi ta BftVKBBAh. — Ikitilutloii of the feoplR — HoinMiltj of Ite 
Peof4« of Ibe K«nh — StMiaOT tirajliouii^I. — Belle Bojd. - Vojrag* 
of i^ Qnjhnnai. — TboailertioU Dniwrf. — FtAj-Fifili KlMMubuiwiu- 
— DiitnbatioD of Buppliea. — Rvbol I'rboiu. — Il«f|WD>ibilit; o( llcbel 
rtllciftli — AialftbUlt7 o( Omeril Ltt. — ABdenanrille 


cnArTEit XXV. 


Antit NoUie and her Blaiei — Inbiiauuilt} of Slftvei^ — WUttl«r'a Lioei 

— Burning of Ibc AnenBl. — (lenoraJ HhermiiQ'* Order No. 15. — 
AbaiidoDad I^ndA. — Uonvnl Kuion. — MMting of t'rMjdnaon — Ad- 
int» of R«*. Hi. Pnoch — A|i|x»ruioe of ilii> Coasrctpitioti. — !{«'. 
Ur. IIouloB. ~ Tbv 6Ure Mukei. — Coanniciiniii; ■ CoIuQjr. - - riuti 
of tbn Fraadmni. — TIm Soiton. — Ttaa Dead from Mmmiim. — Tba 
Q«p«l of . — BrMkiBK up of Society. — Ladlw of Savunfth. 

— Poor Wkitoa of OeorgU _ N^^ro UlalecL — FYMdnMo Id Oouncil to 
Iba Stare U^rkM Tboir BaUh-il/mn. — OinlitMioD — Chri*lUnit/ 

■I Work ... ... 41« 



(■■■mctloiu of GtnaraJ Onot. — Sbvmu'i linn. — £xp«ci&tloD of tba 
Babati. — Orovar'i DlTiiion. — ILi Armj lo MuUon. — Howard'a Ad- 
vaooo lo the Kalkebftictiie — (.'KMiisg the Hirer. — flardee reiirea to 
BranehriU» — Kjlp*in>k'* MoTonxmi lOTuda Auf^uia. — GonMema- 
bOB of liie RobeU. — Sfaerraui movot to Ontiijt«biirK- — Oonef»l Po^ 
Iv'i nirutoD. — Hkmplnn'ii and Wboelflr'a C*T»ltj. — Hampinn'a 
Hoaw- ^ CV>li)mbU. — Uorniag of tlic City. — SbanOAii chari^ lUmp- 
lOD with klndliof th« Fire, — BluomoM of Bonih-CaroUiiUiu a(;ainal 
0«Mnl Sbernuui. — R«aputitllii1iij of the Rebel Oovernineai foi Oul- 
tini «M 


rha Pan ukan ny the 8uu la tb« PoltiJnl Alblra of tiu Nation — Baau 
of ltoi)f«inutim. — daatoa of T'wi>le — Lowlaodan wd Unlasdan — 



CUbma. — CoUoo — Pwish Bjtum — AaMmbltBC of the L(i|p«laiiar« it 
tHO — Remain of W. 1). Vona — SoccMton Principle. — A^joant 
neat to ChariMton. — Uiberaia Hall — Hei. Dr. Tbontwall'i Pnacfc- 

iog Tho Taacbingi of the Bible. — The ProTiim of Hinorj. — 

Mflrroo* foi 8al«- — Woman of tioulh Canilina ia Faror or 8»o—lioo 

Tba CharlMUo Utmtnf. — Tbc ■■ Patriarchal IniiUintJoD " 



t>»««mor Pfcknu'i Leitar ui Prvaident UiKbaoan Utiiw AudenDS Id 

Suiur. — CoiuitractiDD of HkM Unttcriw. — Nc^'vliauviu fur the tioj- 
raider of tlia Fon. — The Bombard iDeat. — Hcodw ia CharlctUin afMr 
ika Bamedtt- — VliU u> the Fort. — Capturad Blookada-RiiDoan. — 
OiNidhioii or the Fori. — Soeno of the Morning .... 



Ciij at Rnin*. — Onr Weioomt. — Cbar^uton before th« War. — Thr 
8wlB(«r of 8talM ~~ Sicc« of tha dtj. — RemoTal of tfa« I'eojila. — A*- 
(■rtknn of the CharlMtan Churitr. — The Evacoatioii. — Blowing uj) td 
iha IroixJad*. — - FlriDg the Citr. — B<iratinj[ the Oniu. — Twarntj- 
Fltvt Colored UegiDani- — Oo1on«l Bvnnmt occopin the Ci^- — Wtj- 
Fcvrtb Miwifhiiwiii «Kiiii0uiAh[n(t die Flamoi- — ■* GillcMnv'i Town." 
— Tha " 8<na|> Aa^l." ~ The C'ewicr OAoe. — The Bank*. — Bouth 
OaroUaa Troop* la Confadorato Sorrico. — The MiUi Boom. — The 

Ch — Tbc ^reat Fire of IS6I. — l)«va»tat)va Slare Mr 

chant! The B«ll tj Si. Michael'* — The Gaard-HouacL — Th« 6lato 

lUn. — Letwn of the !ilaTe-Trad«ra. — Colonel Woodford in the Office 
of (fa* CVwriv. — Senuoo of Ker. Dr. Port«r — A Yankee In bto B«d — 
Jojr of tha Odorad Poopla. — " Roia'a " Mother. — Wuhiiiftiua'i Binb- 
4»j. — John Brown ia Charlaaton. — Hnniliattoii of Uw BoboU. ~ 
DalOB Has. — Tha Old 9\t^. — How iho People wen chaattd 




Paridoa of Aflhln. — Orant't'LcnAr to 8h«ridaa. — Carali^ Ralda. — Shm- 
Idaa'* Moremani lo Wafneabora'. — Attack npon Eailj. — AdTanoa la 
Janiea Uitar — Movei lo White llouM. — Joloi Grant. — Aiarn in 
HiclunoDd. — Loe'i la«l 0&«a«T« MoTenuint. — Attack oq Fori Slead- 
■MB- — BapolM of Qonloa — Qraat'i Order to " flniab np " tbo Rehet 



Uoa. — Shemuo'i Vliit to GnnL — <lre«t Mud ht CduocU. — Qrui'r 
lis*. — Sberfdui on the Move — I<w'i Direnion a{[iliut the Ninth 
r«r|M. — Ntgbi Aiuck. — A ]{«bel I'ritnner. — A I<ook u Uw Oppo*- 
iait Ponm. — Ualclitr'a Itun ^ Lee't LioQ of I'urtifirationt, — Onm 
IbcU tiko •oiUng the liUtler. — BntlJ« of Diaw:il(lv« C(iurl-Iluna& —Ad 
mm of ibt Fififa C«rpi. — iktU« of Fin Vvt)u. — Chugt of dw 
9\Kt Corpt- — Mnrriti'* Aiuck. — Rout of the ItelKili 



1*9 I1«vl« • Fngltira. — Blovrln)- u^i of the R«b«l Iron-did* — GrMi Is 
PewnbtuV' — l*Tc«i>]oui Lincoln Bud tliu S<}lilroni. — Ride to Kfchmund- 

— hee\ McsMge w D»Ti». — CoiuwmBtiaD in Richnonit. — Rot. 
MeoBm Hoife nnd PancKn. — The liut St&i-fi Coffla. — CnnftArTAU 
Proiaw4 to I'tif. — tfcenen of Sun<lii;r Night. — l*illft^ne the City. — 
Flijjhl of the Le|fi*Lature. — G«Qcrml Eweil ami the Major in rv|{aiil to 
bnminfl ih« Citj- — The HaMMcrv at iIjb Alnubuuw. — Kiring th* Citf- 

~ Departur* of tba Kwbel Troopa- — DrocbraridKO laJdng « lui Looli of 
llw Cltj. — Snorite. — M«jor StoTcns Bud iite Soanh MM*aebu>etu 

CkVKlry — Snnvnilur of the Cic; lUiklnji Flap on the Cftpitol. — 

Tlw YankoM paiitnf; out tho riaTnu- — Entranro of (leneral Weltsd. ^ 
TkUiig* Boom at the Kpott*«rand Ilotd. — Scene* in ibo Ciij on Hon. 

4My Oonenl Dvnna'a Ordcn. — Viiit U> tha Capitol. — Adeulral Par- 

raiptt. — Preaideni Lincoln'* Arriral. — Jojr of llie Cotorod People. — 
Walk to Jeff Davi*'* MntKion. — Jndgq CiUDptwU. — Ailniirnl I'ortar- 

— Tka Prwideot'* Vbll to LIbbj Priton. — Opinion* of tlie I'eople. — 
Oolond Soldier* in the S«nHeB of the Rebel*. — I^ov'i Opinion*. — As 
Aholitioniat in ilichmond. —A Neir«p&per Corrotpondoni Biid « Uohd 
OBloer At the C*pito1. — Sccnoi of tbc PmL — Christian Charity 




Aittiude of UnM Britain. — Syiiii>«ttilei of PBluienioi) and Ru*icU. — Tba 
£agli*h I'rgu. — Opcraiiv** of Lanaulnii. — Tbo London Timm.— 
Oplolotu of Mr Kpcnoe. — Hi* AppotatOMU a* Flnvicial A^nt. — Ad' 
drw« of Uw London Confbderaie Aid AiAocistioii. — Whittier's Lioe* i« 
BnKli*hiiioii. — Mr. Mason at Bl. JatL<rat. — IC* Qrief*. — Benjamin'* 
Latter to Macon. — Mr. lieljtoa appciiiit«il AgcnL to *nli«idi«) the Ptm* 
of Kurope- — Kni;liihiD«) engm^vd in Blockado-RniuiJni;. — EncU*k 
BUpbidlders at work lor the Slavoholden — Fund* ii«ed«d. — BmO*' 
■in'* Ir«tKT to Bpcnoc. — It«b«t Coin *hlp)ied ia Briti*h Voasti* of War. 
- Stldeir* Propoaitioa lor a LrMti haMd on CMton. — Krcncb Intrign* 



10 mrtn TtxMt from ibe Cotttodtimej. — Mf . Slidell rswinawDili litf- 
tsuicer w k xniuMe Agent to MigotiM* the Lcmd. — D'Erl&ngvr oStn ii m 

lh« Bui ken of London. — Ur. De Lbtm aarunw the Happonof tlve PraH 

Opening ofttw CaiTMpoD>l«ir«. — D'Hrlftngitr*! Opinion of Mr Speac*. 

— Ur, Symnx't IVopoMJ. — Hiuh for SubocriptJoiu. — 5tr. 8pei>«'i 
Lmht to D'XriuKcv. — CompliraoDU of Um Empenv to D'Erlaagv on 
U>« BuTCOM g' -Ja r^jn. — Jeff Dkrii ■ Rcpadkx. - 2vicor of lb* 
Loodon 7\hm tu :m». — E«u iu Word* in in69. — Walwwuhai D*' 
ri». — Upiniona of Mr. BampMn. — OpiniiMi* of Mr IleUiiio. — Tb* 

Tbmi» in the Pftjr of Jeff Dam How the-Snppan of Lb« Ncw^ipv* 

via Mcnrad. — Hr. Sponm rvmt^a £fi,aoo ■• Ownn p ondiit of tfaa 
TImm. — UMdnf of R«b«l« in Pkrii. — Dow Lb« Lou vm Mtitiinvd. 

- D'ErUngvr'i good Quae. — Wl«b'M tor ■ Second Lots. — Dlalu- 
(tr iaktt U» Put of Bh^'lock. — Tronblp iriifa McRui — D'Srlnfw 
Mptnf Hlnaelf to Prindp4l ud Intamt. — Bchroedor ft Co. in tfat 
" Blng." — Pkjrnmu of Hodoj. — Who wm beoeflttd — Th« prtMni 
Boodboldir* . 



n» BMreai vl Lat froB PKenbwK. — I>^«etioB ot Bebd BoUlwi. — 
Otiai'i Innationi. — Ln't Um of BMnM. — Onnt Afatad of Un. — 
Pwik •fflODg tlie B«bel Troopo- — JAemAv't Moraments. — Battle it 8att- 

or*« Crwk Ciitt»r'i Ch*rj{»- — Skirmish *t' Kurmrille — The B«m 

towtrd l.jnchhiir^c — Hheridko'i MoremenL. — Loe't Uai Ooandl of 
War. — Comipoodeoce betwesn Loe and Qrvnt. — Ttie UeMfai(. ^ 
Tbi Swnndar. — Annoannmtnt to tbt AnnMi. — Pfck«ti'* I'raum. 

— RMtud Pho> ... 


Orwt M Cltf Point — Th« Knd of the HebelUoa 


Chakoe thbough ls Abatis 



The Fibbt Spbsceiftiok . . 1 

Capitol at WAsniscTON . . 4 

Pbo Patria 7 

Sixth Massacucsetts Eeoi- 


GcAaDiNG Lose Bbidoe . . 12 

Aid SocrETT's Store-Room . 16 

The Ideal Fbeedman ... IG 
Labies vorkixg Foa thb 

Army 22 

Forwarded Free .... 29 

Ellsworth Zouave Drill 46 
General Gramt — Gexeral 

Sherma:i ...... 54 


Baltimore in 1861 .... 75 

East Tenxesseb Refugees . 02 

A Mississippi Schoolhouse . 90 

GCKBOATS IS LiSE .... 102 

With Dispatch 109 

General McClellas at Wil- 

liahsbcrg 110 

Gesebal McClellas at the 

Battle oe Astietam . . 114 

The Sdssen Road .... 118 

Battle op Astietam . . . 120 

For thb Bora ik Blue . . 121 
Slavxs eleeisg to the Abut 

FOR Peotkctios .... 128 


A Silent Spectator . . . 336 

Fredericksbcrg .... 140 

Fbasklis's Attack .... 155 

Tattoo 173 

The Magic Lantern is the 

Hospital 174 

The Christian Commission in 

THE Field 176 

Busy Fingers 178 


Battery atChancellorstille 194 

Sedgwick's Attack . . . 201 

Leading a CiURGt: .... 204 

Salem Cuubcu 208 

" Keep ovt op tuk Draft " . 211 

Night March op Cavalry 214 

Kf.arsy Cross 22.^ 

The Nation's Ward ... 234 

A Bird's-Nest Bank ... 247 

Cavalry Charge .... 253 

Advasce to Gettysbcrg . . 263 

The Color-Beaber .... 272 

Gbttysbdrg Battle-Fibld . 280 
With a " Hurrah " they 

RirsH ON 296 

A Regiment at Disser . . 305 

Wilderness 317 

Spottstlvania 323 

The SAxrfARY Commission is 

the Hospital 326 

North Anna 331 



Cayoxet Cuaroe . . . . 

Cold Harbor 

Negroes couino into the 


O.VE Day's Labor, Oxe Day's 

I'ETEiisituRG, July 17, 1S04 . 

Petersburg, July 30, 1S64 . 

Abuy Corps Chapel near 

rciks of cuamuehsbubg ■ ■ 

A Lay Delegate is the Hos- 

Edward Eveiiett — Mt. Ver- 
Kox — S.WA-VSAH — Tub 

SllERMAs's BUUUER3 . . 

Fort Sumter 

Mississippi River Hospital 


Battle oi' Fort Sumter . 
Cooper Shop Volunteer Ke- 


Dbfence op Fort Suutbu 












For ova Flag 461 

"JouN Brown" IS CuaBleston 4S0 
Citizens' Volcnteeb Hos- 
pital 4S4 

Troops destboyi>'g a Kail- 
road 4S(> 

Fire Asibdlasce .... tilS 
Hcmillatios op Riciihond . 506 
Farraght at Mobile . . . ."ilO 
Pbesidest Liscols is Rich- 
mond 512 

Abraham Lincoln .... 514 

U. S. Christian Commission . 522 
Captain Wissi-ow and the 
Keaksabge — Admiual Fab- 

RAGtT 52S 

Patriot Orphan Home, 

Flushing, L. 1 542 

Surrekser op General Lke . 514 
General Lee's Farewell . J54 
Study for a Statue of Lin- 
coln 555 

Assassination of Lincoln . 556 

With a Lavish Hand . . . 55& 




ArrsB four yearn uf war our country nvle in peace. Tbo 
Great Bebelliou has been subdued, and the power and author* 
i^ of the United States govorument are recognized in all tha 
8tatoe. It hae been a conflict of ideas and prinoipliis. Millionv 
of men hare beeo in armu. Qreat battles have Iwou fought. 
There have been deeds of sublimeel lieroism and exhibitions of 
OfaristiaD patriotiuu which shall stir the hearts of tboee who are 
to live in the coming ages. Men who at ttie bcguiniug of the 
struggle were Bcarcoly known beyond their Tillage homee are 
Dombered now amoug 

" the immortal dwm* 
lliftl w«re not bom to cli« " ; 

while the names of others who once occupied places of honor 
and trust, who fbrswore their allej^auce to their country and 
gare tliem^elTes to do wickedly, bhall bo held forever in ab 

It has been my privilege to accompany the armies of the 
Union through this miglity struggle. I was an oyo-viUtess of 
the 6m battle at Bull Run, of Fort DonelsoUf Pittsburg Laud- 
ing, Corinth, Island No. 10, Fort Pillow, Memphis, AiiUetaui, 
Predericksbiirg, Gettysburg, Fort Sumter, Wildemeas, Spc'.tsyl- 
raoia, N:>rth Aima, Ilanover GourtrHouse, Cold Harbor, Peters* 
burg, Weldou Railroad, and Fire Fork^. I was iii Savannah 
sooQ after it« occupadou by Sherman on his great march to the 
■ea, aiid watched his movement " uortbward with the sun." 
I walked the streets of Charlt>:?ton in the bour of her deepest 
humiliation, and rode into Richmond ou the day dial the stan 



af the Union wore thrown in triumph to the Tireoze above the 
Confedcrato Capitol. 

It MMsma a dream, and yet whoa I turn to the munorous not*- 
Dooks lying beror« mo. and read tlio poncilinga made on tiie 
march, the bat tic- field, in the hospital, and bj tho flickoririig 
c&mp-Ares, it is no longer a fancy or a picture of the imagiua- 
tion, but a reality. Tho scflnes rotuni. I behold once more 
ihe moving columns, — their waving banners, — the sunlight 
gleaming (Tom giin-barrcl and bayonet, — the musket's flash 
&nd cannon'.*! flame. I hoar the drum-heat and the wild hur- 
rah ! Qrant, Sliormaii, .Sheridan, Meade, Bunisido, Howard, 
Hancock, and Logan ore loading them ; while Sedgwick, 
WadswortI), MePborson, Mansfield, Richardson. Rico, Baker, 
Wallace, Shaw, LowoU, Winthrop, Futtiiun, and IhousandB of 
patriots, are laying down their lives for their country. Abrb- 
iiam Lincoln walks the streets of Richmond, and is hailod m the 
Groat DeliTorer, — tho ally of the Messiah ! 

It will bo my aim in this volume to reproduce some of thow 
Kcnes, — to give truthrul narratives of eveuta, descriptions 
of battles, incidents of life in camp, in the hospital, on the 
march, in the hour of lialtle on land and sea, — writing noth* 
ing in malice, not even towards those who have fonghi againiti 
the Union. I shall endeavor lo give tho truth of history rather 
than the romance ; facts instead of pliilosopliy ; to make real 
the scenes of tho mighty struggle through which wo have 

On tho 11th of Juno, 1861, 1 left Boston to become an Army 
Corrospondont. The patriotism of the North was at flood-tide. 
Hor drum-beat was beard in every village. Men wore leaving' 
their own aff^rs to serve their country. The stars and stripes 
wavod from houso-top and steeple. New York was a sea of 
banners. Ladies wore Union rosettes in tlieir hair, wliUe 
gentlemen's neck-tiee were of " red, white, and blue." That 
family was poor indeed wlio cuuld neither by cloth or colored 
tissue-paper manifest \Ui love for the Union. The music ol 
the streets — vocal and iii8tnimontal — was " Hail C(^umbia " 
and " Tankeo Doodle." Everywhere, — in city and towh 
and village, in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, — U>ere 
waa the same spirit manifeuted by old and yotuig, of both 


BEQimnKQ or the conpliot. 

Mxes, to put down the EtebellioQ, ooet what it might of hlood 
and treasure. 

Baltimore prcscated a striking coDtrast to Uie other groat 
cities. It was dull aiid gloom/. Thu citar^ and stripeg wared 
over the Butaw Uoutie, IJom the Aiuuricau newspaper office, 
where the brottiere Fulton maintained unswerving loyalty. A 
few other residentji had Uiruwti the flag to tlio breeze, but Se- 
cession was powerful, ajid darkly plotted u^ason. There wa» 
frequent communication with the Rebels, who wore muetor- 
ing at Maiia-ssas. Business was at a stand still. The pulses 
of trade bad stopped. Merchants waited iu vain for customers 
through the long siunmer daj. Femalev, oolling tbemselvoE 
ladies, daintily gatliored up their skirtB wheuerer tliey passed 
an officer or soldier wearing the army blue iu the strt!et«, and 
manifested in other ways their utmost contempt for all who 
supported the Union. 

Qoueral Butler., who had subdued the rampant Secesttiouiste 
by bis vigorous measures, had been ordered to Fortress Mon- 
roe, aud General Banks had just assumed command. Hie 
head-quarters were iu Fort McIIeury. A regiment of raw 
Penusylvaniaus was encamped ou the hill, by the roadside lead- 
ing to the fort. Officers aiid soldiers alike were ignorant of 
military tacticd. Tliree week.s previous they were followiug 
the plough, or digging iu the coal-mines, or smelting iron. 
It wag amusing to watch their attempts at evolutioii. They 
were drilling by »quad» and companies. " Right face," about 
ed an officer to his squad. A few executed the order correct- 
ly, some faced to the left, while others faced first right, theu 
left, and general coniusion ensued. 

So, too, were the officers ignorant of proper military phrasea. 
At one time a captain, whose last command had been a pair of 
draf^horsc!) on \m Pennsylvania farm, on coming to a pit in 
the road, electrified his company by the stentorian order to 
" Gee round that hole." 

It was a beautiful evening, and the moon was shining bright- 
ly, when I called upon Ooneral Banks. Ontfiido the fort were 
ibe field battorics belonging to the Bdltiraore Artillery which 
had been delivered up lo Qoveruor flicks iu April. The Seco* 
sionistB raved over the tmnsaction at tlio time, and in their rage 



ouriwd tlin Governor who tuniod thorn nvnr to iho Uiittod States 
■utlioritiue. SoldioTB wora building abaitis, and traiiiiug guiui 
— aixl/'four poundors — to bear upon the city, for cvon thou 
tlioro w<.tro KigiiB of eiii iipliuaval uf ihu Sucossioti elomcuts, aiiJ 
Otuioret Bauka doomed il bust to bo prepared for whatever 
nuKht happoii. But Uie RoboU on tliat day wore moving from 
lliirjwr'i Forry, havitif^ doKtroyed all tho property of tlie BalU- 
oioro and Ohio Railroad Company lu tlio Ticitiity. 

Possirtg on to Woshinf^ton I found it in a hubbub. Troopa 
wore pouring in, raw, undiBciplinod, yot of material to make the 
bost Boldieni in thu world, — poets, paiuiers, artists, artisauSf 
mocbaniofi, prlntoni, men of letters, bankers, merchante, and 
minisUsrs were in the ranks. Ttiere was a constant rumble 
of artillory in the streets, — tho Jarring of ba^ago-wugons, 
and tUo tramping of moii. SoMiors woro quartored m tbe 
Capilol. Ttiey spread their blankets hi tlie corridors, and 
luadu thenisolves at home in tho halts- Uoslilitioe bad com- 
DMUOod. Kllawortli had just boen carriod to his last resting- 
plaoo. Tlie bodies of Wiullirop and Oroblo wei-e then being 
borne to burial, wrap[)cd in tlio Sag of their countir. 

Colonel Stono, witlt a number of rogimcntR, was marching 
out from Washington to |iickct Uio Potomac from Washington 
to Point of Ititckt. Gouorol Patterson wils on tlio upper Poto- 
mac, Gfiuond UoOlellau and Oeitcral Rosccrans, «-iLli Virginia 
and Ohio trottjw. were driving tlie Reimls from Rich tfouulain, 
while Ooncral McPowell waii pix>)mring to move upon Ua- 

Tlioec were* all now names to tho public. Pattersfm had 
MTVed in tlio MexiQau wmr« bat tlio people had foi^Uen it. 
lle(^eUan wus known only as an onginoer, wlio bad made a 
raport oooooruing the proposed railroad lo the Pacific, and had 
fUtad Bnssia during tbe Crimean war. G«iiend Wool vaa 
iu Kew Tork, old and feel>l&, too &r adraooed in life to take 
tbe fitdd. Tbo people wan lookiag up to Ganend Soott aa ilie 
Hercules of Uie liour. Soow one had oallad him the ** Graal 
Captain of tbo Age." He was oT gigantic statare, and Itad 
fiM^gfal gallantly on the Oanadiaa froatiar in 1S12, and wttb 
Ui veil -appointed anny had narabsd in triamph into the City 
tt Mexioo. Tbe ewilF of the last war with Englaod. antJ 


BEGtirarao or tbe compuct. 

that with Hoxioo, in vhiob Ooueral 3cott was always tlie 
oentral fif^ire, )md boon rohoarsod hy the stiimp-omtori of a 
great political party during an oxcitiiig campaign. His like- 
ness was familiar to every American. It was to l3e found in 
parli^rs, saloons, boor-shops, and in all public placas, — repre- 
senting him OS a hero in gold-ombroidcred coat, oftaulets, cho- 
peau, and nodding plume. His was tbe genius to direct tbe 
gathering boets. So tbe people iHslioved. He was a Virgin- 
ian, bui loyal. Tbe newspapers lauded him. 

" General Scott is watching the Rebels with sleeploEB ?igi- 
lanco," was the not unf^uent tolegrapbic despatch sout from 

But he was soTODty-fivQ years of ago. His powers were fail- 
ing. Hie old wound troubled him at times. He could walk 
only with difficulty, and it tired bim to rido tbo few rods 
between his bouse and tliv War Department. Ho was slow 
and sluggish in all bia thoughts and actious. Yet tbe people 
had confidence in him, and be iu hiuisclf. 

The newspapers were fiUod with absurd rumors and stato- 
meats concerning the moremeuts and iutentionti of tbe Rebels. 
It was said that Beaur^^&rd \ukd siity thousand men at Ma- 
nassas. A New York paper, having a large circulation, pic- 
tured Manassas as an impregnable position ; a plain com- 
numded by heavy guns upon the surrounding hills ! It u 
indeed a pliun, but tbe '* commanding " hills are wanting. 
Rumor reported that Oencral Joeoph E. Johnston, who was In 
the Shonaudoah valley, destroying the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, and burning the bridges across the Potomac, had 
Uiirty thousand men ; but we now know that bis whole force 
consisted of nine re^meuts, two battalions of infantry, tluM^e 
hundred cavalry, and sixteen pieces of artillery. 

It was for Uie interest of Uio Rebels to magnify their numbers 
and resources. These exaggerations bad tlieir e0ect at the 
War Department in Washington. General Butler proposed 
the early occupation of Manassas, to out olT communication by 
rail between Riclunond and upper Virginia, but bis proposition 
was rejected by General Soott. Tbe troops in and around 
Waflliington were only partially organized hito brigades. There 
VM not uinob system. Everybody was full of loal and energy, 



aud tlioro was tnniiifest Imp&tieDce amoa^ the Boldiera at th« 
ioactifity or Uio coaimaiider-iu-ctiief. 

Tho same vas true of tlio Reikis. They were mustering at 
Moiiassas. Rogimciits and liattalions were pouring through 
Richmond. SouUicrn women welcomed them with sweetest 
amilee, presented ihcm with fairest flowers, uid urged them 
uji to driTe tho "usurper" from Washington. Southern 
uewRpapers, from the cotomeiicement, had been urging the 
capture of the Federal capital. Said the Richmond Examiner, 
of April •28d : — 

" Tbe capture of Wafiliinglou ia perfcctlj willuQ ihe |Hiwer of Vir- 
ginia and Marytaad, if Virginia wiU oalj tawkv the «fl*grt by her coq- 
■titulod auibonues. Nor is there a single moment to lose. Ttis 
culirti |k>[»u1huoii paiu Cot tbe uu«ei 

" Froin iliQ tuouiitairi-tu{>B and TalleTi to the sbore* of tite seat tfaere 
m oae wild Bhout of llerce roiiotre to (rapture Washington Dty, at aD 
aud every hurnun hazard. That filthy cage of unclftan liinla munt and 
will asourpdly }» [luritJvd bv lir«. . . . . Il ia nut to be endured ibat thii 
ftight of abolition barpies shal] oomc down trom tbe black North for 
their roO'<te in the heart of the Soutli, to defiJu and hrutaliw the land. 
.... Our people can take it, — tbey will take it, — and Scott the 
aroh-traitor. luid Linooln tlie beast, combined, •'aiinot [uVTeat iL Tha 
just indignation nf an outraged and deeply injured people will leacb 
Ute Illinois Ape to repeat bis race and retrace bis journey acroaa tha 
borders of tlie free nf^ State* still more rapidly than he came; aod 
Scott the traitor will be ^ven the opportunity at the same time to try 
the diOurence between Scott's tactics and the Shaogbae drill for quick 

"Great cleansing and puridcntion are needed and will be given to 
that festering sink of iniquity, — that wallow of Lincoln and Scott, — tbe 
ilesocrated city of Waahington; and many indeed will be the c&rcaa«ea 
of dogB and caitiffs that will bUckvu tbe air upon tbe gallowa befor* 
the work ia socompliiihGd. So let it be." 

Oeueral Beauregard was the most prominent of tho Rebel 
commanded, having been brought before tho public bj the 
surrender uf Fort Sumter. Next in prominence were tho two 
Johiifitune, Joseph K. and Albert Sydney, and General Bragg. 
.Stonewall Jacksou had not been heard from. Lee had just 
gDD« over to the Reliuls. Lie bad remaini^d with Gonerh.! Scott, 
— his OQufidaut and cliiof adnser, — till llie 19th of April, and 





Ik March, 18B1, there was no tovn m Virginia more tknr 
uig than Alexandria ; in June tborc was no place 90 dcso 
late and gloomf. I visited it on tUo 17tli. Omga waa grow 
lug in tlie streets. Grains of corn liad sprouted on tli« 
wbarres, and were throwing up luxurimit stalks. Tlie wliote- 
jale stores were all closed ; the dwoliiug-houBoe wuro ehut. 
Few of the iuhabitajits wore to be seen. The stars and Btripes 
waved oror tho Marshall House, the place whorp Gllswonh foil. 
A mile out from tho citj, on a beautif^il plain, was the camp 
of Uie Massachufiotts Fifth, in which wore two companies from 
Chnrlustown. Wliou at liome tliej were accuEtomed to cole- 
Ijrato llie aunirorsai^ of tliu battle of Bunker iiill. Altlinugb 
noT in the enemy's countrj, tix&j could not forgot the daj. 
They sat down to an ample collation. Eloquent speodMa 
were made> and au ode vu vuug, written bjr one of titeiri 

<• "nioogti Buy mDm awar 

Prom lioue «ad (Keodi lo-dajr, 

For, hrothcrf, nido by ade 

Wo itAnd in m&nlj- pride, 

Beoeatli thv. aliArlow wide 
Of Banker ffilf 

Boom — boom — boom was ttie quick report of far-di»- 
loiit camion. What could it be? A reconnoitring part; of 
Ohio troops had gone up the Loudon railfoAd. Had anyihing 
Imppeued to them? There were eagor inquiries. The men 
fall iiito line, prepared for any emergency. A few hours later 
the traiji returned, bringing back the mangled bodies of thoee 
who fell ui the ambuscade at Vienna. 

I talked with the wounded. They were moving slowly op 
tho road,— a regiment '^u platform cars, pushed by the engine 






Before reaching; Vienna an old man stoppeJ out firom tb« 
bushes making eigus and gestures for them to stop. 

" Don't go. Tlio Rebels are at Vienna." 

" Only guerillas, I ruckon,'* said one of the officors. 

General Sclienck, who was in command, waved hiii hand to 
kho engineer, and the train moved on. Suddenly there were 
quick discharges of artillorjr, a rattling firo of small arms, and 
uiicartlily yells from front aiid flaok, within an hundred yards. 
The imsutjpocting soldiers were riddled with solid shot, can- 
liter, and riQo-halls. Some tumbled headlong, never to riaft 
agun. Those who were uuinjured leaped firom the cars, 
"niere was great confusion. 

" Lie down ! " cried wme of the officers. 

"Fall in!" shouted others. 

Knch did, for the moment, what seemed best. Some of tb« 
soldiers fired at random, in the direction of the unseen ouomy. 
^me crouched behind tiio cars ; others gained the shelter of 
thfl woods, where a lino was formed. 

" Wliy don't you fall into Hue ? " was tlie sharp command 
of an ofhcor to a soldier etatiding be»ido a tree. 

" I would, sir, if I could." was the reply, and tlie soldier ez- 
biblted his arm, torn by a cannon shut. 

They gathered up the wounded, earned thum Ui the rear in 
blankets, bogan tlieir homeward march, while the Rebels, 
eleven hundred strong, up to lliis moment sheltered behind ■ 
woodpile, rushed out, destroyed tlie cars, and retreated to 

When Uio news reached Aioiaudria, a portion of the troops 
iher\i were hasLily t^eiit forward ; they had a weary march. 
Horuing brought no breakfast, uuon no dinner. A Secussioiiisi 
bad fled from his homo, loaiing his flocks and herds Miind. 
The Connecticut boys appropriated one of the cowtt. Tliey 
had no camp utensils, and wera forced to broil tlielr steaks 
upon the coals. It was my first dinner in the field. Salt was 
lacking, hut hunger gave the meat on excollcnt aoosoniug. 
For table and furniture wo hud tlio head of a tarrol, a jack 
knife, and a choff-stick cut from a hazel ^uuh. 

Congress assembled on the 4th of July, and the memhcn 
■vailod themselves of tlio opportunity to visit the trooiw. Val 


TEE BOYS or '«. 


laiiiliKliutu • I Oliio, who by word and net had niauirettloil Ids 
BjmjMidj; Tor Uio Robels, vldtod the S«oiiiil Olito, commanded 
b;r ("oloiiul HcCook, aftervards Miyur-OiitiuruJ. I witoessed 
Uitt reoopUou giveu liim hy tliQ bojs of the Buckojo State. 
Tlie oflioere troatod him court^ouslj, but not cordiotlj. Not 
•o Uio mon. 
"Tliero y that d — d traitor in camp," said one, villi fluUiitR 

'' He is uo hotter than a Robol," said another. 

"He halpod Blaughter onr boys at Yionna tlie other day," 
■aid a third. 

" Lot UH hustlo liim out of oomp," remarked a fourth. 

" Don't do anything nmh. Lot us inform him that hid pnw 
QDOe is not deBirod," said ouo. 

A coniiulttco was chosen to watt upon Vallacdigham. Tlio; 
performed tlioir duty rospootfuUy. Ho heard them, and be- 
came rod ill the face. 

** Do you thiuk that I am to be intimidated by a pock of 
HackguardB from northern Ohio?" ho said. ** I shall oomo to 
lliis camp aa often aa I ploaao, — every day if I chooeo, — and 1 
glTO you notice tliat 1 will hare you taken caro of. I shall 
report your Insolence. I will see if a pass from Qenoral Soott 
Is not to Iw roHjwctod." 

Tiiniiiig to tJio ofTicora, lie liegoii to inquire the names of the 
wldton. The news that Vallandigham was tliorc had spread 
throughout tlio camp, and a crowd was gathering. The sol- 
diers vero sore over tlio slaughtor at Viuuna, and began to 
■Bauifest tlioir hatred and oontompt by groans and hisses. 

" If you expect to frif^iten mo, you have mistaken your man. 
I am oiibamod of you. I am sorry for the honor of the dtate 
that you have seen fit to insult me," he said. 

** Who has Uio most rousim to bo aahomod, you of us, or we 
of you?" said one of the BoldiorB. ** Wo are here fightinf, for 
our country, which you are trying to dostroy. What is 
your sliame wortli ? You Hrod at ua ttie otlier day. You 
twlpod kill our cumnLdus. There is n't a loyal man in the 
eountij whose oboek does not redden with shame whooevct 
Tour naino h mcnUonud/' was the indignant reply. 

VaUandigham walked into the oflii:t'rh' iju;Lrter« The sol 



diere soon had ati ofRgf , labelled " Tallandigham tlie tnutor,'* 
liAU^ig by tlio ueck Tram a troe. Tboj riddled it with bullets, 
iben took it dovn aiid rode it on a rail, Uie fifors playing the 
" Rogiics* March." Wlien Tallandighom left the camp, tbey 
gave him n farowell saliito of groans and hissos. A few of the 
soldiers throw onions and old hoots at him, but his porMii was 
uaii^urod. He did not repeat hi8 nsit. He was so oros^grainod 
by nature, so thorough a traitor, that ttirough the soflsion of 
Congross and through ttie war he lost no opportunity to rnani- 
fest his liatred of the soldiers. 

It was past sunset ou the 9th of July, when, accompanied by 
a friend, I left Alexandria for Washington in an open carriage. 
Noaring tlio Long Hridgo, an officer on horseback, in a rod- 
flannel blouse, da.shed down upon ub, saying : " I am an officoi 
of the Garibaldi Guard ; my regiment has mutinied, and the 
men are on their way to Washington ! I want you to hurry 
(last them, give notice to tlio guard at the Long Bridge, and 
have the draw taken up." We promised to do so if possible, 
and soon came upon tlio mutineers, who were hastening towardz 
the bridge. They were greatly excited. Tliey were talking 
loud and boisterously in Oermau. Their guns were loaded. 
Ulan were seven nations represented in tlie regiment. Few 
of tfaem could understand English. We knew that if wo could 
get in advance of them, the two six-pounders looking down tlie 
Long Bridge, with grape and canister rammed home, would 
quell the mutiny. Wo passed thoee in the rear, had almost 
reached tlie head of the column, when out sprang a doten in 
trout of us and lovollod tltoir guns. Click — dick — click 
went the locks. 

" Yon DO goes to Vaahingtou in ze advance ! " MJd one. 

*' You falls in zo rear ! " said anotlior. 

** Wliat docs this mean ? " said my friend, who was an officer. 
** Wbero is your captain ? " he asked. 

The captain came up, 

*' What right have your men to stop us, sir; Who gave 
thom authority ¥ We have passes, sir ; explain this mat- 


The capi&in, a stout, tbicV-set German, waa evidently oaak 

TfiB B0T8 OP •VU 


plet«1r taken aback bj those questtoQS, hut, after a momeat*! 
hesitation, replied, — 

" No, sur, ttioy tio stops jrou ; it wns voii mistako, nir. Thej 
vUl do CO no moro." Thou approaching clnso to the carriage, 
he loworcd his voico, and in a coulidontial tono, as if vo wore 
!i!s ticst friends, asked, " Ploase, ztir, rill 7«u be zo kind as to 
loll mc Tftt is the passTord ? " 

** Ti '9 not nine o'clock jot. Tho seutinoU aro not posted. 
Tou need none." 

A till, liift-vliiskcrcd soldier had 1>cen listening. He could 
speak Kng1is]i qnitc well, and, evidentlj desiring to apologite 
for Uio rudeness of his comrades, approached and said, '* Tou 
tee we Gnrihaldians are baring a time of it. and — " 

Here tlio captain gave him a vigorous push, iritb a " Hush ! " 
long drawn, winch bod a great deal of meaning in it. 

" I b«gs rour pardons for zo hiterruption," said the capttin* 
extending hi^ liaiid and l>oiring politely. 

Onco more we moved on, but again the excited leaders, more 
fhrious tliaii before, tlinist tlioir bayonets in our facos, again 
nyiug, '* Tou no goes to Vashiugton in zo adTauoe." Oao 
of them took doliberate aim at my breast, his eyes glaring 

It would bavo been the height of madness to disregard their 
demonstration . Thoy had reached the guard at the Virginia 
eud of tlic bridgo, who, at a loss to know what it meant, allowed 
thorn to pass uucballcnged. 

Now that we wcro compelled to follow, there was time to 
think of contingoucios. What if our liormis had started ? or 
wliat if in the darkness a soldier, grieving over bis imaginary 
wrong, and reckless of life, bad misuiiderftood us ? or what 
if the loyal officers of the regiment remaining at Alexandria 
had given notice l>y telegraph of wbat bad happened, and tliose 
two cannon at the Washington end of the bridge had poured 
their iron hail and leaden nun along the causeway ? It was 
not pleasant to think of these possihihties, but we wore in fur 
whatever might happon ; and, remembering that Ood'i provi. 
deuce is always good and never evil, we followed our escort 
over the bridge. Tlicy baited on the avenue, while wo rode 
with alt speed to General Mansfield's quarters. 



"I'U haTo ererj oue of the rascals shot!" said the grey* 
haired reteran commaudiug the forces in Washingtou. An 
hour \&ior tho Garibeldiaiu fbuud themHelves surrounded bj 
fire thousand infantiy. Tho; laid dovQ their arms when thej 
•av it vas no uso to rexist, wore mnt-chcd Uick to Alciaudria, 
and put to the hard dmdgorj of camp life. 

The soldiers had an amusing stoiy to tell of oue of their 
number who wont into tlio loger-beor buainoas, the sale of boor 
being then allowed . A sutler put a barrel on t&p, and sooo 
had a crowd of thirsty customers. But tlio head of the barrel 
vas exposed in the rear. A soldier spying it, soon had that 
end on tap, and was doing a thriving buanoss, selling at five 
oente a glass fVom his end of the barrel. Ho had a constant 
run of custom. When the crowd had satisfied their thint, one 
of the soldiers approached the sutler. 

'* What do jou charge fbr a glass ? " he askod. 

" Ten cents." 

"Ten cents ! Why, I con get just as much u 1 want tbt 

'* Not in this camp." 

" Tea* or, in this camp." 

** Where. I ehould like to know T " 

*• Right round here." 

The sutler crawled out from hie teut to see about it, and 
stood transfixed witli astonishment whon he beheld the ofiera* 
tion at the other end of his barrel. He was received with a 
hearty laugh, while the ingenious Yankee who was drawing 
the lager had the impudence to ask him if he would n't take 
a drink ! 

Virginia was preeminently the land of a feudal aristocraoy, 
which prided itself on name and blood, — an aristocracy de> 
Lighting to tnoe its lineage back to the caraliers of Old Eug- 
Uuid, and which looked down with haughty contempt upon tlie 
man who earned his l)road by the sweat of his brow. The 
original ** gentleman " of Virginia possessed groat ostatcs. which 
were not acquired by thrift and industry, hut received an grants 
t}m>ugfa kingly favor. But a thriftless Bysiom of aji^riculturei 
pursued unvaryin^^ly through two coutuhos, had greatly re- 


BOYS or 


ducod the patrimony of manj sons and daugliters of the caT»- 
liere, who looke^l out of brokou wuidowa and ricketj dwoUinga 
npon exliaufited lands, ovorgrovn with small oaks and dimin- 
ntJTc pinee. Vet thoy clung with tooacitj to UicJr pride. 

"The Yankees are nothing but old scrubB," said a little Vir- 
ifiiiia girl of only ten years to me, 

A young lady was brought to Oeneral Tyler's head-quarten 
at Palls Church to answer a charge of having given informa- 
tion to the enemy. Uer dross was worn and faded, her shoes 
were down at the heel and out at the toes. There was nothing 
left of the estate of hor fathers except a mean old house and 
one aged negro slav^. She was reduced to absolute poverty, 
yet waa too proud to work, and was waited upon by the super 
annuated n^ro. 

" Von are accused, madam, of having given information to 
the enemy," said Oeneral Tyler. 

The lady bowed haughtily. 

" You live in this old house down here ?" 

" 1 would have you understand, sir, that my name ia Do- 
lancy. I did not expect to bo insultod! " she oxoUimcd, indig- 
nantly. Words cannot describe her proud bearing. It was b 
manifestation of her regard for blood, gentility, name, and her 
hatred of labor. Tlie history of the Rebellion was in that 

Virginia was also the land of sirens. A captain in a Con- 
necticut regiment, hired by tho swoot voioe of a young lady, 
went outside of the pickets to spend a pleasant honr ; but sad 
•lonly tho Philistines wore upon him, and he was a cnptivo. 
{>oliIiUi mocked him as ho was led away. Walking along 
tho picket lino on tho 12th of July, I found a half-dozen Con- 
ucctiout boys under a fence, keeping olose watch of Delilah's 

'^ There is a girl over there," Baid one of them, " who enticed 
our captain up to Ihe house yofitcniay, when he was capturod. 
Last night she came out and sung a song, and a«ked a licuten. 
ant to go in and see hor piano and take tea ; but ho timult b 
rat, and was shy. To-night there are four of iis going to croop 
up close to the house, and ho is going in to soe the piano." 

Tho trap was sot, but tho llcbels did not fall into it. 




The pickots brooght Id a uegro, one oi the first coutrabaoda 
vbo cune iato Uie lines of tbo army of the Potomac. He wat 
ooiddlfr^ged, tail, black, and voro a chocked coUon ihirt and 
slouchod bat. His boots vera aa sorry Bpecunous of cdd leather 
as over wore worn by Immaa beings. He came up timidly tu 
head^iuartors, guardod by tvo soldiers. Ha mado a low buw 
to the Qemeral, not only vitb hin bead, but vith his vbole body 
and legs, endint: the tataam with a scrape of his left foot, roll- 
ing his eyes and grinning firoui ear to ear. 

" What is your name 7 " asked the Gleneral. 

" Sam AlUton, sah." 

" Who do you belong to ? " 

■* 1 l>elongs to Massa Allstou, 8&h, fr<»n Bouf Car>lina." 

•• Whore 13 your master ? " 

** He be at Fairfax ; he belong to Souf Carolina rogimeot, 

■' How camo you here ? " 

" Wliy, yo Bco, General, massa told mo to ifo out and bay 
wme cUickons, and I como right straight down here, salt." 

" You did n't expect to buy them hero, did yon ? " 

'* No, eah ; btit I thouglit I would like to soe do Tonkeea." 

" I reckon I shall hare to send you liack, Sam." 

This was said not seriously, hut to test imam's einoerity. 

" I don't want to go back, sah. Would n't go hack no bow 
if I could holp it ; rather go a thounand miles away up Norf 
dian go down Souf, sah. They knock mo about down thoni. 
Hassa wliippcd mo lust week, for talking with de other niggera 
about de war. O mossa, don't send vae back again ! 1 'U do 
anything for you, massa." 

Ho was the picture of anguish, and stood whuging his Inudi 
while the tears rollod down his checks. Froedom, with all its 
ijQi^inod blessings, was before him ; slarery, with all its oertain 
horrors, behind him. 

The Qenoral questioned him about the BebeU. 

*' They tia; tlioy will whip you Yankees. Dcre 's ri^t amarl 
chance of 'cm at Fairfax, General Bouhom in command. Souf 
Cartttina is Itindcr mad at you Yankees. But now dey is kinder 
waiting for you to come, though they be packing up their trunks, 
as if KOttiue ready to more." 






At noon, on tlie ITth of July, ttie troops under QenenI 
McDowell took up tlielr lino of march toward Fairfax, with- 
out baggage, canying three dujrs' rations in their haversacks. 
One diviBion, under General Tyler, whicli had been encamped 
at Falle Cliurch, marcltod to Vienna, while the other divinioDS, 
moviug from Alexandria, advanced upon FaLrfi^x Oourt-IIous«. 

It was a grand pageant, the long column of bayonote and 
high-waviug flags. Union uuu wlioso homes were at Fairfax 
accompanied the march. " It does my eyea good to see the 
troops in motiou at last," said one. " 1 have been exiled 
MTeu weeks. 1 know nothing about my family, alUiough I 
hare been witliin a dozen miles of ttiem all tlie time. I 
came from the North three years ago. Tltu Secutiaionists 
hated me, they tliroatoiied to bong mu, and I liad to leave 
oiighty sudden." 

The head of General Tylor'ti column reached Vienna at sun 
eet. The infantry turned inV} the fields, while the artillery 
look pofiitions on the billR. Near the railroad was a large 
woodpile, boliind which tlio SouUi Carollniane took sholter, 
when they fired upon the Ohio boys on the cars. It was con 
veuient for bivouac firos, and the men helped themselves will 
iugty. There I received instructions from Captain Alexander, 
of the ougiueers, on old campaigner in Moxico, which, during 
the four years of the war, I have never forgotten. 

" Always sleep on the lee side of your bivouac Are," he said. 
■^Tbe fire dries the ground, the heat envelopes you like ■ 
Blanket; it wilt keep olT fever and ague. Better endure the 
discomfort of the smoke, better look like a Cincinnati liom, 
thou to feel an ache in every bone in tlie morning, which you 
will l>e likely to feel if yon spread your blauketfi on the wind 




wani tide, for lltoii you tmro Uttio boiicnt of tlio boat, but 
roocTe tlie Ml rush of tlio air, whicli chills you on oiio side, 
whilo you aro roasting on Uio other." It was wise counsel. 
and If hooding it I hare saved iny bonos from many an ocbe. 

It « 18 at tliis plaoD that a very laughable incident occurred. 
Ono of the cit^zons of Vienna had a boo-houso woU stocked 
with h'res. A soldier espied them. He solEod a hivB and ran. 
Out oune the bees, buzzing about his oars. Another solJier, 
thinkiug to do bettor, upset his hive, and seized tlie comb, drip- 
ping with honoj. Being also hoti; besieged, ho dropped it, 
ran hii hands through liis hair, slapped his fkco, swtmg his 
arms, and {bugitt manlVillj. Other soldiers seeing what was 
going on, and aniious to gocilto a portion of the ooTotad 
swootCj came up, and over wont the tialf-dozon hiros. The air 
was ftkll of enraged insectA, which Btung men and horses indi»- 
orimuiatoly, and wliioli finally put a whole rogimont to flight. 

The Southern newspapers at tliis time wore " firing tiie 
Soutli^im heart," as tliey plirasod it, by picturing the vandal- 
iam of the North. Beauregard, on the 5th of Juno, at Mauaa- 
na, isiued a manifesto addressed " to tlie peoplo of the couq- 
tiea of Loudon, Fairfax, and Prince William." Thus it read : — 

"A Ktklemt and unprincipled tyrant Iira invaJed your toil. Abra- 
bam IJnroln, rrganhetn of oil moral, legal, and constitutional re- 
stTttintik has tlirowa lii.4 abolition bostn among you. who ar« murdoring 
and impriMuing yoor citizens, oonfiacating aud destroying your prop- 
arty, and ronimitting other acta of violence and outrage too ihockuig 
and revolting to humauity to be «numeratftd. 

"All ruloa of ririllzed warraro ure altandonod, and (hoy proclaim by 
their acta, if not on th»r bannerB, lliat their war cry i» ' Hf-nuty and 
Booty.' All that is dear to man, — your honor, and thht of yoor wivet 
and dnughton, — your fortODM and your lives, are involved in iHU 
momeotous oonflid." 

In contrast to this fulmiuatiou of falsehoods. General Ho- 
Dowell had issued an order on the 2d of Juuo, tltroo days pre- 
vious, directing officers to transmit statomoute on the following 
pointi: — 

"* Flrit. llui qoancity of land taken poMeesloo of for the leveral 
Beld-worka, and the kind and valtie of the crops growing Uiereon, if 
any. Steond. 'Vba i|uaatiiT of '*'>d u«ed for the soveraJ vncawpnteota. 




lad tb« kind tmd valu« of tb« growing crtfpe, if »ay. Unrd. Thi 
■ranber, uao, uid cluintct^r of tbu buildingi nppropriAtcd to public pur* 
pOMs. JVwrlA. Tbe qiuatily and vnlue of trees cat down. Fijih. Tbe 
idad and extent of lenciog dMtroyed. Tli«Ae 8tAt«iunnt* wiU, m far u 
poaaibla, giTS the ralue of tlis property taken, or of tbe damage aos 
tained. aud tbe namo ur □atnea of tbe owoera."* 

A portioa of tlie troops birouflcked in an o&t-fieM, where 
the grain was etandiug in shocks, and some of the (u-tiUetymeD 
iippropriated the couveaieDt forage. 

The owner was complaioing bitterlj of the deTastations. 
** They have ukeo my grain, and 1 want my pay for it,'" be 
■aid to me. 

" Are you a Union man ? " I asked. 

" I was for the Uniou till Virginia seceded, and of coxirse 
bad to go with her ; but whether I am a Union man or not, tb« 
jpjvenunent is bound to respect priTttto property," ho replied. 

At that moment General Tylor rode past. 

" Say, Oeneral, ain't you going to pay mo for my property 
which your soldiers destroyed ? " 

•' There is my quartermaster ; he will settle it with you." 

The man received a voucher for whatever had been taken. 
The column took up its lino of march, passed through a narrow 
hrit of woods, and reached a hill from which Fairfax Court- 
House was in ftill view. A Rebel flag was waving over the 
town. There were two pieces of Rebel artillery in a field, a 
diQcen wagons in park, squads of soldiers in sight, horsemen 
galloping in all directions. Nearer, in a meadow was a squad- 
ron of cavalry on picket. I stood beside Captain (siDco Oen- 
eral) Hawloy of Connecticut, commanding the skirmishors. 

'* Let me take your Sharpe's rifle," said ho to a soldier. He 
rested it on the fence, ran his eye along the barrel, and iirod. 
The noarcat Rebel horseman, Imlf a mile distant, Blip[>od from 
bis horse in an instant, and fell upon the ground. It waa the 
first shot fired by the grand army on the march towards Ma- 
nassas. Tlic other troopers put spurs to their horses and fled 
towards Fairfax, where a sudden commotion was visible. 

" The Rebels are in force just ahead ! " said an ofBoer who 
tad advanced a short distance into the woods. 

• BIcDoireU'i Ordv 



** First luid liecoiid piecos into position," said Captain Varian, 
oommiuidiiig a Now York battory. Tbo tiorsos loapod ahead, 
and bi a momoiit Uio two pieces wore pointiug toward Fairi'ax. 
The future historian, or the traroUer wandering over the bat- 
tle-fields of the Rel>oIliou, who may Itu curious to know when:! 
the firet cannon-«hute were Grud, will fiud the locality at Flint 
HiU, at that time Uie site uf a small suhool-bouse. The cauaon 
were on either Bido of the building. 

" Load with tihcll," wan the order, and tbo cartridges woni 
home in an instant. 

Standing lietiiud the pieces and looking directly along the 
road uuder the shadow of the ororhanging trees. 1 could see 
the Rebels in a hollow beyond a farm-house. The shells went 
•orMmiug lowardy them, and in an instant they dii>uppBared, 
mzuuDg ijito the woods, casting away blankvLa, haversacks, and 
other equipments. 

The column moved on. The occupants of the houae oiet us 
with joyful countenances. Tlio good woman, formerly from 
New Jersey, brought out a pan of milk, at wliich we took a long 

'* I can't take pay ; it is pay enough to see your oount«Daa- 
ces," she said. 

Turning ^m Fairfax road the troops moved toward Oor- 
mantown, north of Fairfax, — a place of six miserable huts, 
over one of which the Confederate flag was flying. Bouliam'i 
brigade of South Carolinians was there. Aycr*B battery gal- 
loped into position. A shell was i>eDt among them. They 
wore about leaving, having boon ordered to retreat by Beaure- 
gard. The shell accelerated Uicir movomentfi. Camp equi- 
page, barrels of flour, clothing, entrencliing tools, wore left 
behind, and wo made ourselves merry over thoir running. 

Tho»o wore the days of romance. War was a pastime, a pio- 
nio, an agrooablo diversion. 

A gray-haired old negro come out from his oabia, rolling hif 
eyes and gazing at the Ytokeea. 

'* Have you seen any R^IkjIs this morning ? " we asked. 

" Goeh a'mighty, maasa I Dey was here as thick as beee, ges 
'fore you cum ; but when dat ar bumaliell cum scroaniiiig 
among 'em. dey ran as if de Ole HariT was after 'om." 





All of Uiis, ttiu flight of the Kelwle, the ucgra'B stoiy, wu 
eihilarating to tfao troops, who more than ever felt that the 
march to Richmond was goiug to ho a nice afiair. 

On tlio momiag of tho I8tli tho head of the culumu eotored 
Centrovillo, onco a thrifty place, whero traruUers from the 
w«st«m counties fotmd couvouiout rest oo tlicir juurneyB to 
Washington and Alosondria. Its vit&litj was gone. TIui 
houses wero old and poor. Although occupying one of tlie 
most picturesque Hituatious in tho world, it was in tho last 
itagoe of decay. 

A German met us with a welcome. Negro womeu peeped at 
oi through the chinks of the walls where the clay had fallen 
out. At a large two-story houso, which iu former days re 
fleeted the glory of tho Old Dominion, sat a man far gono with 
Muuumption. He had a pitiful story to tell of his losses by 
dw BeboLs. 

Here wo saw tiie womon of CoutreTille, so accompliahed ic 
the practice of siiutf-dipping, filling tlioir tooth and gums with 
snutr, and passing round tho cup with one swab for tlie coin- 
oany ' 

Rlchard»on's brigado toined towards Blackburn's ford. 
Suddenly tlioro was a booming of artillory, foUowod by a sharp 
ttkirmish, which Beauregard tn Im Beport calls tho first battle 
of Manassas. This was in distinctiou from ttiat fought on the 
2l8t, which is generally known as tlio battle of Bull Run. 

It was a rocoimoissanoo on tho part of General Tyler to foel 
the poerition of tho onomy. It might have boon conducted more 
adroitly, without sacrifice. Under cover of skirmisliors and 
artiUory, Uioir positions would have bcon ascortuncd ; no doubt 
their battorics could have boen carried if suitable arraugo- 
menta had been made. But the long cannonading brought 
down hosts of roinforcomonta from Manassas. And whoii too 
late, three or four regiments were ordered down to tho support 
of the Union troops. 

The FirHt Hassachusotts rcoeived the hottest of tlio fire. One 
•oldier in tho thickest of the fight waa shot; he passed hio 
musket to his comrade, saying, " It is all right. Bill," and im- 
mediately expirod. The soldier standing next to Lieutonant- 
Colonel Wells, received two shots in his arm. He handed hii 




gun lo tho Colonel, Bajring, " Horo, 1 can't use U ; take it and 
tiBti it." A groat mntiy uf tlio buldiere had their clothes shol 
through. Quo had three balls in his coat, but came out un 

As it is not intended that this volume shall he a history of 
the war, but rather a panorama of it, wc must ptiss briefly in 
review the first great battle of the war at Bull Run, aud th« 
flight to Washington. 

Tho day ww calm aud peaceful. ETorywlioro save upon the 
heights of Oontroville aud the plaiuti of Manassas it was a day 

of nist 

•■ 1 11 t«ll you whu I hoArd that diy, — 
I heard the great guoa f&r awsy, 
Boom hiUtr boom t " 

Long before sunrise tlie troops of the attacking column row 
from tlieir bivouac aud moved away towards tlie west. Tlie lun 
had but just risen when Boiijamht's batteries were tliiuidering 
at Ulaokburit's ford, and Tyler was printsing upon the Stone 
Bridge. It was past eight o'clock before the first light rippl« 
of muekotry was huurd at Sudley Springe, whore Burusida wat 
turning the left flunk of the liebele. Then came tlie n|)oniog 
of Uie cannonade and tho increasing roar as regiment alter regi 
ment fell into line, and morud Houthwurd, through the ttiicketi 
of pine. Sharp and clear above tho musketry rose the uhesn 
of the combatants. 

*' If you wtiip U6f you will lick ntnoty thoasand men. We 
oavo Johnston's army with us. Johnt^ton caine yesterday, and 
a lot mora from Richmond," said a prisoner, boastfully. 

Onward prossod tho Union troops, succoss attending th^ 
arms. Tlio liattiO was going in our (bvor. It was a little 
past throe o'clock, when, standing by tho broken-down stone 
bridge which the Rebels had destroyed, I had a full view of 
the action going on near Mrs. Henry's house. Tho field b» 
yond the Rebel line was full of stragglers. 

A correspondent of the Charleston ^fertmry thus writes of 
tho aspci^t of affairs in tho Rebel linos at that moment: — 

** When I Buterod the QM at two o'clock the fortaneo of the day wart 
lUrk. The regimoDts so badly injured, or wounded and warn, aa th«y 
tiaggered out gavo glo'^ r pictures of the eoene. Wo oould uot br 




roated, [•r-ihapa, bat it ia doubtful whether we wen destined to m 

" All seemed about to bo lost," wroto the correspondent of 
the Richmond Ditpatch. Thoro was a dustrcloud in the west. 
I saw it naing over the distant woods, approaching nearer each 
momeut. A few moments later the fatal mistake of M^or 
Barry was made.* OriflTm and Ricketts could hare 07e^ 
whelmed the newly arrived troops, less tlmn throo reKimouts, 
with canister. But it was not so to bo. One toUo/ from the 
Rebels, and the tide of affairs was reversed ; and the Union 
army, instead of being victor, was vanquished. 

A few moments l>eforo Uie disiastor by Mrs. Denry's house, 1 
walked past General Schonck's brigade, which was standing in 
the road a few rods oast of tlio bridge. A Rebel battery beyond 
the run was throwing shcUs, one of which ploughed through 
the Second Ohio, mangling two soldiers, sprinkling their warm 
blood upon the greensward. 

While drinking at a spring, there was a sudden uproar, a 
rattling of musketry, and one or two discharges of artillery. 
Soldiers streamed post, throwing away their guns and equip- 
ments. Ayer's battery dashed down the turnpike. A baggage 
wagon was hurled into the ditch in a twinkling. A hack from 
Washington, which had brought out a party of Congressmen, 
waa splintered to hindliugs. Drivers cut their horses loose and 
fled in precipitate haste. Instinct is quick to act. There woi 
QO time to dcliborato, or to obtain information. A swift pac« 
for a half-milo placed mo beyond Oub Run, whore, standing 
00 a knoll, 1 had a good opporttmity to survey tho sight, pain* 
ftil, yet ludicrotia to behold. Tho soldiers, as they crossed the 
stream, regauied their composure and fell into a walk. Rut 
the panic like a wave rolled over Oontrevillo to Fairfax. Tlie 
teamsters of the immense wagon train threw bags of coflbo and 
oom, barreb of beef and pork, and boxes of bread, upon thr^ 
ground, and fled in terror towunls Alexmidria. Tlie CrigUi was 
soon over. Tiie lines at Ccntrovlllo wore in tolerable order 
when I left that place at five o'clock. 

Experience is an excellent teacher, though the tuition ii 
aometimes expensive. There has been no ropetitioa of the 

* Ht« - IHr* vtd Sigkv no (h« llncils-Ficld," p. U. 




scenes of that adornooii during tlie war. The lossoti was sain 
taiy. Tlie Rebels on several occasions had the same difficultf. 
At Fair Oaks, Olendalo, and Malvorn wo now know how flatty 
demoralized tlic; bccamo. No troops are exempt from the 
UabiUtj of a panic. Old players are not secure from stage 
fright. Tlie coolest Burgeou cannot always control his nerrea. 
Tlie soldiore of tb'e Union in tlie battle of Bull Run were not 
cowards. They fought resolutely. The contest was suBtuued 
from early in the nioruiiig till throe iti the afloruoou. Tlie 
troope bad cjarchcd from Controvillo. Tlie heat had been in- 
tense. Their breakfast was oaten at one o'clock in the morn- 
ing. 'n>ey wui'u Imiiifr'v and parched witti thirst, yet tbey 
pushed the R'^liels back iVom Sddluy Springs, past the turn- 
pike to the hill by Mrs. Ucury's. 

Tlicre is abundant evidence that tlie Rebels considered the 
day as lost, when Kirliy ■'^milh arrived- 

Says tlic writer in tlie Richmond lH»paicK, alluded to 
aboTo: — 

** They pre*i^ oar left flank for wvermt hount wtlh Uirrit)la effwt. 
bat our men HincbMl not till ibeir uiimlioni hwl tnwn k) dimnitHhvd by 
the ««l]-aimvd luiil steady vo1l«yB ibat tbuy w«rv compullod to give 
way for new rcgiinonta. Ttie S«venlb and Kigtich Georgia Begime&t* 
are said to hare suffered heavily. 

*' Between two and three o'clock Urge number* of men were teaviog 
the llekl, M>ine of them woandeil, otlieni eihausiod by the long ntni^le, 
who gave ua ijloooiy reports ; but aa ibe flro un bulb Btd«s coutinaied 
steadily, wft Telt sure thnt our bruvn Suulbvmtm had not been ood> 
qaered by tlte oTerwhetmJnf* honief of th« North. It is, iKtwerer, dos 
to troth to »a7 lliat the nt!>ult of ibis hour tiuug Lrembliog iu tbe bat- 
anoo. Wo hnJ li«t numbers of our mo»l distinguinhcd olfinera. Qen* 
amis Barlow and Ueu hail beon elrickea down; Lioutenaot-Colonel 
Johiisoo of tl)« Hampton Legioo had beeii killed ; Colonel Hampton 
bad been wounded. 

" Your corretpondeiit beard General Johnaon exclaim to General 
Cocke just at the critical moment, ' O for four regimenu t ' Hia wish 
was answered, for in ihe dtstaiioe our roiuforcemeuts appeared. Tbe 
tide of battle wm tamed in our favor by tbe arrirRl of General Kirbf 
Smith frani«r, with t'oar thousand mnn of General Johnson's 
division. General Smith heard while on the ManHMtaa B«itroad cars 
Ibe roar of battle. He itlopped tfai) train, and hurried hi« troops acron 




tb« 6el4 to Um point jiMi wb«rs he wu moat n««(iftd. Thoj ««r9 at 
Ant nippoMd lo h« tb« esemj, their AtriTkl At thAt point of th« field 
being entirely unexpected. The enemj fell \mtk and ft paoie Mixed 

Smith had about ectoqIooh huudred men instead of four 
thouBaud, l>ut be cauie u|)on tho fiolil in fucIi a mannerf that 
KOnie of the Uoioa officers supposed it was a portion of McDuw- 
oU's Iroofw. Smith was t)iercfore ponnittod to tako a flarking 
position within clo«e mnskct-ehot of Riukctt's and Grifliu's bat- 
teries unmolested. Ooo toIIq^, and tJio victor;^ was changed 
10 defeat. Ttirougti chance alone it seemed, bnt really through 
ProTideuce, Uie ileljcls won llie field. Tiic cavalry cliarge, of 
whicli so much was said at tho time, was a feeble aflair. Tlte 
panic began tho moment that Smith opened u|h>:i Rickctts and 
Qriffiu. The oavairy did not advanco till tlio army watt in full 

It is laughable to read the accounts of the battle published 
la the Soiitlioni papers. The Richmond IH*potch lias a letter 
written from Manassas 2^td July, which has Uiroughout e^i- 
dmcee of candor, and yet this writer says, '*We liave captured 
Bixty-eeven pieces of artillery," while we had only thirty-eight 
guns OQ the 6eld. Most necromancers have the ability to pro- 
duce hens* eggs witliout nim)l>or from a mysterious bag, but 
bow they could capture sixty-seven pieces of cannon, when 
McDowell had but thirty-eight, is indeed remarkable. The 
some writer ofiserta that we carried into action the Palmetto 
9tate and the Confederate flugf. 

Ilere is the story of a wonderful caimon-hall. Says the 
writer: " A whole regiment of ttie enemy appeared in sight, 
going at double-yuick down the ControviUe road. M(yor Wal- 
ton immediately ordered another shot. With the aid of our 
glass we could »ee thom about two miles off. There was no 
otwtiTQCtion, and the whole front of the regiment was exposed. 
On^ half vBert tttn tofaU^ and if General Johnston had not at 
that moment sent an order to cease firing, nearly the whole 
regiment would have been killed ! " Tlie half that did not fall 
ought to be grateful to Major Walton for not firing a second 
•bot. The writer lays in conclusion : "Thus did fifteen thou* 
land men, with eighteen pieces of artlltery, drive back inglori 


BOYS OP ^fr 


ouflly a force exceeding tbirtj-liTe thousand, supported by uearlj 
oue hundrod pieces of cauuou. We huro captured uluo buu 
died prisouora, sLxty-seven pieces of camion, Axuiiitroug guuf 
and rifled caiuiou, Imudreda of wagoua, loads of provisious aud 

Quo writer asserted Uiat tliirty-two tbouBoad pairs of Uaiid- 
ciUTb were taken, dosigued for Bebel prisonerfl ! This absurd 
Btatemout was boUered tUrougbout tbe South. lu Jauuary. 
1362, while m Koutucky. I met a Southern ladj who d^ 
clared that it must be true, for she had B&eu a pair of tbe 
Uandcu08 ! 

The war on the part of the North was undertaken to uphold 
the Constitution and the Union, but the battle of Bull Run set 
men to thinking. Four days af^cr the battle, in Woshiugtou I 
met one who all his lifetime had been a Democrat, stand- 
ing fltanchlj by the South till the attack on Sumter. Said 
ho : '' I go for liberating the niggers. Wo are fighting on u 
false issue. The negro is at tho bottom of the trouble. The 
South is fighting for the negro, and nothing else. They use 
him to defeat us, and wo slioll bo compelled to use him to 
defeat tbem." 

These sentiments wore gtuuing ground. General Butler had 
retaiuod the negroes who came into his camp, colling them 
" contraband of war." Men were begiuning lu disouss the 
propriety of not only retaining, but of seizing, tiie slaves of those 
who wore in arms against tho govornmcnt. The Bebols wore 
using thom in the construction of forlificatious. Why not place 
them in the category with gunpowder, horses, and cattle ? The 
reply was, " Wu mut^l respect Lhe Union people of the South." 
But where wore tlie Union people 7 

There wore some in Western Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
aud Missouri; but very few in Eastern Virginia. At Couire- 
viUo thero was oue man iu tho seedy rillago who said he waa 
for the Union : be was a Gorman. At a farm-houso just out 
of the Tillage, I found on old New-Yorker, who was for tht> 
Ouion ; but the mass of the people, men, women, aud cbil- 
lirou, had fled, — their mind-s [K>isoiicd with tales of tbe brutal- 
ity of Nortliem soldiers. Tho mass of tho people bore toward 
their few ucighlwrs, who still 8i<>od for tho Union, a most iin- 


suu. itw. 


placable hatred. I recall the wocbegono look vtiiuh over- 
spread the couDtoiiancc of a good voman at Vloniia ou Sunday 
Dight, when, as she gave me a draught of tnilk, I made a plain, 
candid statement or the disaster which had bofallcn onr army. 
Hor husband had boon a friend to tlio Federal army, had 
given up his house for officers* quarters ; had suffered at the 
hands of the Rebels ; liad once boon obliged to ficc, leaving 
his nrife and family of six cbildrcu, all of teudo%age, and the 
prospect vas gloomy. Uo had gone to bed, to forget in sleep, 
if possible, Uie crushing blow. It was near midnight, but the 
wife and mother could not sleep. She was awake to every 
approaching footstep, heard every sound, knowiug that within 
a stone's throw of the dwoUiug there were those, in former 
times fast friends, who now woiUd bo among tlio first to houud 
her and her little ones from the place ; and wliy ? because they 
loved tlio Union! 

What had produced tliis bitterness? Ttiere could be but 

me answer, — Slavery. It was clear tliat, sooner or later, Uie 
var would become one of emancipation, — freedom to Uie 

■lave of evory uuui found in arms against the govenimout, or 

ti any way aiding or abetting treason. How seductive, how 

yramiical this same monster Slavery ! 

Three years before the war, a young man, bom and edu 
f*ied among the mountains of Berkshire County, Massachu 
setts, graduating at Williams College, visited Wasliington, and 
called upon Mr. Dawes, member of Congress from Massachu- 
setts, to obtain his influence in securing a position at Uie 
South as a teacher. Mr. Pawcs know the young man, son 
of a citizen of high standing, respected not only as a citiien, 
but in the highest branch of the Legislature of the State in 
former times, and gladly gave his influence to obtain the 
situation. A few days after tho battle Mr. Dawes visited 
the Old Capitol prison to eco tho prisoners which liad been 
brought in. To his surprise ho found among them the young 
man from Berkshire, wearing the imiform of a Rebel. 

'* How could jou find it in your heart to fight against the 
flag of your country, to turn your back upon your native State, 
and the institutions undor which you have been trained ? " 
he askod. 




'* I did Q*t want to 5ght against tlio flag, but I waa oon 
(Mjltcd to." 


*' \^"lijt T"'" "00, thoj kneir I was from tlie North ; and if 1 
had n't enlisted, tlie ladies would hnve presented mo with ■ 

lie expressed himself averse to taking the oath of alio 
giance. It mw only wlien allusion was mado to hie paroute 
— the poignant grief which would all but break )ub mothorV 
heart, were eho to hoar of him as a soldier in the traitors 
lines, — that he gave way, and his eyos filled with tears 
Ue could turn against his country, his State, the institutiont 
of freedom, because hin heart won in tho Soutti, because in 
Itad dreaded tlic finger of scorn wliich would have cowed bin 
with a petticoat, but ho could not lilot out tho influence of i 
mother's lore, a mother's patriotism. Do had not lived long 
enough under the hot breath of the simoom to have all thr 
early associations witlierod and crisped. Tho mention of 
*'moLhor" made him a child agaiji. 

With him was another Massachusetts man, who bad lieei 
South many years, and who was more intensely Southern than 
himself Another young man, a Houtli Carolinian, was a law 
student in Barrard College when his State seceded. He went 
home to enlist. "IT it bad not been for the war I should now 
be taking my degree," said be. He was rejoicing over the 
result of tlio battle. 

Rlavery is not only tyrannical, but it is corrupting to morals. 
The doccssionisls of St. Joseph, Mis&ouri, in their uugerness tc 
precipitate a Kansas regiment to destruction, burned a bridga 
on tho Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, a few miles east of 
St. Joseph. The train left the city at three o'clock in the 
morning, and reached the l^ridgo before daybreak. The re^ 
iment was not on board, and instead of destroying a thousand 
Union soldiora, a largo number of tlie citizens of Hi. Joseph,— 
witli women and children, friends and neighbors of the Secea 
sioniste, — wore plunged into tlie abyss ! 

Tlio action of these Uissuuri barbarians was applauded by 
the Secessionists of Washington. A IVioiid came into my room 
late one evoning in great excitomeni. 




'* What is Uie matt«r ? " 

" I am sick at heart," said lie, ** at what I have beam. 
I called upon some of my female acquainlAuces to-iiighl. I 
kuew that Uiey were Socoesionists, hut did not tliink tliat tliey 
were so utterly corrupt aa I find llicm to bo. They are re- 
fined, intclligoiit, and hare moved in the first society of Wosh- 
ingtoQ. Tliey boldly declared that it was justifiable to deatroy 
that milrood train in Missouri ; that it is right to poison 
woIIb, or riolato oaths of allof^onco, to help on the cause of 
the Houth ! " 

The bitterness of the women of the Soutli during the Rebel- 
lion is a strange phenomenon, without a parallel in lustory. 
For the women of Irelaml, who in the rebelUon of *98 cut off 
the heads of KugUsh residents, and chopped up their victims 
by piecemeal, were from the bogs and foua, — one romOYo only 
&om the beasts ; but these women of the South lay claims to 
a superior culture. It is uuo tiling to be devoted heart and 
■oul to a cause, but it is quite another to advance it at the coat 
ci civilization, Ohristianity, and the womanly virtues. 

The assertion that all women of tlic South thus gave them- 
selves over to do wickeUIy, would bo altogether too sweeping ; 
a large portion may be included. Mrs. Oreenhow and Belle 
Boyd have written out some of their exploits and machinations 
for the overthrow of the Union. Willi them, a false oath or 
any measure of deceit, was praiseworthy, if it would but aid 
the Seoosmon cause. They are fair representatives of the 
Qunalos of the South. 






Tbe mODthfi of August and September pusod away wlthoat 
auy action on Uie port of Gciiorul McCIollaii, who had been ap^ 
pointed oomuiaiidur ol the Aj-uiy of tho Potomn;:. 

The disaster at Bali's BhitT occurred on tho 2l8t of October, 
just throo months aflor iho battlo of Bull Run. On tho alter 
noon of tho 22d the nows wok whisporod in Washington. 
Riding at onco witli a fcllow-iiorrospondont, Mr. II. M. Smilfa 
of tho Chicago Tribune, to Oononil McClcUan'e hoad-quarterSf 
and entering tho anteroom, wo found President Lincoln there. 
I had mot liim on screral occasions, and ho was well acquaint- 
ed with my IHcnd. Ho grooted us cordially, hut sat dowtt 
(juickly, rested his licod upon his hand, and soumod to bo un- 
iisiiallj agitated. His oyes were sunken, his countenance hag 
gard, hie whole demeanor tliat of one who was in trouble. 

" Will you plcufio step in hero, Mr. PruBidont," said an or 
dorly from an adjoining room, from whence camo the click oi 
tho telegraph. lie soon came out, with his hands clasped upon 
his breast, his Iioad bowed, his body bont as if he were carrying 
a groat burden. Ho took no notico of any one, hut with down- 
cast eyes and faltering steps passed into tho street and towards 
the Rxocutivu mansion. 

'^ We have met with a sod disaster. FlRiHin hutidred mou 
lost, and Colonel Baker killed," (iaid Oenond Marcy. 

It was that which had ovorwhclmod the President. Colonel 
Baker wa« his personal friend. Tttey had long boon intimately 
acquahitod. In Kjieakingof that ovoiit afterwards, Ur. LincolL 
said that it smote him like a whirlwind in a desert. Few men 
linvQ been appointed of God to hear such burdens as were laid 
upon President Lincoln. A distracted country, a pooplo at 
■ar^ all the foundations of society broken up ; tho cares, trials, 


TBI TALL or IBtt. 

and perplexidos whicli c&mo vwj day witbout c«M«tioti, di» 
ut«r upon disastor, tho loss of those he toved, — EUsworth, 
Baker, and his own darling Willie. A risitor at the White 
Hotue the day of Ellsworth's death found him in toan. 

'* I will moke ao apology, gentlemea," said ho, " for my 
weokiiOtts ; hut I know poor Ellsworth woll, and held him iu 
great regard . Just as yon entered the room, Captain Fox left 
me» alter giving me the painful details of Ellsworth's unfortunate 
death. The oTont was so unexpected, and the recital so touch- 
ing, that itquite unmanned me. Poor fellow," he added, ^ it 
was undoubtodlj a rash act, but it only shows the heroic spirit 
that animates our soldiers, from high to low, in this righteoua 
cause of ours. Yet who can restrain grief to see them fall in 
tiuch a way as this, — not by the fortunes of war, but by the hand 
of an assassin ? " 

The first time I oror saw Mr. Lincoln was the day after hL 
nomination by tho Chicago ConTontion. I accompanied the 
oommittec appointed to inform him of the action of the Con- 
rention to Springfield. It was sunset when wo reached the 
plain, unpretentious two^tory dwelling, — his Springfield homo. 
Torning to the left as we entered the hall, and passing into tliu 
library, we stood in tho presence of a tall man, with large fea- 
tures, great, earnest oyo«, a countenance which, once looked 
upon, forever remembered. Ho received tho committee vitb 
d^nity and yet with evident constraint of manner. The ad- 
dress of Mr. Ashmun, chairman of the committee, was brief, 
and so was Mr. Lincoln's reply. Then followed a general in- 
troduction of the party. 

There was a pitcher of ice-water and goblets on a stand, but 
there were no liquors. The next morning a citizen narrated 
the following incident. 

When the telegraph informed Ur. Lincoln's neighbors thai 
the oommittoo were on their way, a few of his friends called 
upon him to make arrangements for their reception. 

" Ton must have some refreehmonta prepared," said they. 

" certainly, certainly. What shall I get ? " 

** Too will wont some brandy, whiskey, wines, Ac." 

** I can't do that, gentlemen. I never have kept liquors, and 
( can't fcet them now." 



•■ Well, wc will supply lliom.'" 

**No, gojitletuen, I cau't permit you to do wlial I would uot 
do uiyb«lf. I will furiiislt good water aud oiiough of it, but no 

Ho adhered to hh diociiitou ; aitd thus at tliu bcgluuiug of 
the coute&t gare an QzhibiUon of tliat resoLuteiiesb of diaractar, 
that detenaiuatioii of vrill tu adhere to what ho felt vm rigbtf 
which wtB of Bucli inestimable value to tlie nation, in currjriug 
Uiti cauEO of llio Cuiou triiuuph&utly through all the dark dajrn 
of thti BtiUeUiou. . 

it was suusot when Mr. Smitli aud mysolf roachod PoohtriUtf, 
after a rapid uorscback ride from Waehingtoii. The quarter^ 
masters vore issuiiig clothing to those who had cost away their 
garmeuC6 while swimming the river. Tlie night was cold. 
Thoro had t>eou a heav^ fall of rain, and the ground was 
miry. It wiui a sad epoctaclo, Uio&e half-uaked, sliivering 
Boldiflrs, who had lost ovorytliiug, — clotiies, equipments, and 
arms. Thoy wore almost heart-broken at tlie disaster. 

" I enlisted to fight," said one, " but I don't want to be 
ilaughtered. my Ood [ sliall I over forget that sight, when 
the boat went down ? " He covered his face with hi& hands, 
ai if to shut out the horrid spectacle. 

Colonel Bukor waa sent across the riror witli the FiHoenth 
and Twentictli Massachusetts, a portion of tlio Tammany R«gi- 
meut of Now York, and the California regiment, Cotonol liokcr's 
jwn, in all about lilteeii liundrod men. His moans of com- 
munication were only an old scow and two small boats. 
was left to fight unassisted four thousand Rebels. Soon after' 
ho fcU, Uicro was a sudden rush to the boats, which, being over^ 
loaded, wore instantly swamped. The Rebels bad it all their 
own way, standing upon Uio bonk and shooting the drowning 
men. Colonel Baker's body had boon brought off, and was 
lying at PoobviUo. The soldiors of his owu regiment were in- 

Poolsrille is on insignificant village, situated in one of the 
richest agricultural districts of ilm-yland, surrounded by gentle 
»wi;lh of land, wooded voles, verdant slopes, brood fields, with 
llio furoff mountain ranges and sweeping Potomac, — ttiat com- 


THE rAiL or itl61 


biaadon which would bo the delight of • painter who lo7« 
quiet rural scenery. Tlie soil is fcrtilo, and needs ouly good 
otiltuTc to yield au hutidred-rolfl. Amid such native ricluieaE 
stands tlie tillage, — a small colloctioii of noDdo»cript houses, 
with overhaiigiug rwjfs, wide porticos, or slieds which aiiswei 
for piazzas, mammntli chimiiors. Imilt outside ttic edifice, a^ 
if thoy were aftarthoiijflits wlicti tlie houses were uonstructod. 
llic stroota are narrow, and the dwulUugs are huddled tqgether 
u if there were but one corner lot, and all were trying to get m 
oloeo to it as possible, reminding one of a crowd of boys round 
the old-fashioned fircplaoc of a country scliouMiuusu on a win 
tor's niomiug. There is not a new house in tliu place. The 
newest aoc was built many years ago. Vou look iu vain for 
, neat white cottages, with wuU-kupt grounds. Tou are aston- 
) iafaed at the immonso iiuinbor of old wagons and carriagos, with 
rickety tops, torn canvas, broken wbeols, sliaAs, and battoi'ed 
bodies, — of old lumbor-carts and other weather-beaten vehi- 
cles under skeleton slieds. Look where you will, you utytno to 
the couclusiou that time bos smoked out the juice of everythnig- 
There is uo freshness, no sign of a renewal of life or of present 
Tilaii^. There are a small church, and two seedy, ne«dy tar- 
eros, — moui-lookuig, uniimtiug places, each witli its crowd 
uf idle men, canvussing ilio state of pubUc alTairs. 

Such was tJie village in 18l>l. Tbu streets werti ^ive witb 
** little tinagus of God cut in ebuuy," as Mrs. iStowe calls a 
negro child. Many of itio " images," however, liy ooiitact wiiii 
the Auglo-8ason race, through Slavery, bad become almost 
white. Tliore were throe or four hundred initabitauts, a few 
wealthy, witti many poor. 

Wc found acoouuuodations at ttie best private residence iu 
tbc place- The owner had a number of outlying farms, and 
was rvported to be very wealthy. He was courteous, and pro- 
fessed Co be a Union man. He was disposing of his hay and 
grain to the United .States govorninent, receinug the highasi 
jiricus at his own door. Y'et when conversing with him, he 
•aid, " your army," " your troops," as if he were a foreigner. 
K AiDwal procession passed tlio house, — a company of the 
IfuMoliUsetts Fifteenth, bearing to the village graveyard a 
comrade, who bad laid down his life for his cotuitry at fiall'f 


THE 60TS OF 41 . 


niuflr. Said the wifo of m; lioBt to a (Hond as tbey pABsed : 
'* Tkeir govenunent has got money ouougli, aiid ought to take 
the bodies away ; we dou't want ttioni buried here ; it will make 
the place unhealthy." Thoso ezproseious revealed one thing* 
that botwooD tJiom and the Federal Union and the Constitution 
there was no bond of unity. There was no nationality binding 
Ufi togcUier. Once tliey would not have spoken of the army 
of the United States as " your army." What had caused this 
alienation? Slavery. An ebony-hued chattel kindled my 6ra 
in the morning and blacked my boots. A yellow cliattel stood 
bohhid my cliair at breakfast. A stout chattel, worth twelve 
hundred dollars, groomed my horse. There wore a dozen 
young chattels at play upon the piazza. My host was an owner 
of human flesh and blocd. That made him at heart a Sccea- 
sioEtist. The army had not Interfered with Slavery. Slftvei 
found their way mto the camp daily, and were promptly re- 
turned to their professedly loyal ma.^tors. Yet the presenoe 
of the troops was odious to the slayeholdors. 

In the quiet of affairs around Washington I visited Eastern 
ilaryland, accompanied by two members of the press. The 
Rebels had closed the narigatlon of the Potomac by erecting 
batteries at Cockpit Point. Gcuoral Hooker's division was at 
Uudd's Ferry, Port Tobacco, and otlicr places down the river. 
It was the last day of October, — one of the loveliest of the 
year, — when wo started upon our excursion. 

No description can convey an idea of the incomparable love- 
liness of tlie scenery, — the broad river, with the slow-moving 
Mil-boats, the glassy, iinninicd Mirfncc, reflecting cflTivas, masta, 
and cordtigu, the many-colored hills, rich with autumnal tints, 
tlio marble piles of the city, tlio broad streets, tlie more distant 
Georgetown, tlio thouBunda of white tents near and far away, 
with all tho nico shading and blending of varied hue in the 
mellow light. On every liill-top we lingered to enjoy tho rich- 
ness of nature, and to fix in memory tlio picture which, under 
(he relentless hand of war, would soon be robbed of its pAou 
Uoi charms. 

Ten mtloa out and all was changod. Tho neat, tasteful, 
comfortable rosidencoB were succeeded by llie most dilapidated 
dwellings. The fields, green with verdure, gave place to 






taady liairens. To say that everybody and OTorythiuji wore 
out at the elbows and down at the heels is not sufficient. 
One must see the old Imildiugs, — the crazy roofs, the unglazed 
windows, tho hitigolcss doors, the rotting stoops, the reeling 
barns and sheds, leaning in every direction, as if all were in 
drunken caroubitl, — tlic broken (enceo, the surrounding lum- 
ber,— of carts, wagons, and used-up carriages, to obtain a 
■.orroct idea of this picture, so strongly and painfully in con- 
trast to that from the hill-tops overlooking tho capital of the 

Tha first Btopping-placo for travellers is the " Wbito Horse." 
We had hoard much of the \Vhite Horse, and somehow had 
great expectations, or rather an undefined notion that Clark 
Mills or somo other artist had sculptured from white marble a 
need balanced on his hind legs and leaping toward the moon, 
like tliEit in fVont of the Presidential mansion ; but oiir great 
eipect&tions dwindled like Pip's, when we descended a hill 
and came upon a whitewashed, ono-etory bmlding, — a log- 
hotue, uninviting to man or beast. A poplar in fVont of the 
domicile supported a swinging sign, on which the country artUt 
had displayed his marvellous skill in painting a white horse 
standing on two logs. It was time for dinner, and the land- 
lady spread the table for her guests. Tliere was no gold-tinted 
bill of faro, with unpronounceable French phrases, no long lino 
of sable waiters, in white aprons. My memory serves me as to 
tbft fare. 

Pork, Pone, Potatoes. 

Tho pork was cold, pono ditto, potatoes also. Pone u on- 
raised com-cako baked in the ashes, and said to bo good for 
indigestion. It is a favorite cako in the South. 

A saffron-hued young man, — tall and lean, with a sharp 
nose and thin face, sat on the steps of tho White Horse. 

" The ager got hold of mo yesterday and shook mo right 
smart," he stud. " It is a bad place for the ager. Tlie people 
that used to live hero have all moved away. Ttte land is run 
out. They havo terbakkered it to death. We can't raise noth- 
ing, and it ain't no use to try." He pointed to a deserted 
brm-houso standing on a hill, and said, '* Thero 's a place the 
owner has loft to grow up to woods. He can't get nobody to 
carry it on." 




A stately brick maonon, etaudiikg l-ack from the 1>i|u;l)way 
once tlio residence of a man of vealtli imd Uisic, wicti lilinds, 
portico, Kud carriage-houHo, ulaboratc iti de-stpi and finiish, 
vaa ill the last stages of niin. Tlio [loriico had sotthtd 
away from the hoiiso. The roof was hollowed like ii weak- 
backed hori^e, the chimneys were tumtiliitg, hliiidii swiutiing bj 
a hiugo, windows bmashod, outhouses loM«i-in^ with ugc and 
nogloct, alt prcsoutiiig a uiont ropiilsivu up^icaranco. Hon 
changed from former ycani, when the coiirtei.>us, hos[ntable 
proprietor of tlio csuto received his giK->ts at the innguificenl 
portico, iisberod them to his ^|■aoto^s hal)», opened the itido- 
board and drank to their health, vhilc ntlt.Mid:itit slarcs look 
the horsu» to the stAhlos! It is easy lo (ill np tlio piclure, — 
tho grand dinner, tlie valk o^cr the csiatc, iliu slrull hy the 
river, the duck-ehooting on tlio marshcFt. the gang of slaves 
in the tolKicco-patuh, tho army of black tmd yrllov t>crvant» in 
tho kitchens, clian]l>ers, and parlors. When lhi» old houM 
ma iu its glory, this section of Maryland way in its prime; 
•mt how groat tlic change ! 

It was 6ad to think of tho departed dayn. Our reflcctloDB 
«roro of what tlio placo liad been, what it was, arid what it 
might have been, liad Maryland irk the licginning of her his- 
lory accoptod Freedom instead of Slavery. 

Taverns arc not froquont in tlio vicinity of Pomunkcy, and 
it w;l> nucessary that we should heck private hospiluHty for the 
night. A first attempt for accommodation a brought us to a 
houso, but the owner had no oats, hay, or corn ; a second ride 
lu from tlio highway, brought us to a whitownshed fanu-liouso. 
with iiumcnso outside chimneys, piu7ja, adjoining mud-chinked 
negro-quartors, witli chimneys of sticks and clay, and a dozen 
surrounding buildings, — as usual, all tumbling to pieces. 
Explanations as to who wo wcro secured kind luwpitalily from 
tho host, a gray-headed man, with a family consisting of his 
wife, thrco grown-up sons, and nine adult dauglit£r<i. 

"Such as 1 have is at your service, gontlemou," said our 
host But bo liad no hay, uo oats, no com, iiothiiig but th-Jekt 
for our horses. Our supper coitsistcd of fried pork, fried salt 
shad, pone, wheat^akc^, potb<otfoo, strawberry loaf tea, sweeb 
oaed with damp brown siigar ! 




^' Wq dou'l raise butter in Uui< section of tbti Slute," said out 
Ifosi, in apology. 

Tho supper was relislied aA«r au aflemoou ride of thirty miloe 
Tb« oveuing being cbillj, a roaring lire was kept up in Uic old- 
fashioned fireplace. Tlio daughters put on their most uttrao- 
live attire, uud left nothing imtrk-d to entertain their tluce vis- 
iiors. Gould we dance ? Uufortiinatety we could not. It was 
a serious disappoiutmeut. They evidently had anticipated hav- 
ing " a good time." One of the ladies could play a riolln, 
and tTMted us to jigs, reels, and honipipos, 

*' You must sing the gentlemen a song, Jauo," said one. 

Jane turned scarlet at tlie suggestion, but finally^ after police 
requests and a little urging, turned her back to tlio companj, 
&ced tlio comer of the room, and sang a love-song. She could 
sing '* Dixie," but knew nothing of Uie " Star-Spaugled Ban- 
ner" or ** nail Columbia." The young ladies wore in sym 
pathj witli the Rebellion. 

" It must bo expected that Southern people should sjmpii 
ihize with tho South," said our host. 

*< Tou own some slaves ? " I said. 

*' I have three sfrvanU, sir. I think," he added, " that the 
people of Eastern Maryland would bo more iaTorahlo towarda 
the Union if they could bo assured tliat the war would not 
finally become one of emancipation. My neighlwr orer there 
had a servant who ran away into the camp of one of the New 
York regiments. He wont after him. Ttic Colonel told the 
master to take him, but tho servant would n't leave till the 
GoloDcl drew his pistol and threatened to shoot him. But nob- 
withstanding tliat, I reckon that the war wilt make them rost- 
losi." It was spoken frankly and unreservedly. 

It was pitiable to walk round his farm in tho morning, to 
Boe erorywhero tho last stages of decay, — poor, wonmut lands, 
broken-4own fences, weedy fields, postures without a blade of 
grass, leafless orchards, old buildings, — ovetTthing a wreck ; 
and jet to know lliat he was wedded to the very institution 
which was niducing the country to a wilderness. He was not 
an owner of the oxtato, hut a rontce. He paid one hundred 
and fifty dollars rental for three hundred acres of land, and yet 
oonfeeecd tliat he was growing poorer year by year. Tobacco, 




com, and oats were the only crops. He cuutd got no maaars. 
Ho cnuKl iTLtiko no h&j. He kopt two cows, hut made no but- 
ter. Tho land yva^ lioing oxliausted, and he did not snow what 
he should cnnid to. All energy and life were gone ; wq saw 
only a faoiily sirUfigHiig against fate, and yet clinging witli u 
dcath-grjpplt! in the system that was prceipitatiiig their ruin. 

" Why do yon not go to Illinois ? " 

" O, sir, I nni too old to move. Bosidos, lliis is home." 

Wc pictured the hoimcllcse resources of Una West, tho fertile 
lands, the o]iportuiiitic8 fur hcttcring Ins condition, but our 
words fell upon an inert mind. As a last argumout, we sud : 
" You have a largo family of daughters, lu Illinois tliero are 
thousauds of young men wanting wives, who will make good 
husbands. There are few young men lidre, but good homes 
awiut your daughters there." 

There wore bhishes, smiles, and sparkling eyes from the 
*' sacred nino." My foUow-corrospondcut of tlio Chicago 7H&- 
VIM then drew a florid picture of tho West, — of the need of the 
State for such good-looking, virtuous ladies. His eloquence wa» 
persuasive. One of the daughters wanted to know how far it 
was to niioois ; hut when informed that it was a tliousaud miles, 
her countenance Toll. Bliss bo far away was unattauiable. 

We passed a socond night with oxu host, who, during our 
absence, sent one of the servants a dozon miles to obtain sodm) 
butter, so courteous an entertainer wa« he. Yet he was strug- 
gling witli poverty. He kopt three slaves to wait upon liis 
nine grown-up xinmarriod daughters, who woro looking out 
upon a dark future. Tlicre was not a single gleam of light 
before them. Tliey could not work, or, at tlio Itesi, tlioir work 
was of trifling account. What would booomo of them ? That 
was the one question over haunting tlio fatlicr. 

" Wliy do youlccop your slaves? Uicy oro a bill of cost to 
you every year," we said. 

" I know it. Tlicy ore la?y, shiftless, and they will stool, 
Dotwithstooding they have ouough to eat and wear ; but then 
I reckon I could n't get along witliout them very well. 8am 
is an excellent groom, and Joe is a good ploughman. Ha 
can do auylhing if he lias a mind to ; but ho is lazy, like all 
the rest. T rodton that I could n't get along without him, 




** Your sous c&a groom jour horses ftad do ;our ploughiug." 

" Yee ; but theu the; like to fieb aud hunt, you kuow ; and 
jrou cau't expect them to do the work of the servauts." 

The secret iras out. Slavorf made labor dishonorable. 

Convorsiiig with another farmer about the negroes, he said : 
'^lliej Etoal all the; can lay tlieir lianda on; aad since the 
Yankee troops have boon in camp round here, they are ten 
times as bad as thoy used to be. My cltickons are &st disap- 
pearing. The officers buy tkam, I reckon." 

Wo thought it quite likely ; far having passed several days in 
General Hooker's division, wo could hear testimony to the ez- 
joUent fare of the officers' mess, — chickens served in all the 
various forms known to culinary art. It was convenient for 
officers thus to supply themselves with poultry. Of course the 
slave would say that ho was the lawful owner of the poultry. 
Why should ho have any compunctions of conscience about 
disposing of the chickens roosting on his master's apple-treea, 
when his labor, his lifot his happiness^ liis children, — oil He 
rights were stolen from him by his master ? If the sword cut 
in one direction, why not in another ? 

A few days later, in November, we visited Ajmapolis, a 
quaint old city. The streets all iDntrc at tlio State-House 
and St. John's Church. There arc anttqiintcd houses with 
ino«7 roofs, brass kitockers on the doors, whicli wore built two 
hundred years ago. We were carried bock to tlio time of th» 
Revolution, when Annapolis was in its glory. 

One would suppotae, in walking f>ast the substantial Btone 
mansions, that U)o owners were living at ease, iu quiet and 
seclusion ; Uiat thoy had notes, mortgages, and bonds laid by 
for a rainy day : but a fair outside does not always indicate 
healtli within. In many of those old mansions, grand iu pro- 
portion, (^aborato with cornice, there waa notliing but famine. 
How strong is aristocratic pride ! Foverty cannot subdue it. 
Men and women lived thorc sorely pressed tn keep up even a 
threadbare appearance, who, before the war, held soul and 
Itody togothcr by raising ne^rues for the Southern market, and 
by waiting upon Uiu A;>»embly when in session. They would 
have deemed it degrading to hold social intercourse with a 
maeou or a blacksmitJi, or with any one compelled to earn his 




bnad I17 flie sweat of hh hrov. Id povcr^ thejr nur«ed iheir 
ptMe. Tlie castes of Hindostau wore hardlf more distinct 
It is easy to see how a commnnitv can become lifeless under 
(Tucli a fltoto of society. 'Hie lalwring men had gone away, — 
to ttie West, to Baltimore, or to localities where it is not a 
arime to work for a lirelihood. In conscqiiciice, enterprise had 
died, pmporty had depreciated, and the entire place had become 
poverty-fltrickcn . 

On the succeeding; Sunday I was in Washin^n. where a 
mipcrintftndftnt of one of the Fahhath schools was spending a 
portion nf the hour in singing. Among other itorigs was Rev 
3. F. Smith's national hymn, — 

"Mj ooiiDtr?, 't h of thea, 
Swmt tud oflibort/." 

Ajnoug (lie persons present wore three ladies^ members of • 
family sympathizing with secession. Witti unmistakable signM 
of disgust, they at once \eii the house! 

Not only at church, but in the array, the spirit of slavery 
was rampant The Hutchinson family visited Wasbiugton. 
They solicitod permission from the Sccrotary of War. Mr. Cam 
eron, to visit the camps in Virginia and sing sougs to the wA- 
dJQrs, to reliere Uie tedious monotony of camp life. Tbeir 
roquest was granted, and tlieir intentions cordially commended 
by the Secretary ; and, being thus indorsed, received C^neral 
McClollan's pass. Their songs hare ever been of freedom. 
'ITiey were welcomed by the soldiers. But there were officers 
in the service who twlievod in slavery, who had l)ecn taught 
in Northern pulpits tliat it was a divinely appointed, bene5- 
cont institution of Almighty God. Information was given to 
General McCloUan tlut tlie Hutchinsons wore poisouing the 
minds of the troops by tsinging Abolition songs ; and tbeir career 
u free concert givers to the patriotic soldiers was suddenly 
ended by the following order from head-quarters: — 

" By direction of Mujor-6«n«raI McCletlan, tbe permit giveo tu 
the Hutcl)inw>D fitmily (o sing in the cttmpt, luid their pitM to eroM th« 
Potomac are revoked, and they will not be aUowed to wing to ifae 

Far from the noiw and strife of war, on the banks of th« 






Merrimack, livod Iho poet of Peace and of Freedom, vhoea 
■ODgB agoiust opprossiou aiid wrong have suuk deep into the 
bearts of the people. WhitLier heard of the expulsion of the 
QutuliinsouB, and as if iuispired bjr a spirit diriiic. wrote the 


" We wait beneath Uic rumoci^-blaat 
The ;>Mig8 of tTAiialbnn&tJon ; 
Not fkunluety <totb Gcxi recast 
Anil luiiulil anew tliu nation. 
ll»i burns thu fir« 
Wberv wrung' expire; 
Nor M|iArvs Lhe lianiJ 
'IliAt CiMui tht: iKnd 
Uprooto th*i ancient cril 

"The hanil-lin-ailth cloii'l tin* *ag» U*rta 
ItM Uoody raiu it dro|i{iiug; 
Tbe iH^iauti jilAnt tli-n Ijitliera ^■['-il 
All cl« ia o^x•^to[>plI^;. 
£aA. West, South, .NVnh. 
It Panax the uarth ; 
All jijstii'c diM, 
Ami Irnu'l nml Uva 
Idte only iti iu >hailow. 

" Wliat givM tke wIieat-ttMl.] blailM of MmI i 
Wbat points tlif rvb«l cannoo f 
What aeta tbu roariD)^ rabble'v bee' 
On the oil) atAr-«pangk-i] pennon r 
Wliat breaks the oath 
(>f Lbe men o' the South ? 
Wbat whetx tlie knife 
For lbe Union*)) bfe ? — 
Uark Ui lbe ansnur^ Slavery ! 

*'Tken wwtv no blows □» InsBer £am 

In rtrifo unirartby Ireeioeji. 
God liftd lo-flay the vvil, aoi] show 
The fcatun'S oi' ibu dviuon I 

O North an<l South. 

!(• victims bigtb. 

Can yu not cry. 

■ Let slavery die I ' 
And union find in freeden V 

* Oar Ood i» a iiniDK foixrm^ 

4S THE iors Of n. fJI». 

TL« lutinti in hia pxag? 
W« vbo luT« wb^rtd the gmk vial iban 
TttK paap of hii o'enbranif : 

Wkite'er tbe kM. 

WLate'er tfae ctgb. 

Shall tiwT coaplain 

Of pnwat pain 
Wbo :rwt in God't bereaftv ? 

* For vbo that itaaa on Hk ri^l vm 

>\ aa erer nt fusaken ? 
What ri^teoos caoie can loffs ham 
If He iu part haa taken 7 

^niODgfa wild an'i load 

And daik th« cload. 

Behind iu ful<lj 

His hand upholds 
TIm calm iky of to-morrow ' 

" Abore the maddening cry for blood, 
AboTC the wild war-Urammtng, 
Let Freedom'* voice be heard, with good 
The evil overcoming. 
Give prayer and purM 
To rtay the Curae 
Whose wrong we sharv. 
Whose shame we bear) 
Miliose end shall gladden Heaven I 

* In vain the bells of war shall ring 

Of triumphs and revenges. 
While still is ^p-arwd the evil thing 
Tit at severs and estranges. 

But blest the ear 

That yet shall hear 

The jubilant bell 

That rings the kneU 
Of Slavery forever ! 

■ Hen let the selfish lip be domb. 
And hushed the breath of sighing ; 
Before the joy of peace must ooraa 
The pains of purifying. 
(lod give us grace 
Each in his place 
To bear his lot, 
And, munnuring not, 
Sndare and wait and labor . 


THB FALL 0? I»61. 


Tlie expulsion of tho HutchmBons, with Whitticr'g ringing 
vords, stirred people's iboughts. A cliaogo was ^aduallj 
taking place In men's opinions. Tlio negroes wore beginning 
to show thenuelTea useflil. A rlotachinont of the Tliirtesnth 
Massachusetts, commanded hj Major Gould, was stationed on 
dio upper Potomac. A negro slave, belonging in Winchester, 
oamo into the linos. Ho was intelligent, cautions, shrewd, 
and loyal. M^or Qould did not return him to hi» maittor, but 
asked him if he would go back and ascertain tlio whoroabouta 
of Stonewall Jackson, The negro readily assentod. Ho was 
supplied with packages of medicine, neodlos, thread, and other 
light articles greatly needed in the South. With these he 
cosily passed llio Rebel pickets: " Been out to get 'em for 
masGa," was his auswor when q\iostioned by the Rebels. Tliuf 
he passed repeatedly into the Robol lines, obtaining iiifonnation 
which was transmitted to Washington. 

Ho had great iiifiuonco witli the slaves. 

" They aro becoming restless," said ho, " but I tells 'em ttiat 
they must bo quiet. 1 says to 'em, keep yer eyes wide open 
tud pray for de good time comiu'. I tells 'em if de ^ouf whip, 
it ia all uight wid yer ; but if do Norf whip, it is all day wid 

"Do they bolievo it?" Major Gould asked. 

" Tes, massa, all believe it. The block men am all wid yer, 
only aome of 'em is n't berry well informed ; but dey is all wid 
yer. Hassa tinks dcy is n't wid yer, but dey is." 

How sublime the picture ! — a slave counselling bis fellow 
bondmen to keep quiet and wait till God should give them 
deliTonuico ! 

Among tho many Rebel ministers who had done what they 
could to precipitate tho rcboUion vros a Presbyterian minister 
in tho Ticiuity of Charlcstown, Virginia. It was Itis custom, 
after oloeiug his sermon, to iuvite the young mou fj enlist 
in the re^pmcuts then forming. On one of tliese jccasious 
be made an addi-ess in which ho gave utterance to the fol- 
lowing soutimont : " If it is necessary to defend South- 
em institutions and Southern rights, I will wade up to 
my shoulders in blood ! " This was brave ; but tho Ume 
came when the chivalry of tho parson was put to the test. 




When Uie Rebels wero roiitod at nollvar, lio, not bouig mounted 
oil so Qcoi a liorso as tliuso of his flock u-|io hud g-ivoii heed to 
hia counsels and juhiod tho cavalry, found tiimself IcA bchiud. 
A Unllol lodged in the Iwdv of his liorse prevented cscaiw. He 
tiicii tried Wxf own lege, hut soon round liimself in tlio hands uf 
(ho soldier^, who brought him to licad^juurtun. lie ut once 
claimed proloction of M^|o^ Gould on the most cjLtraordiuury 
grounds. lie had read the imcius of Hannah Gould, and 
presumed itmi Major Gould, hailing from MassachuH^tts, mu»t 
Imj her kiuswati. When coiifmntcl with llic Major he p.ompl- 
ly oxclaijncd, " Major, I have rend tlic |M)cni8 of Mii^s Uannolt 
Gould, aiicl admire ihcni ; presuming that fhe is a relative 
if jours, I cluini joiir protection and considcralinu." 

The Major replied that ho had not tJtc honor to Iw a relativn 
of Umt gifted lady, hut lliat ho Rhnuld accord liira all ttic 
considoration due to those who had rebelled against tho [icacc 
tnd dignity of the United Stales, and had been token with 
tarns in their hands. He was marched ofT witli tlie oUiora and 
placed under guard. 

Slavery was Btrungty intrcucliod iu the capital uf the nation. 
Congress hatl ahnlished it in the District of Columbia, but it 
still remained. 

.Said a fricud to mo one morning, "Are you aware that the 
Waisliington jail is full uf slaves?" 1 could not believe that 
ituves wore then conrmod tliero for no crime ; but at once pro- 
cartd a pass f^om a senator to vint the jail, and was admitted 
through Uio iron gateway of one of the nlcet prisons iu the 
world. The air was Ktiflod, fbtid, and malarious. 

Ascending the stone stairway to the tliird story of tlie build- 
ing, entering n dark corridor and passing along a few stopSf I 
come to a room twelve or fifteen foet square, occupied by aboul 
twenty colored men. Tlioy wore at thoir dinner of boiled 
beof and corn-cake. There was one old man tiitting on the 
bUuio floor, silent and sorrowful, fie hod cuuuuittud no crime. 
Around, standing, utting, or lying, were the others, of all 
shades of color, from jet hiack to tho Caucasian hue, the Anglo- 
Saxon hair and contour of features. They wero Irom ton to 
fifty years of ago ; nomo were dressed daoontly, and others wer« 
in ngs. One bright fellow of twenty had on a pair of trousers 




011I7, and tried to keep himself worm by drawing arouud him 
a tatterod blanket. A little fellow ten yoora old was all in rags. 
Tlioro was no cliair or Iiod in the room. Tlioy must etoud, or 
sit, or lie upon tho brick aiid granite floor. There was no mat- 
treeb or bedduig ; each had liis little buudlo of rags, aud tliat 
was all. Thoj looked up inquiringly as 1 ont«rod, as il' lo make 
out Uio object of my visit. 

Olio bright, uitulligcnt boy belonged lo Captain Duiuitiigtoii, 
capluin of llio Cauitul police during Uuubauairs aduiiuistratiou, 
Olid thou commaiiditig a Reliel battery. When Dumiiiigloit 
went from Washijigtoii to join the Rebels he left tlie boy be 
liind, and the police bad arj-o&ted liim under an old Marylaud 
law, bccaiutc lie had no master, and kept Ima in jnil five monUu. 

Tlicrc was an old man iVom Fairfax Court-House. When 
the army advanced tu FulU Church, liiu master sold his wife 
and child, for fear they might escape. " You see, sir, tlmt 
broke mc all up. O, sir, it v/as liard Lo part ^nlb them, to tioe 
'cm chained up aud token olT away down South to Carolina. 
My mind is almost gone. I don't want to die here ; I sha'n't 
live long. When your army fell back to Wasliiiiuton after the 
tattle of Bull Run, I camo to Washiiigtou, and tho police took 
me up because 1 was a runaway." 

There v&s another, a free negro, imprisoned on tlie supposi- 
don that he was a fugitive, aud kept because tltero was no 
one to pay his jail feos. Another had been a baud 00 a Massa* 
cfausetts Bcboouur plying on Uie Potomac, and had been arretst- 
ed la the streets on the suspicion tliat he was a slave. 

Another bad been employed on tlie fortifications, and gorem- 
ment was Ids debtor. There was a little boy, ten ycara old, 
clotlied in rags, arrested as a runaway. Women were there, 
tent in by their owners for safe kcopiug. Tliero were about 
sisty chargeable with no crirao wbatever, incarcerated witli 
felons, without bojw nf dclivoranco. They were imprisoned lio- 
cause uogroos aliout town, without a mastor, always had been 
doalt with in tliat manner. Tlie |»olico, when the slaves hod 
been reclaimed, had been sure of their pay, or if they were sold, 
llicir pay came from tho auctioneer. AVhen thoy saw me mak- 
ing notes, thoy imagined tliat 1 was doing something for their 
iberatioo, and with eagerness ihey ciowdud round, saying, 




" PloasB put dawn my namo, sir," " I do want to get out, sir,*' 
and Eimiliir oxpressiuns, TI1C7 followed ino into the passage. 
gazed through thu gruteU door, and when I said " Qood by, 
boys," Utere oame u chorus of "Good byes " and '* God bless 

Soekiug Senator Wilson's room, 1 iiiformod him of what [ 
had wiln08»ed,aud read ttio memoranda takon in tliojail. The 
eyee of that truc-)ieartcd man (lashed witli rigliloous iiidtgua- 
lion. " We will see about Uiiij," said he, Hpriugiiig to bis feet. 

He visited tlie jail, saw tlio toathsonie Hpoctacio, hoard the 
•lories of tlio poor creatures, and the next day introduced a 
resolulJon into the Senate, which upset forever tliis Bjstom of 
tyranny, which had been protected by the national authority. 

Tlie year closed gloomily. There wore more tlian six hun^ 
drod thouBand troops under arms ready to subduo the Bebcl- 
Uon, but General McClellan hesitated to move. But there 
wore indicutioiit< of an early udranee in tlic West; tlterefore 
on the lu£t days of December 1 led Waisbingtuu to be ui oh* 
■errer of whatever might happen iu Kentuckr< 



...-. -V 









The church-bcUs or Louisviilo wore riiigmg the now yoai 
ia as with Uio eaxlj moniing we entered that city. Ttiere waa 
little activi^ in tlio streets. The breaking out of the war had 
stopped businosa. The city, with a hotter location than Ciu- 
cinnati, has had a slow growtli. Cassius M. Clay gave th* 
reosoQ, years ago. 

" Why," be aakod, " docs LouiaTillc write on an hundred 
of her storoB 'To let,' while Cincinnati advertises 'Wanted*? 
There is but one answer, — Slavery. " Many of the housos wore 
tenantloss. Tho people lounged in the streets. Few had any- 
thing to do. Tliousands of former residents were away, many 
with the Southern army, more with the Union. There was divi- 
sion of feeling. Lines were sliarply drawn. A dozen loyal Ken- 
tncldanB had boon killed in a skirmish on Green River ; among 
them Captain Bacon, a proinlnont citizen of Frankfort. His 
body was at the Gait IIou&o. Loyal Koiituckians were feeling 
tbeee blows. Their temper was rising ; tliey were being edu 
caled by such adversity to make a true estimate of Secession. 
Evorytliing servos a purpose in this world. Our vi^ou is too 
limited to understand much of tho govern mental providouce of 
Qim who notices tlie fall of a sparrow, and alike controls the 
destiny of nations ; but I could sea in tlic omphalic utteranoes 
of men upon tho street, that rcvcitgc might mako men patriotic 
who otJierwiso might remain lukewarm in tlieir loyal^. 

A friond introduced a loyal Toanessocon, who was forced to 
flee from Nashville when the State seceded. The vigilance 
committee informed him that he must leave or take the oonse- 
quenoes ; which meant, a suspension by tlie nock from tho 
nearest tree. Ho wats offensive bacauso of his outspoken loy- 
alty. He was severe in his denunciations of tlie government. 
OQ ttocount of its slowness to put down tho KobeUion. 



" Sir," said be, " this goverumeut la uot going to put down 
Uh RebeUiou, because it is u't iii oaruest. You of llie North 
are white-Li rered. Excuse me for eayiiig it. No ; 1 vou't ask 
to be excused for epeakiug the truth. Tou are afraid to touch 
the Jiogro. You are afraid of Kontuckj. The little proviace 
of tho United States gota down ou its knees to the nation of 
Rentuckj. You are alraid that the State will go over to the 
Robots, if anything is done about the negro. Now, sir, I know 
what slaTorj is ; I hare lived among it all mj days. I know 
what Secession is, — it means slaTerj'. I know what Kentucky 
is, — a proud old State, which has a great deal that is good 
about her and a great deal of sliam. Kentucky politicians are 
no better or wiser than any other politicians. Tlic State is tir- 
ing on Uie capital of Qciiry Clay. You think that the Stote is 
great because he was great. 0, yon Northern men are a brave 
sot! (It was spoken with bittor sarcasm) You handle this 
Etebelliou as gingerly as if it wore a glass doll. Go on, go on ; 
you will get whipped. Bucll will get whipped at Bowling 
Green, Butler will ^et whipped at New Orlcaiis. You got 
whipped at Big Bethel, Ball's niuflT, and Mauass&s. Why? 
Becaneo the Rebels arc in earnest, and you are uot. Every- 
thiug is at stake with them. They employ niggers, you don't. 
They seize, rob, bum, destroy ; they do everything to strengthen 
their cause and weaken 3u, while you pick your way as daiu* 
tily as a dandy crossing s jind-puddtc, afraid of oOTcudlng some- 
body. No, sir, you are not gotiig to put down this Rebellion 
till you hit it in the tend^res: spot, — the nogro. You mutt 
take away its main support before it will fall." 

General Buetl was in command of tho department, with his 
head-quarters at Uio Gait House, lie had a large army at 
Mnmfordvillo and otiior jmirita. He issued his orders by tele- 
graph, but ho had no pliui of operations. There were no indi- 
cations of a movomont. Tito Rebel sympathizers kept General 
Johnston, in command Hi Bowling Grucn, well informed as to 
Bucll's inaction. There was dnily communication l^tween 
tiOuisviUo and tho Robol camp. Thore was constant illicit 
trade in contraband goods. Tho policy of General McCIoUan 
was also tlie policy of General Bucll, — to sit still. 

Brents wore more stirring in Missouri, and T imweeded to 





at. LaniBy vhcra General Hallcck was in command, — a thick- 
set, dark-feotarod, black-haired man, sluggiah, opinionated, and 
self-willed, arbitraiy and cautious. 

Sw)n aHer liis appointment to this dopartmont ho issued, oa 
the 20Ui of November, Ms Order No. 8, which roused the in* 
dignation of earnest lojal men throughout the oountry. Thus 
read the document : — 

"It ban been represented thnt inrontiiitioD respecting the numbera 
Mid condition of our forces is cooTeyed to ilio eneoiy by means of Aigi- 
tiTC id&Tea who are Rdmiltcd within our Itriea. In order to remedy tbit 
aril, it lA directed that no ouch persuns Ite here«fler permitted to enter 
the lines of any camp, or of any forces on the march, and that any 
within oar lines be immediately excluded ihereAYnn." 

Oonorol Schoficld was in command of XorOioru Missouri, 
under General Hallcck- The piorillaa had buniod nearly all 
the railroad bridges, and it was necessary to bring Oicm to jus- 
tice, llie negroes along the line gaTC him the desired Intel 
Ugonco, and six of tbo leaders wore in this way caught, tried 
by court-martial, and summarily shot. Tot General Ilallcck 
adhered to his infamous order. Pillgent inquiries were made 
of officers in regard to the loyalty of tlie negroes, and no in- 
stance was found tf their having given informatiun to the 
enemy. In all of t .e alaveholdiug States a negro's testimony 
was of no account against n white man under civil law ; but 
Qeneral Schofield had, under military law, inaugurated a new 
order of things, — a dnim-hoad court, a speedy sentence, a 
quick exoctition. on negro testimony. The Secession iKtt and 
Rebel sTmpathtzers were indignant, and called loudly for his 

The fine army winch Fremort bad commanded, and from 
which ho bad been summarily dipmissed lieean^e of his anti- 
slavery order, was at KoUa, at the terminus of the southwest 
branch of Uic Pacific Railroad. Tliia road, sixteen miles out 
from St. Louis, strikes the valley of llie Mnmmce, — not the 
Merrimack, bom of the White Llills, but a sluggisli stream, 
tinged witli blue and green, widening in graceful curves, with 
tall-trunked elms upon its banks, and acres of low lands, which 
are flooded in freshets. It is a pretty river, but not to bo com 
Dared in Imauty to die etream which the muse of Whitticr ha' 





made classic. Nearly all llie resideuces iu this sectaou ara 
Missouriau la architectural proportions and futures, — logs 
and clay, with the mammoth outside chimaeya, oow-yard and 
pig^ry, an oron out of doors ou stilts, an old wagon, hall a 
doBon horses, hens, dogs, pigs, in Trout, and lean, cadaveraui 
men and women peeping from the doorways, with arms akimbo, 
and pipes between the teetli. Tliis is the prevailing featuro, 
— litis in a beauUfiil, fortilo country, needing but the hono 
of iudufitry, the energy of a free people, vitalized by the high 
06t cirilization, to make it one of the loveliest portions of th« 

At Franklin the sontliwcstom branch of the Paci&c Railroad 
liivorgos from tlio main stem. It is a now place, brougJit into 
Qxistenco by the railroad, and oonsi^ls of a limc-kihi, a steam 
saw-mill, and a dozen houses. Behind the town is a picturesque 
bluir, with the limo-kihi at its base, which might bo taken for 
a ruined temple of some old Aztec city. Near at liand two 
Iowa rogimoutd were encamped, A squad of soldiers was on 
the plain, and a crowd stood upon the de[>ot platform, anx- 
iouely inquiring for the morning jia)«rs. It was a supply sta- 
tion, provisions being sent up boih linos. Two heavy freight 
trains, destined for Rolta, were upon the southwestern branch. 
To one of them iiassonger cars were attached, to which wo were 

Whou the branch was opened for travel in 1869, the direc- 
tors run one train a day, — a mixed train of passenger and 
ftejght cars, — and during tlio first week tlieir patronage io 
freight was immense, — it consisted of a hear and a pot of 
honey ' On the |)ussago the bear ato tho honey, and t)io owner 
of tho honey brought a bill against the company for damages. 

Beyond Franklin tlie road crosses tho Maromcc, enters d 
forest, winds among tho hills, and fumlly by ea^ grades reaches 
a crest of land, from which, looking to tho right or the led, you 
nan eeo miles away over an mibrokoa forest of oak. For to the 
east is tlio olovatcd ridge of land which ends in tho Pilot Knob, 
toward tlic Mississippi, aitd becomes tho Ozark Mountain range 
toward tho Arkansas tine. Wo looked over tlio broad panorama 
to see villages, church-spires, white cottages, or the bluo curl- 
log smoko indicative of a town or human residence, but th« 




expanse vas phmitivo and unbroken. Not a sign of life could 
be discorercd for man; miles as wc slowly crept aloug the line. 
Tlie countrjr is undulating, with tlio limestone strata cropping 
out on tlie Uilltiidos. In tliu rallruuU cuttings Uie rock, whicLt 
at tlio tsurfaco is gray, takes a follow aud reddish tinge, fron. 
ilie admixture of ochre in tlie boil. Iji one cutting we 
recognized tlio lead-bearing rocks, which abound tlirough tht 
BoutliwoEtcm section of the State. 

We looked in vain to discover a scUool-housc. A gentleman 
who was well acquaintod witti this portion of the State, said 
that he knew of only two school-houses, — one in Warsaw and 
the other in Springfield. In a rido of one hundred and thirtMn 
miles we »aw but two churches. As Aunt Ophelia found 
"Topsy" virgin soil, so will those who undortako to recou 
Btnict tho South find these wilda of Soulhwostorn Missouri. 
Aud they are a fair specimen of the South. 

It was evening when we reached Rolla. Wlien wo stepped 
from the car in the darknoss, there was a feeling that tho place 
was a mortar-bed and the iuliabitauts were preparing to make 
bricks. Our boots bocamo heavy, and, like a man who takes 
responsibility, when we ouco planted our feet the tendency was 
for them to stay tlicre. Guided by an acquaintance who knew 
the way, the hotel was readied. In tlio distance tlio weird 
camp-(iros illumined Ulo low-hanging clouds. From right and 
IcA there came the roll of drums and tho bi^lo-call. A group 
of men sat aroiUid tho Ktnvo in tlie bar. The lattdlord escorted 
us to tho wash-room, — a spacious, high-arched apartment, as 
wide as tlio ea^t is from the west, as long ;is the north is 
from tlie soutti, as high-pustcd a» the zenith, where wo found 
a pail of water, a tin basiii, and a towel, for all hands; aud 
which all hands had used. After ablution camo supper in 
Uie diuiug-hall, ifith liaro beams overhead. Dinah waited 
upon us, — coal-black, tall, stately, worth a tliousand doUare 
before tlie war broke out, but somowhat loss just then, aud 
Flullis, with a mob-cap on her head, bleached a little iu com- 
plexion by Anglo-Saxon or Missourian blood. 

We soon discovered that nothuig was to l)o done by the army 
In this direction, The same story was current here as on the 
Potomac and in Kentucky, — " Not ready" General Sigel had 


THE BOVS OF 'fll. 


teat til hi* resignation, disgusted with Gouornt Halleck. Geu- 
eral Curtis hod just orrivod to take coniniaiid. Tlio troops 
wero Boro over tho removal of Fremont : tlicy idolized him. 
Among tho forty thousand men in the vicinity wore thoito who 
had fought at Wilson's Crock. Tlio lines bctwooii Rubullion 
and Loyalty wore more sharply drawn here tlian in any other 
section of the country. Men acted openly. Tho army was radi- 
cal ill its sontiuieiits, bclioving in Fremont's order for Uie liber 
atioQ of tlio slaves, which the President had »ot aside. 

Tliere waa one other point which gave better promise of ao- 
livo operations, — Cairo. Therolore bidding adieu to Holla, 
we returned to St. Louis and took the cars for Cairo. 

It was au all-night ride, witti a niixod company of soldier* 
aud civilians. Tlicro were many ladies on their way to visit 
their husbands and brothers before the openiug of tho cam* 
paigu. One woman had three children. " Their father wants 
to see thorn once moro Iwfore ho goes into battle," said tho 
motlier, sadly. 

At last we found a placo whore mon seemed to be in earnest. 
Cairo was alive. At the Icveo were luimcrous steamboats. 
Soldiers were arriving. There was a constant hammering and 
pounding on the gimlxmts, which wore moored along the shore. 

The mud canuot bo pnt into the picture. Tlioro was tliick 
mud, tliui mud, Rticky mud, slushy mud, slimy mud, deceptive 
mud, impassubto mud, whicli appeared to tho vight, to say noth- 
ing of the peculiarities that are understood by tho nose ; for 
within forty fL-ot of our window were a horso-stablo and pig- 
yard, where slops from the houses and washes from the sinlca 
were trodden with tho manure from tho stables. Bunyau's 
Slough of De^jiond, into which all tho filth and slime of this 
world settled, was notliing beside tho slough of Cairo. There 
wero sheds, shaiities, stables, pig-stys. wood-piles, carls, Itorrols, 
boxes, — the d^frit of everything tlirown over the area. Of 
animate things, water-carts, — two-horse teams, which were 
supplying tlie inhabitants with drinking water from tlio river. 
There wore tnickincn stuck in the mud. Tliore wore two 
pigB in irrepressible conflict ; also two dogs. Twenty feet 
distant, soldiera in ihoir blue coats, officers with owords, 
■ash and l>olt, ladies, and citizens, were picking their way 




along tlie sticky eidovalks. This vas Cairo. Delectable 

The prouainent names before the countiy at tliat period, as 
coDimauders who were to load our armies to victory, were 
McClellaa, Buell, T. W. Sherman, tlioii at Port Royal, Pr» 
tnoiitf BoEecrans^ Burusido, Butler, and Banks. William To- 
cumsch Sherman was reputed to bo fliglitjr iu the bead. Hu 
liiiJ uimmanded the department of UieOhio, but Buell had sue 
ceeded him. Qe was now a brigade commander at Paducab. 
under General C. F. Smith, Tliero were several brigadiers 
at Cairo. General McClernaiid, who liad been a member 
of Congrc«8, a strong iiarttsan of Senator Douglas, was most 
ooiispicuotis. General Prcntiw, who was ready to make a 
spcocli on any and every occasion, was also well known. The 
commander of Uio post wa.s an oUcuro man. Clis name was 
Grant. At tlic beginning of llic war he was iu the leatlier 
business at Galena. EIc bad been educated at West Poiut, 
where ho stood well as a roatlicniiatician, but had left the sor- 
Tice, and hod become a hard-working citizen. He was Colonel 
of the Twenty-first IlUiiois, and had been made a brigadier by 
the President. He was in charge of tlie expedition to Belmont, 
which, diough successful in Uic beginning, bad ended almost 
in disaster. Having credentials from the Socrotary of War, 1 
entered tbo head-quarters of the commanding olficcr, and 
fouud a mau of medium stature, tliick set, with blue eyes, and 
browu heard closely crop{>cd, sitting at a desk. He was smok- 
ing a meerschaum- He wore a plain blue blouse, without any 
ijisignift of rank. His appearance was clerkly. General Mo- 
CIcllan, in Wasliingtoii, corpmandcd in state, surrounded by 
hrilliaut stafTs, men in fmc broadcloth, gold brdd, plumed 
hats, and wearing clanking sabres. Ordorlios and couriers 
wcro usually numerous at head -quarters. 

" Is General Grant in?" was the quostior. dirociod to the 
clerk in Uie conier. 

*' Yes, sir," said the man, removing his moorschaum from hie 
mouth, and spitting with unerring accuracy into a spittoon by 
his side. 

" Will you bo kind enough to gi»e this letter to him." 

But the clerk, instead of carrying ii into an adjoining room. 




10 present it to the coiamaii(lor-in>cUier, opened it, ran liis 6j6 
rtipi'ily over the cooCeuts, anU eaid, '* I am happy to make your 
icquaiutance, eir. Colonel Webster will give you a pass." 

Such was my first interview with Ocaeral Grant. I have 
wen him many times since, — in the hour of rictory, at Don- 
elion; in the shadow of tlic cloud, after rittsbuxg Landing; 
(luring Uio fearful days of the WlldcruoBS ; in the lost great 
liours of triumph, with Leo and bis army paroled priisoners of 
war ; and tliero hoa ever hoeu the same quiet, gentlemanly 

The large liall of the St. Charles Hotel was the general re- 
sort of officers, soldiers, gu08t«, and citizens. I was convorsing 
with a friend the same afternoon when a short, muscular, quick- 
walking man, in tlio prime of life, wearing a navy uniform, 
entered. His countenance would attract attention even in a 
crowd, it was so mild, peaceful, and pleasant. My friend in- 
troduced hira OS Commander Foote. 

** I shall bo pleased to see you at my office, which is on the 
wharf-hoat. I usually toko a little recreation after dinner," 
laid he. 

OaDing upon him the next day, I found him at leisure, hav- 
big despatched the business of the forenoon. Thoro was a BiUe 
on his table and a hymn-book, and in ono comer of the offico a 
largo package of hooks, just received from the Sunday-School 
Union, directed to *' Captain A. II. Foote, U. S. N." 

Noticing my eyes turned in that direction, he said : " They 
arc for the sailors ; I want to do what I can for the poor fol- 
lows. Tlioy havo n't any chaplain ; I read the Kervico on Sun- 
day and visit tlic crows, and talk to them ; but it is very little 
religious instruction which tliey roceivo. I don't allow any 
work, except what is absolutely necessary, on Stmday. 1 be- 
lieve man and beast need rest one day in seven. I am trying 
to persuade the men to leave oi\' tJieir grog rations, with a fair 
chance of success." 

lie was at leisure, and talked freely of matters relating to the 
organization of iho fleet. lie had to contend with great diffi- 
culties. Tho department had rondercd him hut littlo service. 
Be bad done his licst to obtain mortars ; had des|iatchod officen 
to Pittsburg, where they were cast, but they were all sent Boat 




for the New drleans fie«t. Ho rc(rrcttcd k oicocdinglf, 
Tor with good ordnanco he thought it would not bo a dUGcult 
matter to reach Now Orleans, though, as lie modestly remarked, 
quoting tlic ^cnptiirol proTerh, ** It becomes not him wlio put* 
tetnon the harness to bo35t." lie was lacking men. Recruit- 
ing officers had licen sent to Chicago, Cleveland, Buflhlo, and 
other lake pnrt^, but they hud signally failed, IxjcauRo the 
deportment did not pay any adTancc to those in the riTer 
service, while on the seaboanl advances wore made. He had 
not men enough to mnn his gunboats. 

The dopartinejit had f\iniished him with but few new guns. 
Ho liad boen obliged to take those which were at Sackett's liar- 
Imr. — old puns far inferior to those with whicli Commodora Pu 
Pont knocked Tybee and Ililtou Head to pieces. He had to get 
gun-cairiogcs manufactured in Cincinnati, oUier tilings at St. 
Louts, others at Pittsburg ; but notwithstmiding this, liad organ- 
ized a fleet which would Uirow a tremendous weight of metal. 
He was not ready to move, yet would move, wlieLher ready or 
not, whenever tlie word was given. He believed in figbting at 
close quarters. 

He spoke freely of the luultf of the gunboats. They were 
too low in tiie water and the ungiiicti of too limited capacity. 
Tlioy would nut be able to make much headway against the 
stream. He eonsi'lered them au expcrimeut, and, like all ex- 
perimentti, tliey wore of course doft'ctivo. 

He wa» a close Htudont, devoted to his profession, aud bore 
the marks of severe Utought in the wrinkles which were deep- 
ening on his brow. Time had begun to silver his hair and 
whiskers, but ho walked with a firm step. He tiad rare cou- 
Tcniational powers, and imparted infonnation as if it were a 
pleasure. He wa.s Lhornuglily conscientious, and liad a deep 
seaso of bis responsibility. He was aware that his owit rcputa- 
tiOD and standing as well ns the interests of the public were at 
stake. Do was greatly beloved by liis men. 

Two of ihc gujilioats — the Kssox and Louisville — were ly» 
ing six or eight miles below Cairo, guarding the river. The 
Baaex 1 How oHen in boyhood had 1 thrilled at tlio story of 
her brave fight with tlie Cherub and Plicbo in the harbor of 
Valpanuso 1 How often 1 w^-Jied that Captain Porter could 


THE BOrs OF 'fll. 


h*Te lud a fair cliance iu Uiat terrible fight, — one of tJbe 
fteroest ones fought on tlie sea. But there was another Essex 
commanded by another Captain Porter, sou of liim who refused 
to surrender his sliip till lie had lost all power to defend her. 

Tlic now emit was wlioll/ ntiliko the old. Tlmt was a fast 
taiter, trim, and taut, and graceful as a swau upon the waters ; 
this a l)lack boi, once a St. Lotus ferry-ltoat. The sailors who 
had broathod tho salt air of the sea, wlio had sw^ing in mid- 
beaTon Ufion the swaying mast*), who had rode in glee upon the 
•tonu-toet billows, 

" Wbose boiue wiw on the de«p." 

regarded tho new Essex in disgust, and rechristeued her ttie 
Mud Tur(le. But her name, and the glorious record of her 
deeds, will not fade from remembraiico. Coming generations 
iboU read of her exploits with pride and pleasure. We were 
eourteously received by her commauder. Captain Wm. D. Po^ 
ter, a solid mai\, but little uore than n< ^ feet high, yet broad* 
chested, quick and energetic in his morenients. He Imd a long, 
thick, black board, and twinkling eyes full of fire. Ho had the 
rolling gait of a sailor, and was constantly pacing tho deck. 
He was a mpid talker, and had a great store of adventure and 
auecdote. We alluded to the part taken by his father iu the 
war of 1812, and tho gallant tight great odds iu Val,'i^ 
raise harbor. The eyes of tlie son kindled uistantly. 

^* Yes, sir ; that was a plucky fight. Tho old gentleman 
oerer would have given in if there had been the least ray of 
hope ; hut there was none. And he was too tender-hearted 
to ncedlcKsly slauglitcr his men." 

Three days proviou.s to our visit to the Essex, two Rebel boats 
came up from Cotumlius to sec what the Yankees were doing. 
In five minutes Porter had liis anchor up and steam on, puslting 
down to meet them half-way; but llicy declined tho courtesy, 
and steamed bsick to Columbus. 

'* 1 followed iliom as fast as I could," said he, as wo paced 
the deck. " I let them have my tcn-ineli DalJgron and my 
two rifled forty-two pounders one afler another, and droTC 
them till tlioir batteries on tho bluff above tho town opened on 
mo. Then I wrote an invitation to Montgomery, who com- 
mouda tltoir fleet, to meet tnc any day and t would lick him 



like Uiundor. I fastened it to a cork and sut il adKfi, and saw 
a boat go out and pick it up. Tlioii 1 elovatod my toit-incli aud 
let rhcm have a sltcll right into tlic town. I reckon it waked 
them up some." 

He laughed and chuckled, nibbod his hands, took a fresh 
quid oftolucoo, aud began to talk again of his father's exploits 
on the Pacifio. 

The Rebels under Mi^oi-^oiioral Bishop Polk Trero ui force 
at Columljus. 'llicrc wa^ also a dotochmeut at Mayfield, east 
of Columbus. A sudden inoreiuont was made by Goneral 
Grant iu the diroctioji of Mayficld, not with any dosign of 
aji attack, but to doocivo the Robots in regard to tlio real 
intcutions. Tlio troops landed at old Fort JcHcrson, six miloe 
below Cairo, on tlie Kentucky bide. It was a mild day in mid- 
winter. The soldiers marched without baggage. Not one in 
ten bad gloves or mittens ; and on tho second uight of the 
recoil noissanco Uio cold became intoaso, and there was groat 

Tlio soldiers kindled huge firea, and by rumitJig and walking, 
and constant tluiislting of tho hands, passed tlio long, weary 
night. Tliorc wore numerous herds of swino iu tt)o woods, 
and f>08h pork wa£ abundant. Tliore was roaetixig, frying. 
And broiling by every bivouac fire, and a savory fragrance of 
iparorib and steak. 

Tho dwellings of tlie farmers in ttiis section of Kentucky are 
of the Southern style of architecture, — log-houses containing 
two rooms, with chimneys built against tho ends. Entering 
one to obtain a drink of water we found two toll, cadaverous 
young men, both of them shaking witli ague. There was a 
largo old-fashioned firoptace, with a great roaniig firo, beforo 
which thoy were sitting with Uie d(X>r wide open at tboir backs, 
and tho cold air rushing upon thorn in torrents. Probably it 
did not occur to either of tliom that it would bo better to shut 
the door. 

A Connecticut wooden clock ticked on a rude shelf, a bed 
stood in one comer. Tho walla wore hung witli old clothes 
and dried herbs, — catnip and tansy and thoroughwort. Tlie 
clay bad dropped out in many placoii, and wo could look 
through the chinks and see the landscape without Tit* 




roundAtiotis of tliu cliimncy had settled, und t)io structure wat 
leoiiiag away from Lhc liouso. 'Dicrc wero great craclta be 
tvcca tlie brickwork and thu wood. 

ThQj cUumod to bo good Uniou mcii, but eaid tliat all the 
rest of tbe people mnntl Uiom woro disloyal. 

** Wo aru linnii^ a liard ttiuc." said oiio. " Tlie HooesRioti- 
ists wore Roiiiff tip jump us, — to take our property bccauso we 
wore for tlin Union, and now your army lias come atid killeo 
aigti al>oiit FcvRnty-fiTc bogs for us, I reckon. It is kinder 
hard, tttrajiger. to Ikj ii^od Fr> " 

" But. ray friend, if it bad i:ot been for tbe Union troops 
would n't you Imvo lost erorylliing, if you aro a Union man ? " 

" Ves. — porbaps bo," was iJie long-drawn answer, given with 
hen I tat ion. 

" Tlicrc i* n rigtit nnart beap of 8outliomon> at Columbiu, 1 
fockon," Miid bo. " Tb«iro is Fmn WicklifT and Joab Turner, 
and almost nil tlic boys from tliis yerc place, and tlicy *11 fight, 
I reckon, Htraiigcr." 

Wc llipri learned tlint ibe odicers of McClornand's diTifion, 
hUTing bocii doprirod of the cnjo3nncnts of homo-life, and 
finding Ibcrasclvca among llic bcllus of Western Kentucky, 
hod mado llio most of tlio opportunity l»y dancing all night. 

^'TliG gals danced tlicmsclrcs dean out^ tJmt is tbe reaaon 
UicT ain't about," said one of Uio young men, apologizing fbr 
Uw abscnnn of 1 tin ristcra, and added, "Tlicyfs nitbcr afraid 
of the Lincolnitcs." Tbe utterance of tlic last sentence con- 
tradictctl all previous atncrtions of loyalty and bcarty lore for 
tlio Union. 

Tho troops modo tmd havoc among tbe ittock, shooting piff 
and ebccp for fun. After scouring tlic country voU tnwardi 
Cohuiihus, having aocompIiBbed tbe object of tbe oipedition,— 
tliat of deceiving the Rebels in regard to tbo movomeut ooo 
t«mplatcd up tlio Tennosaee, — tbo force returned to Cairo. 

'862. J 





Tar tide Afsuccuss Juriiif; lln year 1S61 was almost wbd!) 
in fariir of tlie Robcls ; Imt at length iliere camo a change, in 
tlie defeat of ZoUiconbr Iijr Qciioral Thomas nt Mill Springs, on 
the lOtJi of January. I liastoiied to the coutro of tlio State to 
watch operations which luul suddenly become active in tliat 

It was oil the liu^t day of January that the zealous porter 
of tlio SpuDCor Qousc, in Cuicinnutl. awoke tne willi a tliun- 
doring rap at lire o'clock, shouttug, ' Can for Lcxlugtou.'* 
It was ^till dark witun U>u omuil'us whirled away from the 
house, lliuru wcru six or eight [Htssciigers, all btrungers, but 
ooDTcrhatioa was at ouco started by a tall, stout, red-faocd, 
brood-shouldcrod mau, wearing a gray u^'ercwit and a hmad 
brimmed, slouched hat, tpiiakiiig the Kentucky romacular. 

It is very easy to Iwoomo acquainted with a genuine Ken- 
tuokian. Ho launches at once into convort^atiun. Uo lores 
to talk, and takes it for granted that you like tu Itstcn. The 
gonUemau who now took tlie load sat in the comer of tho 
omnihus, talkuig uot only to liis next noiglilior, hut to every- 
body prciiont. The wurdtt poured from his U}»i like water 
from a wido-moitUiod gutter during a Juno sliowor. In fivo 
aiiuutcs wo had Iub lii.sCory, — horu in "Old Kontuck," know 
all tho folks in Old Rotirtmn, had been a mule-driver, suppli<;d 
Old Virginia witli moro mules than she could shake a stick at. 
had got tired of " Old Kcntuck," moved up into Indiana, wo.*' 
gobig down to 800 tlio fulk.s, — all of this before we had reached 
llio ferry ; and bcforo arriving at the Covington Khuro wo had 
bis opinion of lite war, of jiolitical economy, tho Constitution. 
uhI t)]o ncgrooB. 

ft was remarkable that, let any subject bo introduced, eveo 


THE BOrS OP 'fl. 


tbuugli it miglit bo uioHt remotuly rulutuJ to die war, tlio talkcn 
would quJcUj roach tho tiogru <iuu»li(}ii. JusL as ill lti(K>lo^cat 
discussions tlio tendency is toward oi-i(^ial eiu, so upon Un 
war, — the discussion invarialilf wont boyoud tho marsliallitig 
of armies Lo the negro as tlie causo of tho war. 

The gQiiUomau in gray had not loanied tlio sounds of tho 
letters as given by the lexicographers of tlto English languagu, 
but adhered to tlio Kentucky dialect, giving "har" for hair, 
" tliar" fbr there, witli peculiar ternai nations. 

" Yer see, I us-fi to livo in Old Kaintuck, down thar beyond 
Paris. Wal, I mov«<j up beyoud liidiano^oliH, bought a mighty 
nice fanu. I kiiow'd all tlie folks dowu round Paris. Thar 'a 
old Speers, who got sliot dowu lo Mill Springs, — bo was a 
game uu ; a whito-haired old cuss who jined Uio Oonfederatos. 
I know'd him. I 'tonded his nigger sale sor'ral years ago, 
when ho busted. He war a good old man, blame mo if he 
want. He war crazy that ar day of tho sale, and war dowu 
on the uiggor-troders. He lost tliousoiids of dollars Uiat ar 
day, cause he hated 'em and ruu down tiis niggers, — said they 
won't good when thoy war, just t«r keep 'cm out of the liauds 
of tho cussed traders. 

" Wal, thar 's Jim, — 1 remember liim. Ho 's in Confed'- 
rate army, too. I loRt a bet of tew hundred dollars with him 
oo Letcher's 'lection, — that old drunken cuss who 's disgra- 
cing Old Virginia ; blow mo if I did n't. Tlmt was hard on mo. 
cause on 'lection day artcr 1 'd voted, I started with a drove of 
mutfl«, four hundred on *em nigh about, for Virginia. I felt 
mighty sick, I tell you, 'cause f had employed a drunken cusf 
to buy 'em for me, aud he paid more than ttiey war wutb. 
Wal, I know'd I would lose, and I did, — ten hundred dollars. 
Cusses, yer know, allors comes in flocks. Wal, only gos think 
of it, that ar drunken cuss is a kumel in tlie Pederal army. 
Blow me ef I think it 'b right. Men tliat drink too much ar" n't 
fit to have control of soldiers. 

*' Wal, I am a K.outuckiaD. I 've got lots of good friends in 
the Southern army, and lots in the Union army. My idee is 
that government ought to confiscate tlie property of the Rebels, 
and when the war is over give it back to thoir wives and chil- 
dren. It *s mighty hard to take away everything from 'em. -- 




blow me if it a'n'l. The Abolitionists want to confiscate th« 
oiggors. Wal, I know nil about tlic niggers. They aro a laxy, 
stMliog Ht of cussos. the hull lot of 'em. What can wo do 
with 'em ? That 's what I want to kiiow. Now my wife, she 
wants niggers, but I don't. If Kontuckj wants 'cm, let her 
have 'em. It 's my opinion that Kentucky is belter off with 
'em, 'cause she has got used to 'cm. 

''The people are talking ahoiit starring the Confederates, 
bat I've been throngli the South, and it can't bo done. They 
can raise ovorything that wo can, and it's my candid opinion 
that government is gwinc to get licked." 

The arriTa] of the omnibus at tlio depot put an end to the 

The Licking Valley, through which the railroad to Lexing- 
ton runs, is very bcautiftil. There are broad intervales fringed 
with hickory and elm, wood-crowned hilla, warm, sunny 
rales and charming landscapes. Nature has done mnch to 
make it a paradise ; art very little. The farm-hotieea are in 
the Kentucky style, — piaxzas, great chimneys outside, negro 
cabins, — presenting at one view and in close contrast tho ex- 
tremes of wealth and poverty, power and weakness, civiliiatioD 
and barbarism, freedom and slavery. 

The city of Lexington is a place of the past. Before rwU 
roads were projected, when Henry Clay waa in the prime of 
manhood thero, it waa a place of enterprise and activity. The 
streets wore alive with men. It was tho great political and 
social centre of Central Kentucky. The city flourished in 
those days, but its glory has passed away. The groat com 
moaer on whose lipp thousands hung in broathloss admira 
txon, the cin;umetances of his time, tlie men of his generation, 
have departed never to return. Life has swept on to other 
centres. In the suburbs were boautiPul residences. Riclien 
were displayed in lavish expenditure, but the town itself 
was wearing a seedy look. There was old rubbish every- 
whera about tho city ; there wore buildings with crazy blinds, 
cracked walls, and loaning earthward ; while oven a beautiful 
church edifice had broken panes in its windows. The troubloH 
of tlie year. Like care and anxiety to a strong man, plough- 
ing deep furrows on his face, had closed many stores, and 



written " Vo Btiiit" ou man^r dwelUu{^. A sudtluii paralj&ia 
Uad fallou, busiiicsit hod droo^icd, and society li»d lost it« 

The i'bcuix was tlio aucioiit aribtocr&tic hotel of the placo. 
It waB iu aii(/oaituicti all of the old time. — a tbrco-story, stono. 
hriuk, aud plastur buildiug, witli small wiudows, oiid a grual 
)>ar-room or ofCcc, whii;li ui former dajrs waa ttto resort of 
IHiUlicians, men of tho turf, and atteudaiita ut 4Jourt. A crowd 
uf utiwastiod mou wuro in tlio hall, &[i:ittorcd witli mad, wear 
iui; idoiicliod ImCs, un^luivcu and tuistioni, — a motley cruw , 
Mimu titl<Hl ugaiuat tlio walU iu cliairt;, fayt Oiflecp, »omo talking 
iu low touos aud filling Uio room vritli fumot< of tot>aocQ. A 
half-iloaoii wcro proa-Hiiij; their Umts- Tlio proprioior apolo 
gisud for ilicir presence, remarking ihut thoy Wero Icamstor^ 
who had just arrived from SomcrtMit, aud vore soon to go ttack 
with supplies fur General lliomas's army. There were three 
huadrcd of them, rough, uucoutli, dirty, l>ut vol! behaved. 
There wa» no loud talking, no profanity, indecency, or nido- 
IM6S, but a doportmout tltrough the day aud night worthy of 
all oommeudation. 

Wliilo onjoyui){ tlio fire in tltc reccptiou-rooni two ladict 
L'utort'd, — one middlc-aj'cd, mwlium Mature, liariug au oral 
fact), dark hair, dark hazel oycs ; the other a young lady of uinfr 
teen or twenty years, shar]) features, black liair, and flashiug 
kdack eyes. Tliey wore boarders at tlie hotel, were well drwwd, 
tliough not witli remarkahlo tasto, but evidently were aocus- 
lomed to move iu tlio best circle of Lexington Boeiety. A 
rogimcnt was {lossiiig the hotol. 

* Ttiere aru gome more Yaukocs goiug dowu to Mill Swings. 
1 rockon," said the elder. 

*' 0. is n't it too IkuI that ZuUtcofTor is killed ? I oould have 
criod my eyes out whmi 1 luiard of it," !«id Uie youugest. " O 
1)0 was tm bmYOy aud uuMc. and chivalrous ! " 

" He was a uoble luaii." tlio other replied. 

'* Of I should t« like to mx* a battle ! " said tiio yoimgest. 

**U might not be a iJeafaaut Mglit, aliliough we are often 
williog to fiM-ego pleosutv for the take of grntifyiug curiomty," 
we replied. 

** 1 Bbould wmut my side to whip," said the frirl. 



"Tes. Wo all espcict our side to be viotorious, ihougb w« 
are soinctimos disappniutcd. as vas tlie caso at Bull Run.'* 

" Theii you were at liull Run ? I lake it that you belong ta 
the army ? " , 

" I was thoro and saw Uio figlit, although I was not comiected 
with tho army." 

" I am glad you wore defeated. It was a gwxi l&ssou to you. 
The Xorthornors havo had &onio respect for llio Soulhernen 
siiico then. Tlio Southorucis fought ugainst great odds." 

" Indeed^ I think it was ihc reverse." 

" No indeed, sir. The Federals numbered over siity tbou- 
aaud, while Dcaurcgoi'd had less tliaii thirty thousand. Ho did 
not have more than twelve thousand iu Che figlA." 

" 1 can assure you it is a (frave mistake. Genoral McDowell 
bad \QSi- tliau Uiirty tliousuiid uicu, and nut more Uiau lialf 
were eugaged." 

" Well, I wonder what ho was thinking of whou be carried 
out those forty thousand haudcufTs? " 

" I did DOt suppose auy one gave credence to that absurd 

" Absurd ? Indeed, sir, it is not. I have seen some of the 
bandcufls. There are several pairs of them iu this city. They 
were brought directly from the field by some of our citizens 
who wont on as soon as they heard of tlie fight. I have sev- 
eral trophies of the fight which our men picked up." 

No doubt the youug lady was siucere. It was universally 
believed throughout the South that McDowell had thousands 
of pairs of handcuQs in his train, which were to be clapped 
upon the wrists of the Soxithcm soldiers. 

" We have some terrible imcompi-omising Union men iu this 
State," said the eldest, " who would rather see every negro 
swept into the flulf of Mexico, and tlie whole country sunk, 
than give up the Union. We hare more Abolitionists here in 
this city than tlicj havo in Boston." 

It was spoken bittorlj. She did not moan tbat the Union 
men of tlic State wore committed U) immediate emancipation, 
but that they would accept emancipation rather tlion have th4 
Secessionists succeed. 

A gentleman come in, sat down by the fire, warmod bis 


m BOYS OP '«1. 


hauds, and joined in tbo coDTcrsatioii. Said lie: '^^1 au a 
Southeraer. I have lived all my Hfo amuiig sluves. I own one 
tIaT0, but I hale tlio sybtum. Tiiure arc comiUua lu this State 
whero there are but fow slaves, aiid in all such couiitiott yuu 
will Gild a groat maii; Atulitioj lists. It im tlio bniUtliziiig 
iuilueuco of elavory that makes me liato it, — brutaliziii|{ to 
wliitea and blacks alike. I hate this koopiiig niggers to raise 
buiuau stock, — to sell, just as you do liorscs and elioop." 

In all places the tlieme of courcrsatiou van tbo war and the 
negroes. Tlie ultra pro-slavory elemeut was tlioroughly aecos- 
sioD, and the Unionists were lieginning to understand that 
slavery was at the bottom of tlie rebellion. Ah in the dim 
light of the morning wo already behold the approach of the 
full day, eo tboy saw that these vhicli aecmod tho events of 
on hour might broaden into tliat which would urorthruw the 
entire $lave system. 

Antliony Trollope, an English travcltor and noveliat, waa 
stopping at the hotel at the time, — u jileasant gentleman, 
thoroughly Englinh ui liis personal appouraiice, with a plump 
fttco, indicative of good tiring and good clioor. lu his work 
outitlcd "North America" be menliojis tlie teamsters in the 
liall, and draws a contrast bctwooii English and Anioricao 
srtciety. Qo says : — 


"While I wKB at tiDpper the fteventy-flve t«ainRtcn were summoned 
Ato tbe CQnunon vating-room by a loud );ong, nnd sat dowu tu ihvir 
Meal At the public table. They were very dirly ; I ilutibl whetlier 1 
aver saw dirtier men; but tboy vierv ordorly and wt!l]-t>ohjiTed, and 
bat for their vzlremn dirt m^ht bavu paiMud im thr ordinary occupaufai 
of a welt-fllled hotel [& the West. Such mtm m the Slates are leM 
duDuy with th«ir koivus aud furka, Itibs aiiLray lu aii uiiuMd jxwition, 
mors inte1li(;i-]it in H'Upling ih»m>K^ilvc» lo a new lire,l1iHti are English- 
meu of ibe saioo rank. It in alvrsy^ the lame story. With ub theie 
is DO level of iiociely. Men stand on a lonfi ttairatse, but tbo crowd 
oon^'gat«s near the bottom, and the lower h(c|m ura very broad. Id 
America, men atand on a mcTimDn pbttform, but the platform ia miaed 
sbove the f^und, though ii dues uot approacb in height ih« top of our 
•laircaao. If we lake ibe average altitude in ihc two oouutrias, we 
dudi find that the Aiuericao heads are the riii>re elevated of ibe Iwa 
I voneeived niher an affectiuu Tur tlioae dirty leuinslers ; t)>ey auswered 




me riviUj wheD I spoke to theio, iin<l sat in qQietnefia amoltin^' their 
f&pt*, with a dull fmd dirty bat orderly demsBnor." * 

ir Mr. Trollope, wlio has a very just appreciation of the 
character of those quiet and ordurl)- toaln;^to^tl, will but wait 
a century or two, pcrhafis ho will fiml that democracy can 
l)uild a staircase as high and conifilotc as that roared by tlio 
aristocracy of England. We have had but two ccnturioa for 
tho construction of our clcTated common platform, while Eng- 
land has had a thousand years. There the base of the 
staircase, where tlie multititdo titand, is either stationary or 
sinking ; but here the platform is always rising, and bearing 
Iho multitude to a hi);hor platie. 

A short distance north of the city of the living is the city ol 
the dead. It is a pleasant suburb, — one which is adding week 
by woek to ita population. It is hud out in beautiful avenues^ 
gnM bordorad, and shaded by grand old forest-trees. It is tlie 
resUng-plac« of tlio dust of Henry Clay. The monument to 
his memory is not yet fiiuBhed. It is a tall, round columti upon 
a broad base, with a capital, such as the Greeks never saw or 
dreamed of, surmounted by a 5gure iutcudod to represent the 
great statesman as he stood when encliaining vast audiences by 
his matchless oratory. Within the chamlicr, eiposed to view 
throtigh the iron-latticed door, star-embellished and bronxed, 
ties ilie sarcophagus of purest marble. It is chaste in design, 
oriuuncnted witii gathered rods and bonds emblematic of 
anion, and wreathed with cypress around its sides. The 
pure white marble drapery is tlirowu partly back, exposing 
above the breast of the sleeper a wreath, and 


Upon Uie slab beneath tho sarcophagus is this simple in»cnp^ 
Uoa: — 

" I can, with unbroken confidence, appeal to tlie Divine Ar- 
biter for tlie tntth of the declaration, that I have been influ- 
enced by no impure purpose, no personal motive, — have sought 
no personal aggrandizement, but that in all my public acta 
I have had a sole mtd single eye, and a warm devoted heart. 

> "North America," bj Aiitbimj TroUupt^ Vol. IL p. M 



directed and dedicated to what in my best judgment 1 believed 

to be the truo interests ol' my country." 

It is not a duuloratioii wliluh goes homo to the heart as ttiat 
simple rccij^uitiou of the Cliristiau i-cligion whiuli his compeer, 
Oajiiol Wclistor, directed should bo placed nbovo his grave in 
the sccliulcd cliurchyard at Marsliricld, hut Mr. Cliy wa» a 
rcruarkal.lo man. Of all j\jncricaiis who havo UvcJ, ho could 
hold cctm|ili^lost away of popular asaomblios. IIuLiug ::laTory in 
his onr1y life, he at Inst became loleraut o( iia ozistcnco. He 
cost ilie whole Iroublo of the nation upon the AhoUiionists. In 
some things ho was farsighiud ; in others, obtuse. lu ISiS ha 
nddressod a letter to a friend wlto was about to write a pam- 
phlet uguiiisl iho AlKflitioiitsts, giving him an outline of the 
argumcul to bo used. Thus ho wrote : — 

^Tha great aim aud object of yoar tract should be to arouM tlie 
Uboring dames In tbe Free State* agaiuat abolitioD. Depict tbe cnn- 
Mquenoe* to thotn uf immediate iibolition. 'Hie slavei betog &««, 
would be dispersed throughout ilie Union ; tboy would enter into com- 
petition with the free laborer, with tlie American, cbe Irish, tbe Gw- 
man ; reduce bi^ va^ ; be confounded with bim, and aOect lus moral 
and social standing. And aA iho ultraa go for both abolition and amal- 
gamation, «how that their object is to unite in marriage (be laboring 
while man and the laboring black man, and to re«luoe the while tabor. 
ing man to the deapisod and degraded oondition of the block man. 

"I would tbovr their oppoeition to oolouixation. Show ita humane, 
religioua, and patriotic aima, that tliey arc to •epamle thoAe whom God 
Uatt separated. Why do the AtmlitioniatA oppoee coloaisation ? To 
ceep and amiil^mate together the two racea id violation of God'» will. 
and to keep the bladca here, that they may inifirfcro with, degrade, and 
debase the laboring whites. Show that llio British nation is ci-operat- 
UJg willi ibi^ AboIitionistM, for liio purpone of ditMolring tlie Union." * 

This was written by a reputed statesman, who was supposod 
to understand the prhiciples of political economy. The slavea 
being mado froo would enter iu cumputition with Uie Jree la- 
borer. But has not tlie free American laborer been forced to 
compote through all the years of the past with unrequited 
slave lal)or? Without inquiring into Uio aims and purpose! 
of the Abolitionists, — what they intended to do, and how thej 

* North Amtiicsii Iteriow, Janauy, IS66, p> in 




vera to do u, — Mr. Gbj aoceptod tlie ourraut talk of the laj, 
and ahapod bis course accordiugljr. That letter will roa-l 
straugeljr (itij jean tieuoe. It roada straugelj uot, and goes 
far tu luvrur our eetimate of the real greatness of oue who for 
half a ceiiturj was tho idol of a great political party, — whose 
words were taken as the uttorauces of an oracle. But ideas 
■ud principles have adruuced sincti 1848. We stand upon a 
higher plane, and arc moving on to one still higher. 

Bcturuiiix to the hotel, I fell into couTorsatioii with a Pros 
bTterian miuister, who bogan to deplore the war. 

" We should conduct it," said ho, " not as savages or harbft- 
riaus, but as Ctiristians, as civilized beings, on human princi- 

" In what waj would you have our generals act to carrr oat 
what jou couccivc to be sucli principles ? " 

** Well, sir, the blockade is terribly severe on our friends iu 
the South, who are our brotliors. Tlie innocent are siiBeriug 
with the guilty. We should let them havo food, and raiment, 
and medicines, but wo should not lot them have cannon, gnus, 
and powder." 

" When do yon think tho war would end if such a plan wu 
adopted ? " 

Ho took a new tack, not replying to tho question, but said,— 

** The Nortli began tho trouble in on unohristian Bplrit." 

** Was not the first gun fired by the Bobeis upon Fort 

** That was not tlte beginning of the war. It was the elec- 
tion of Lincoln." 

** Then you would not have a majority of tlio people elect 
their officers in the constituted way ? " 

" Well, if Liuuobi had been a wise man ho would hare re- 
Bgnod, and saved this terrible conflict." 

There is a point beyond which forhoarancc ceases to be a 
virtue, and I expressed tlie hope that tlio war would bo waged 
with shot and sholl, fire and ttword, naval oxpoditiuus and block- 
adee, and every possible moans, upon the men who had con- 
spired to subvert tho govoriimoiit. Thoro was no reply, and 
he soon lofl the room. 

Buell's right wing under Ooncral Crittenden, was at Oal 




hoHti, on Gr&en Tlkcr. Intolligciico arrived that it ww to be 
put in motion. 

Leaving Lcxi»(i[toii in tlio morning, and pawing Ivy cars 
through Frankfort, — an oW town, llio capital of the Stale, like 
pexington, soedy anil dilapidated, — wo reached Lotiisvilte in 
seaeoii to take our choico of tlic two stoamcni. Gray Knf^lo and 
Engono, to Henderson. Tlicy wcro hotJi cicellcMt I'oatu, ntn- 
ning ill opposition, carrjring im^scngors one hundred and oighty 
milcg, providing for them two excellent meals and a night's 
lodging, all for fifty cents I People wcrf> patronlriiig both 
boats, because it wa5 much chcni)cr than staying nt homo. 

Taking the Gray Eagle, — a largo .'*ido-wliocl Htoamcr, — we 
swept along with tlio speed of a railroad train. The water waa 
Tory high and rising. The possongcrs wore almost all from 
Kentucky. Some of the ladies thronging the s&loou wcro 
acciwtomod Lo move in the '* Iwst society," which Inui not lit- 
erary culliiro and moral wortli Ibr itfl standards, but broad 
•oroB, woalUi in lands and distilleries. They were "raised" 
in Ijoxington or rjouisvillo or Frankfort. They Bfnoko of Lhu 
** right smart " crowd ou board, Jioarly •* tew '" hundred, accord- 
ing to iheir idea. 

But there is another class of Keutuckians as di^tiuet from 
tliose excellent ladies as chalk from cheese. Tlicy aro of that 
class to which Oavid Crocket lielongod in hia early years, — 
bnni in a cane-lirako and cradled in a trough. There were 
two in tlio saloon, Boatud uinin an uttumati, — a brotlier aud 
sister. Tlie brotlier was more than six feet tall, had a sharp, 
(hill, lank countenance, witli a tuft of hair on his chin 
and on his up|>or liji. His faco was of the color of milk and 
moloKsos. Ho wore a Kentucky liomo-spun suit, — coat, rest 
and {mntfl of the same material, and colorod with liutterniit 
bark. Ho had on, altiiougli in the saloon, a broad-brimmud, 
touched hat. with an ornament of blotched mud. He wa« 
cridoiitly more at home with his hat on than to sit baro- 
licitded, — and bo cousullod hia own pleasure, without mi»< 
trusting that tlioro was such a thing as politeness in the 
world. Uo had been plashing through the streets of l>oui»- 
Tillo. He had scraped off tlie tliickoet of the mud. There he 
Mi. llie right foot Oirown across tho left knee, with as rouofc 





oomplaccacy u it is possible for a morul to majufost. In Li> 
oim estimation he was all right, altliough ibore was a gap be- 
tween his panta and rest of about six iucUes, — a joUowi&li 
tawnjr streak of shirt. IIo sat in uucuucorued siloace, or 
Btalkcd through tho saloon with Uis hands iu his pockeU, or 
stretched himself at fuU leugth upuu the Kofa aud took a x>m 
fortablo euoozo. 

Wa sister, — a girl of cightoou, — had au oral face, arched 
efebrows, and full cheeks, dowiug, flaxen hair, aiid gray ojes. 
She wore a plain dross of graj homcspuu without hoops, and 
when standing, appeared as if she had encased licrsclf iu a 
meal-bag. There was no neat white collar or bit of ribbon, or 
cord, or tassel, — no attempt at feminino ndonimeut. She vae 
a '* nut-brown maid," — bronzed by exposure, with a cotmto- 
Dance as inoxprcsslTo as a piece of putty. A dozen ladic> 
and gentlemen who came on board at a little town twouty 
miles below LouisTille were ei^oying themiMlves, in a circle of 
llieir own, with the play of " Cotisoquencos." Tho cabui rang 
with their merry laughter, and we wlio looked on enjoyed 
their happiuoss; but there was no sign of animation in her 
countenance. — a block of wood could not have boon more 

Among tho ladies on board was one a resident of Uwou»- 
boro'f who, upon her marriago eight years before, had moved 
fh>m the town of Auburn, Now York, the home of Mr. 

" I was au Abolitionist," slio said, " lieforo I lef\ home, but 
now that I know wtiul slavery is, I like it. Tlio siaveholdeni 
are su iudopcudcut and live so ootiy ! Tliey can gut rich iu a 
few years ; and there is no class iu the world wiio can enjoy sn 
much of Ufo 05 they." 

It was eridcutly a sincere expression of her sentiments. 

Site was fur tlie Uuiou, but wanted slavery let alouo. I'he 
atrife iu Oweusboro* liad been excuodiugly bitter. Nearly 
all i,9r old friends aud ueighburs wuru rampant SocessiuuisLs. 
8eG08«iou, like a sharp sword, had cut through society and leli 
it in two parts, as irreconcilable as vice aud virtue. There was 
uncompromising hoetility ready to flame out into war at auy 
moment iu all tlie Kentucky towus. 'Hiere was also on board 




■ totid-tAlkiiig man who vralkod the saloon with Iiis liaoda iu 
hi!) pockets, looking ovorylKxly square iu tUe face ; ho vat 
intonsclj loyal to tlio Duton- 

"VHiy don't BiicU move? Why don't ITallocV more? It 
ifl my opinion that tlicy nro l>otl) of 'cm old granuics- I want 
to see the Robols licked. 1 hare lived in Tophel fur the lost 
six moDths. I live iu Uondcrsou, and it has beoii a porfecl 
hell ever since the Rebels fired on Fort Siuutor. I hare luiil 
my property through tho d^^ scoundrels. I want & regi- 
ment of Union troops to go down thcro and clean out the 

1l wns early morning when tho scnMun of tho Umy klagie 
routied tho URual crowd of Inafors from iheir sloop and inan- 
ition at Owonshoro'. A motley niub came down tu the wharf 
eager to hear the news. 1 had Liecn hifoniied thut tho plaun 
woa one whcro whiskey diRtinericH al>onn<l, and the information 
prored to l>6 cornii;t. Tho distillery buildings wero distinctly 
reoogniEod hy thoir smoking chimneys, creaking pumps, and 
iteaming vats. The crowd on the shore had whiskey in thoir 
looks and boliarior. Among them was one enthusiastic admirer 
of Ahmham Lincoln. Ho was hlnuted, hlcor-eyod, a tattonlo- 
malion, with just onoiigh wlilt^key in him to make him tltick- 
spoken, reckless, and irresponsible in the eyes of his Hquor 
loring companions. Whilo wo wore at a distance he swung his 
hat and gave a cheer for Old Abe ; as we came nearer he re- 
peated it ; and as the plank was being thrown ashore he fairly 
donood with ecstasy, shouting, " Hurrah for Old Al)e! HoM 
fix 'em. Ourrah for Old Abe ! Hurrah for Old Abe ! " 

*' Shot up, you dninken cuss. Hurrah for JofT Daris ! " wp« 
tlie response of anotlior blear-eyed, tipsy loafer. 

Tho steamer Htorm was tolling its bell as tho Gray Rn^r 
came to the landing at EronsTille. hound for Oroon Rivpr. 
Her decks wore piled with bags of corn and coffee. A harvo 
was tethered to her side, loaded with bundle hay and a ha^ f- 
doKon ambulances. We were just iu Ume to reach the doik 
before Uie plank was dmwn in. Tlien with hoarse |mn> Ue 
faearily laden old craft swung into tho stream and surged slow- 
ly agaiuBt tho swollen tide of tlio Ohio. Green River joins -he 
Ohio ten miles a)>ore Evansrille. It is a beautiful stream. rt*h 



forcst-ljordercd liaiiks. At that season of ihi yoas tliorc was 
noUilng partjculariy inspiring to tlio muse along this stream. 
unless one can kindle a poetic flamo in swainpo, lagoons, crocks, 
and log-cabins standing on stilts, vith water beneath, around, 
and often witliin tliem. On llio spit of land Iratwoon tho Ohio 
and Qreen rivers, on posts several feet under water, was a log- 
cabin ; a nnr-bont was tied to the steps, a woman and a half* 
doxen children stared at us from the open door. All around 
was forest. A gentleman on board said it was a fishing family. 
If K>, the family, little ones and all, might ply the piscatory art 
from doors and windows. A more dreary, watery place can 
not be imagined. 

The Storm was not a 6oating palace with gilded saloons, tcI- 
ret tapestry carpets, French mirrors, and a grand piano, bu< 
on old wlieoiy tow-boat, witli great capacity I»elow and Httk 
above. Tliere was a room for tlie gentlemen, and a little boi 
of a place for any ladies who might l>6 under tlie necessity of 
patronizing the crafl. 

There were no soldiers on board, but tliirty or forty passen- 
gers. We were a hard-looking set. Our clotlies were muddy, 
oar boards shaggy, our countenances far from lieing Caucasian 
in color, witli sundry otlier peculiarities of dress, feature, and 

Tlicro was one stout man with an enormous quautity of 
urown hair, and a thick yellow beard, belonging to Ilopkiuv- 
ville, near the Tonncseco line, who had been compelled to Qoe 
for his Life. 

" We got up a cannon company, and I was captain. We had 
•B neat a little six-pounder as you ever saw ; but I was obliged 
to cut and nm when tJic Rel>els came in Ducemticr ; but 1 
buried tho pup and tlio •Sccossionists don't know where she is ! 
If 1 ever get back thcro I 'U make some of them cusses — my 
old neighbors — bite tho dust. I luivo just heard that they 
have ded my brother up and almost whipped him to death. 
Tlioy gouged out bis eyes, stamped in his face, and have taken 
all his property." 

Hero be was obliged to stop bis imrratiro and give vent to a 
long string of oatlis, consigning the RebeU lo all the tortures 
and puins of the Imttomlesa p t forever. Having dijigorged hix 
wrath, he said, — 




** Now, sir, ihcrc is n Rrnvc judicial question ou my mind, 
diid I would like your opiJiioii upon It. If you owucd u (turkey 
who sliouM get over luto Indiana, a bnglit, lutctHgout darkey, 
and 1)0 should tako with him ton uiggers fmiu yuur Koccseion 
nclglibora, and you should happen to know it, would you send 
Uicm back ? " 

"No, sir; I should not." 

'* Tliat is my muid 'zoctly. I know you was a good Union 
man the moment 1 sot my cyos on yo." Tlicn camo an iutcr- 
usttiif; explanation. lie had one bIuto, a devoted fellow, who 
had bccomo an active conductor ou the underground railroad. 
The slave had hcon often to Bronsrillc and knew the country, 
and had enticed away ten negroes bolunging to Llie Scccssiou- 
ibta iu the ncuuty of Uopkiusrille. lie had socti tlicm all Itial 
morning, and more, had given each of them a hearty broak- 
&8t ! " You Bco," said he, " if thoy beloiit^cd to Union men I 

would have sent 'em back ; hut they belonged to the 

Socottsionista who hare driven mo out, taken all my property, 
ftnd do you think I *d bo moan enough to send the uiggers 

On board tlie Storm wore several other men who had boeu 
driven from Uioir homos by tlie Socosuotust*. Tliere was 
one gentleman, a Rtavoholdor from the little town of Voluoy, 
botwoon Ilopkinsvillo and tho Cumhorlond Rivor. All of his 
properly had boeu taken, his uegroOB, if ihey were not sold 
or Eoized, were roaming at will. lie liad two brotliors iu 
the Rebel army. lie waa a plain, scmiihle, welMnformod 
brmer. liu lived close upon tlie TeuncMiee lino, and whji 
acquainted with tho SouLliem eountry. 

** Slavery is a doomed institutioii," said be ; " £rom Rou- 
tucky, from Missouri, froixi Maryland and Virginia the slaves 
have boou pouring southward. There has been a great con- 
densation of slaves at tho Soutli where Uioy are not wantod. 
and where they cannot he supported if the blockado continue«. 
Tho SouUi never has roisud its own provisions, ii^ho oould do 
it if she put forth her cuorgioa ; but sho never has and she will 
Dot now. The time will come, if tlio blockade continues, when 
tlio master will be com|)olled to say to t^io slaves, ' Get your Ut- 
ing whore you can.' and then tlie system, being rolled back 





rpODitsoir, will be broken up. As for myself, I vouM like to 
b&re kept my shfes, 1>ccause I am gottiug aloug in years and 
I Tontcd tlicm to uko care of me ; but as the SeceseiouisU 
haro Likoii tliom aud driveu me out, it won't make any differ- 
Once to me wbcUicr the system is coiitiimod or not/' 

It is utterly impossible to convoy to a New-Englauder who 
Qos ueTor crossed tlic Iliidson a corroci idea of a Kentucky 
country village, like Uiat of Caliiouu, as sccu from the deck of 
tlie steamer .Slurm, in tliu Uj^Lt of a beautiful morning, so mild 
and spring-like Umt tbe robins, bluebirds, jays, pewits, ajid 
sparrows were GUing ibo air with their songs, having roturned 
from their &ujuuru ui a Southern clime. A seutiuel was plash' 
iiig through the mud along the bank, guarding the ferry to Uie 
town of Rnmsoy, on the opposite side of the river. The bank 
rises abruptly uito the main etrect of tlie town. First we Iiavo 
the McLean House, the finit-class hotel of (he placu, — a wood 
eu building two btorios high, containing six or eight roomie. 
There is beyond it one brick building, then a number of smaller 
buildings containing a couple of rooms each, and forty rods 
distant a church, respoctable iti style and proportions. The 
land is undulating, and uu the hillsides ttiure are dwelLugs, a 
half-dozen of which yuu might call comfortable. Tlie original 
forest oaks are still standing. A creek or bayou runs through 
the town, tlie receptacle of all the filth generated by ten thou- 
sand men, and thousands uf mules, liorses, and hogs. 

Rumsey, on the opposite side of the river, is uf »mJlor di- 
moasions. Years ago it was a " right smart " town, but busi- 
ness has disappeared. TIio pcoplo liavo also gone, Liid now 
one sees a row of wiiidowlcss, doorless, dcsortod house: , soaked 
in every flood of waters. 

Visitiiig tJie " first class " hotel of the place, wo sat down m 
tlio parlor or reception-room, or wliatevor room it » a, while 
tlie cook prepared breakfast. It was abo ttie landlo*d's bed- 
room, occupied by himself and wife. 

Calling upon the landlord for a place for toilet oj-orations, 
«o wore invited into the kitchen Hrhich was also tlio diniug- 
ruom and pantry and Jim's bod-room, — Jim l>oiug a tall 
negro, who jost now is washing dishes, witli a tin pan of hoi 
water, and wiiliout any soap. Dinali is rolling biscuit, and 



beiidiug tlio liDo-cako, which is cooking; iitcoly on Uio store 
Tliere is tlie tlour-lmrrel close at ham- Tlicrc is one diiiiior 
pol, with Iwu kutUos, u pail of water, a lantern, the [wppor-boi, 
a dish of fat, u plalo of buittcr, and a great heap of tin dishus 
ou tho table, whore Dinah is moulding tlio hiscuil, while Jim 
occupies tho otlior end. Tlie diniiig-tulilu stands in the centre 
of tho room. The plates are laid, tuid the wliole is corcrci 
with a blue cloth, which at first sight tiouma to lio a soldier's 
blanket, and which upon close insjKictioii leaves ua ttill in 
doubt whotlior it is a tuble-cloth or a bcd-eoverlet. Tlierc are 
eomo chairs, and ou old de^k whidi has lost its lid, iu which 
are nails, a hammer, tiome uld papers, and a deal of dust. It 
evidently " camo down from a former generation." 

Wo liave time to notice those things while tlio landlord is 
preparing for our washing exploit, which ia to bo porformod 
near Jim, with a basin on a chair. 

Then we have breakfast, — lioofbtoak and porksteak, and 
buckwheat cakes, all fried iu lard, sausages, potatoes, Dinah's 
ooe-cakcs, hot flour bi.>icuit. and a dish of hash, which will 
(tot go down at ell, and colTcc witnout mitk, preferred to 
the water of Green River, which in its natural state [s somo- 
wliat tho color of yellow simff, and which is drank by the 
inhabitants of Calhoun, notwitlislanding thousands of horscB 
are stabled on its banks. 

Thoro was no movement of the troops, therefore nothing 
to detain us at Calhoun, and knowing that thore was somo- 
thing of interest up tho Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, 
we went ou board tho Mattio Cook, tho downwardbonnd 
steamer. While waiting for her departure wo gazed at the 
siglite upon tlie shoro. Tlicro was a great deal of life, — 
wagons, soldiers, citizens floundering through the mud to the 
lauding, transporting goods. There were ludicrous sceDOs of 
men and teams stuck iu the mortarhed ; but in the midst of 
life tlioro was death. A squad of soldiers came down from 
camp to the hospital with a bier, and with tho slow funenil 
dirge brought two of their comrades to tho Iraat, — two 
who had just passed fr^m tho scones of strife on earth to 
'.lie eternal poaco t**yond. Those who bore them wore 
by uo meauH unaflcclod by the part thoy were called upon 




10 perform. There were ead counteuauces, too, oa board the 
boBi, — tro ladies, both tttrangern to the dead, but not mdillor 
eat to the scone. Tlie; bad woman's tender eonsibilitiea, and 
could not keep hack the tears from their cjos, for tlioy thought 
of their onm sous whum thoy had just left, aud who now stood 
upon ^M bank to saj perhaps a 1a<«t good-by. 

But how transitory arc all the most solcnm impressious of 
doath ! TcL' minutes lator a company of soldiers appeared 
for a trip dowu the river to Stevcusport to bag, if possible, the 
itquad of Rebels whicli had bc-cii prowling about the town of 
Sierctispon. Tliey came on l>ouni with a hurrali, and made 
tlic wtdkiu ring with tlte " Red,, Wliito, and Blue.*' U toa b 
pleasure to them to leave ilio hat^^'ful plaiw even for a uight. 
and be iu active sernce. 








Ar last tlie Rebel linos were broken. Commodoro Footc had 
opened a gatcwny lo tlio lioort of tlio Confodcracy by the cap- 
ture of Fort Hlociry on ibo Clli of Fobmory. While up Orceu 
Riror ] learned of the intended movement, oiid hastened to bo 
prcsuut, but was delayed between KvanBTillc aiid Paducah, and 
was not in season to bee tiic ougagumcut. 

Late on the Friday evening uftcr I saw Couuuodoro Foot* in 
Oairo. Ho hod just rutnmed from Fort Iluiiry. 

"Can you favor me with tin account of the affair?" I askod. 

" It will ^vo inc groat pleasure to do boaster I have pre- 
pared ray dosjmtcliCB for Washington," lie replied. 

It wa.s paai midnight wlicu liu came lo my room. Ho sat 
down, and loaned back wearily in his chair. But soon rccor- 
ering hiB usual energy, garo the full details of the itction. 
Bo had prepared bis instructions lo bis crows .several dayu l>o- 
foro tlio battia, and upon mature thonglit, saw noihing to 

To the commanders and crews ho said, that it wa^ very 
ncceseary tu success that they should keep cool. Ho desired 
tliom to fire with aim, and nut to attempt rapid 
firing, fur four reasons, viz. that with rapid firing there was 
always a waste of ammuuitioji ; that their range would be 
wild ; that the enemy would bo encuvirngcd unless tlio fire was 
olTcctuul ; tha.t it was de^^iraldo nut to hcut the gitus. 

With thcBO instructions ho led bis llecl up the narrow clian 
ucL under cover of Pine liiland, thus uvoiding long-range shot 
from Lite rifled guns which it was known llic enemy bad in 
position tu swucp the main channel. IJo steamed slow, to allow 
tlio troopc time to gain iIiclt position. 

Ho risiltid eacli ve&eel and gave [Ktrbonal directions. Uo took 
tiis own pOBitiou iu Lbe pilot-house of the Cinciiniati. The St 






Louis was on his right haud and the Garondelot and Emoi 
were on his Icf^ villi the T^lor, Connostoga, and Lexington Id 
nar. Tlierc is an island a mile and a quarter below the fort. 
When the head of the island was reached the boats came into 
liue and were vithin easy range. 

** Do just as I do," was liis last order to the commanders. 

The Cinciiiiiati opened, and tlic othor vessels were quick to 
follow tlie Commodore's oiample. 

*' I had a dclimto purpose in view," said lie, '' to take tlie 
fort at all hozaribi. It was necessary for the kucccss of the 
cause. We liaro had disaster upon disaster, and 1 intended, 
God helping mo, to win a rictory. it mode mo foci had when 
[ saw tlie Kssex drop out of tho line, hut I knew that the fort 
could D*t stand it much longer. 1 should liaVe opened mjr 
broadsides in a miiiuto or two, if Tjlglmian had not surren- 
dered, and that I knew wuuld scitle the question. We were 
not more tliaii four hundred yards distant." 

He said that when tlie Fssox dropped behind tho Rebels set 
up a tromendoutj choor, and redoubled their fire ; but being 
excited thoir aim was had. 

"There is nothing like keeping perfectly cool in battle," 
said he. 

" When Tilghman camo into my cabin," said the Commo- 
dore, *' ho asked for terms, but I informed hira that his surrou- 
dor must be final." 

" WoU, sir. if 1 mttBt surrender, it gtros mo pleasure to sur 
render to so brave an officer as you," said Tilgfamau. 

*' You do porfuctly right to surrender, sir ; but I should not 
have surrendered on any condition." 

"Why 80 ? I do not understand you." 

"Because I was fully determined lo capture the fort or go 
to the bottom." 

TIio Qcbel general opened his eyes ai this remark, but re- 
plied, *' 1 thought I had you, Commodore, but you were too 
much for me." 

" But how could you fight against the old flag ? " 

'* Well, it did come hard at rin>t ; but if the North tuul only 
let ua atone tliere wuuld have been no trouble. But tliej 
would not abide by Uio Constitution." 


TU£ BOYS or '». 


'* You are mibtakon, eir. The Nortli Iim maiiitiiined oU of 
ber Constitutional olj1ig;utiouB. You of tlio South hare per 
Jored yotireolTes. I talked to liim raithruU;/' said the tcalouf 

The Commodoro was now iiorvously refitlom, but nUd : " 1 
ncror sloitt bottor in my lifo than I did tho night Iwforo going 
into Oio batUo, and I ncvor i>raycd moro fervently tliau I did 
yost«)rday moniijig, that God would Llust^ tlic uiidortoking, and 
ho hoB signally answcrod luy prayer. 1 don't doeervo it^ hul 
I trust tliat ] shall W gnitoful for it. Ihil I could n't eloep 
last night for Uiinking of thusu |KKir fellows uit Ijuurd the Essex, 
vho wcro wounded and ecaldud. 1 told tho tturgootis to do 
orerything possiblo for ilicm, Tuor follows! I muKt go and 
BOO that llioy iro well cared for." 

It was ouo o'clock lu the morning, yet exhausted as ho was, 
bo wont to Boe that the sufibrors woru ImTing erury poesiblo 

Thii waa on Saturday morning » tliQ noxl day he wont to 
church as usual. The minister was nut thero, aiid ullur wnii- 
iug awhile tho audioucc onu by one hogaii to drop uEf, whom 
apou Commodoro Foolo oulored tho pulpit, and couduclod tbo 
oxorcinos, reudiug tho fourtoouth chapter of John's Gospel, and 
addrossod Uic oongrogatiou, urging sinners to ro}iontauco, pic- 
turing the uus[)oakablo love of Clirist, and tho rowardti which 
await tlie righteous, and chniug tho Bcrvicos by a ferrout 
prayer. It was aa uuoateuUitious aa all hia other acts, uudor- 
tokou with a dutiful doaro to benoBt those atxiut him, and to 
glorify God. That was his aim in lifo. 

Tho liebel troops which woro in and around Fort Ilcnry flod 
in dismay soon aflor the oponing of tho bombardmout, toanng 
all their camp c^uipago. In tho harracks tlie camp-fires were 
Etill blazing, and dinnors cooking, when our troops «mtered. 
flooks, lotion) half wriltou, trunks, carpot-bags, knircs, pistols, 
woro lofl Ijohiiid, and wore eagerly seized by tho soldiers, who 
rout tlto air with sliouls of laughter, mingled with ibo cliuon 
of victory. 

Although not present, a letter foil into my hands written by 
a father in Miheii^iiippi to \m sons, which gives an insight Into 
Ao condition of affairs in the Confederacy at that timo: — 




'■ Bk*i Cukk, Miu., Dw. 16, IMt 
* To ar >aiA Bon Simia and Tboha« : — 

* AiW a long silence I will lell 70a some UUle oewi. I Udd C D 
Mogn lo toll you tbsl paper waa very «carce in tbi« wooden world. ] 
went to Vaiden to g^ Uiis, and was glwl u> get it at 50 ceiita per 

" The bealtfa of oor couutry ia pretty gomi. Crop« are rery ahort j 
eom and cotton — eepeciolly cotton — not quite half a crop, though it 
does a't natter, as we aui'i get anj money tor iu For my p«u-t I kaow 
not what we txe. to do. I have n't a red oeaL My intention now ii to 
plant only aboat eight acres in cottoo : that will mahe enough to bu} 
or baiter my groconvs. I fvar, my cluldr<.'Q, we will not live to tee aa 
pro p eroaa a time after thia revolution as there waa before iu I oftt;n 
think of the language of our Saviour: ' Eloi, Eloi, lama aabacihaoi,' 
— 5Iy God. my God, why haai ibou fonutken me P 1 rcrily tKiliere all 
this calamity liaa oome upon ub for our wickcdneBs. Religion is down 
like 001 ton, — not worth luudi ; and by the actions of good brethnn it 
might be bought for a mere trifle, tliough if we were to Judge from its 
tparaenei^ like salt, it would be worth 8 40 per sack. 

" O my God, wliat will beoome of us ' Go, if you please, to tha 
'^orctiyanl. and you wilt hear nothing but secular affairii and inir, 
war! Dull times everywhere. Mouey SGnrcoi pork high, — 10 to 
12^ ouits per pound; aatt the Mi.n« ; coffee 91.50 per pound, and 
oooe to be had at that ; calico 80 10 50 oonts per yard ; domeetifx 20 
to 35 ceoU per yard ; 8u^a^ 6 to 12^ cents ; molaseea SO to 40 centSt 
aod everything io the same ratio." 

The capturo of Fort Donclson and tbo troops dcfonding ii, 
ma tho first ^rat aclucrciuGut of tliQ Uuioti armies. Tlit 
a&ir at Mill Sjiring, and the taking of Roaiioko It^land b; 
Buruside, were important, but minor engagements whon com- 
pared with Llio breaking in uf tlio Bebcl Uuo of dofenco on the 
Cumberland and Toimossee. Tlio fighting ou Saturdaff the 
last daj of tlio series of battles, was dei>porato and bloodj. 
The groimd on the right iu tlio moruuig, when tlic Bcbeb 
moTcd out and ovcntbclmcd McClcrnand, was hotly couteet- 
od. Grant's linos were so extended aitd uoccssarily Uiin that 
the Bu)>eU were enabled to push McCloraaud back nearly two 
miles. Tliis was done hy Pillow and Buslirod Jotm»ou, who 
gained McClcnmnd'a flank. Buckuer, however, who was to 
alrike McClcrnand's Icfl, was slow in adraiiciug Had bt 




moved as rupidly as ttio utlicr divlsium, McOleruaiid wculd bare 
been uttorlj? routed. It was Uiou llmt W. II. L. Wallace, of Illi- 
nois, Bliowod Uii) great military abiUtjr. Qe had boon ia the 
Mexicau war, was coura^rcoits, and bad that ['owor of prttmot 
wliicb made every man feci tlmt be was uiidor tbe ej-o of bis 
OOminaiidor. Then, too, Ocnoral I<ogaii aiiinuttcd his men, 
lod held tbcDi in close contact with tliu Rebels till wounded. 

Tlie charge of (iciicral C. F. Smith's division on tlio loft, ia 
Jio afternoon of Saturday, was sublime. Geitoral Smilb me 
ui old soldier, who had served in Mexico. Uis liair was long 
Olid white, and iis be rude along liis lines, making arnuigemonla 
fbr the advance, ho was the most conspicuous of all men on 
tlio field. Ho paid no hoed to tbo rifle and musket balls wliich 
were swinging about bis ears; lie sat firmly ou his horse. 
Wbcu bis Hues wore ready, lie led them, with his cap ou tlie 
poiut of bis »word. 

It was simsct or nearly tliat hour, when his dirisioo moved 
to the attack of tlie outer works, at the soutlivest angle of the 
fort. Tliere was a steady advance through an open field, — 
a rush up tlto bill, — a cheer, — llio rout of Hanson's brigade 
of Rebels, the Second Kentucky, Twentieth Mifistssippl, and 
Thirtieth Tennessoe, — a long, loud shout of triumph, mio- 
gled witli tbe roar of cannon, and the rolLs of musketry from 
the (brt, pouring upon them a concentrated fire ! 

TIio scene at Donolsou on Sunday morning, the day of Bur- 
lender, was exceedingly exhilarating, — the marching in of Um 
notorious divisions, — the bands playing, their flags waving 
the cheers of the troope, — the gunboats firing a salute, — 
the immense flotilla of river steamboats gayly decorated ! Tbe 
New Cucle Sam wn<t llio l>oat ou wliicb General Grant had 
SBtablisbod his head .quarters. Tlio Undo Sam, at a signal 
iVom Commodore KtHvto, ranged ahead, came alongsido one of 
tlio giinboalB, and, followed i»y all tho fleet, steamed up river 
past Fort Donelsun, thick with Confederate soldiers^ — past the 
iutrencliod camp of loglnits, post a school-house o:i a bill, 
above which waved tho hospital flog, — and on to Hover, the 
gunboats tlnmdering a national salute tlio while. 

A warp w:ls thrown ashore, the plonk run out- I iprauf 
ap Uie bank, and mingled among ilio discoosolato creatures. 




a care-woni, Iuig>(ard, mclaiicholj crowd wliich stood upon the 
heigbls aboTo. Tlio; all told oiio story^ claiming that tlie; bad 
fought well ; that wc outiiiinibcrcd thorn ; tliat tlkoro was a difr 
agreement among their ofTiccrs ; that wo had got Ooiiorol Buck- 
aoT i that flofd aiid Pillow had escaped : that Floyd had taken 
four regimODts of bis brigado ; that thoro wore four stcomcn ; 
that ihaj went off crowded villi soldiers, the guards sunk to 
tlie water's odtro. 

The town of DoTor is the county Boat of Stewart, and a point 
where the brmors ship Uioir produce. It is a stra^liug rill&gL' 
on oneTOD ground, and contains perhaps fire hundred inliabi 
tants. There are a few buildings formerly used for stores, 
a doctor's office, a dilapidated church, a two-story square brick 
oourt-hoxtse, and a balMozeu decent dwelUngs. But tJie 
|daoe bad suflferod groatly while occupied by the SocossioD 
fbrces. Nearly every building was a hospital. Trees had been 
oat down, fences burned, windows broken, and old buildings 
demolislied for fuel. 

We came upon a squad of soldiers boToriug around a fire. 
Some were wrapped iii old patched bodquilts whicli liad cot- 
ared tliem at home. Some had white blankets, made movtly 
}f cotton. Others wore briglit bockiug, which bod evidently 
Deen fUrnishcd from a merchant's stock. One had a faded 
piece of threadbare carpet. Thoir guns were stacked, their 
equipments thrown aside, cartridge-boxes, belts, and ammuiu- 
tion tram[Jed in tlie mud. There were sbot-guos, single and 
double-l^arrded, old heavy rifles, flint-lock muskets of 1828, 
some of tliem altered into percussion locks, witti hero and 
thci-e an Enfield rifle. 

A few stops brought me to the main landing, where the 0(m 
federate stores were piled, and from which Floyd made hifl 
escape. The gunboats were lying off the landing, and a por- 
tion of McClcniand's division was ou tlio hills beyond, tfa^ 
rtaro and striftos and the regimental baimors waving, and the 
bands |>layiiig. Away uji on the hill Taylor's battery was firing 
ft uatiouol salute. 

There were sacka of corn, tierces of rioe, sidos of hioon, 
faarrclB of flour, hogslieuds of sitgar, sufGciout for severa] days' 
rations. Then there was a dense crowd of Socessionislfi. eri- 



THK B0T9 OP 'tt. 


dentl^ tbo rabble, or tho d^&ru of the anuy, belon^Mug to all 
regiments. Somo were sullen, some indifferent, Bomc cviilGnOy 
felt a senae of relief, mingled witli tlioir upprolicnmons for the 
ftiture. Among tliem were ^luads of our owu aoldiorB, with 
imiling facc.^, focllng very much nt home, hut mnnifosting no 
diRposition lo add to the nnhnppiiiess of tlic captured. 

General McClcnmnd's division hud morclicd down to tlie 
outskirts of tho village, and was keeping guard. A prirate 
ran into tlio courtrlicusc and tlircw tho flag of tlic Union to 
the hroczo from Llia l>oirry. Soldiers of our army were inspccr- 
ing the chops of tlio place. In the basement of a store was the 
Confodcrato arsenal. There were piles of rifles, old fihot-guns, 
many of tliem ticketed with llie owner's name. Tliero were 
many hunter's rifles, wliicU had done good eorrico in other 
days among tho raounUiins and forests of Tonnossee, but, for 
OM in battle, of but little account. 

In another building was thoCoramiBBarydoportinent. There 
were hogsheads of sugar, barruls of ncc, ito^tif of alwminable 
Mftp, and a few barrels of flour. Later in the day we t^uw 
•oldiora luxuriating like children in the hogsheads of stigar. 
Siany a one filled his canteen wJtli New Orleinis molasses ajid 
)iis jxwkct^ with damp browit sugar. Looking into a store we 
tbuud a squad of soldiors taking tilings of no eartlily use. One 
had a looking-gloes under his arm, one a paper of files, another 
several brass candlesticks, one a {lackago of bonnets. 

Tlie Mississippi an s and Teiana were boiling over with rage 
fegaiiist Floyd and E^illow for having deserted them. 

" EHoyd always was a d — d thief and sneak," said one. 

Just bcfure sunset we took a ramble through tlio grounds 
and encampments of tho Rebels, who were falling into line 
preparatory to embarking upon the steamers. Standing on 
ft liill beyond llie village, we had at one view almost all their 
force. Hogarth never saw such a sight ; Shakespeare, in his 
conceptions of FalstafT's tatterdemalions, could not have imag- 
ined the like, — not that they wore deficient in intellect, or 
wanting in courage, for among tlicm wore nohlo men, brave 
fellows, who shed tears when they found ihey were priaonors 
of war, a]id who swore witli round oaths that they would shoot 
Floyd as they would a dog, if they could got a chance, but Uui 



Ibr grotesque appearance thoy were norer oquallod, except bj 
the London hagnicn and cIiifTonicrs of Paris. 

Tliere were all sorta of uniforms, brown-colored prodomiIla^ 
ing, aa if Uiejr wore in the snufl* business and had been rolled 
in tobacco-dust. Tlicre was sbecp gray, iron gray, blue graj, 
dirty gray, with bed blankets, quilts, buflalo-robes, pieces of 
carpeting of all colors and Ogures, fbr blankets. Each had his 
pock on his shoulder. Judging by their garments, one would 
haro thought that Uio last Bcrapings, tho odds and ends of hu- 
matJty and of dry goods, had been brought together. 

Tho formal surrender of the fort took place in tho cabin of 
the New Uucle Sam in the evening. Buckncr sat on one side 
of the table and General Grant on the other. Buckner wixs 
attended by two of his stafi*. The Rebel eommauder was in 
the prime of life, although his hair had turned iron gray. He 
w>n of medium stature^ having a low forehead and tliin cheeks, 
wore a moustache and meagre whiskers. He had on a light-blue 
kersey overcoat and a ciicckod neckcloth. He was smoking a 
otgar* and talking in a low, quiet tone. He evidently felt that he 
was in a humiliating position, but his deportment was such as 
to command respect wlion contrasted witli the course of Floyd 
and Pillow. His chief of staff sat by his side. 

Buckner freely gave information relative to his positions, his 
forces, their disposition, and his intentions. He cx|)cctcd tt 
escape, and churned that tho engagements on Saturday wore 
all in favor of tlie Confederates. No opprobrious words wore 
used by any one. No discusHions entered into. He asked 
fbr subsistence for his men, and said tliat he had only two days* 
provisions on liaiid. He tiad favors to ask for some of his 
wounded ufTicers, all of which were readily acceded to by Gen- 
eral Grant, who was very much at ease, smoking a cigar, and 
conducting tlie business with dignity, yet with despatch. 

The prisoners were taken on board of the transports, the 
men on the lower deck, and the o0iccrs having the freedom of 
the boat. The saloons and cabins, berths and state-rooms were 
filled with tlie wounded of Iratli armies. 

**Tbe conditions of tlie surrender have been most shame- 
fttlly rioLated," said a tall, dork-haired, black-eyed Mississipp) 
oolonel, on oyasd the Belle of Memphis. 



^'Bowso?*' laskod. 

" It wtu agreed that vo should be treated like gentlemon, 
but the steward of the boat won't let us liaro seats at the table. 
Ho charges us a half-dollar a meal, aiid refuses Coufederatd 

" Well, sir, you fare no worse than the rest of us. I paid 
for a state-room, but the surgeon turned mo out and put in b 
wounded man, which was all ri^ht and proper, and at which 1 
hare tio complaint to make, and I shall Lliitik mjsolf well off 
If I can got hard-tack." 

While conversing with him, a Mississippi captain come up,— 
a tall, red -whiskered, tobnccochewing, ungainly fellow, with a 
iwaggeriiig air. *'' Thia is d — d pretty husiiioss. Thoy talk of 
rooonetruuLiiig tlio Union, and Iwgin by rejeclMig our money. 
T don't got anything to oat," he said. 

I directed Ids attention to a barrel of bacon and several 
boxes 01 broad whicli had Iwoi) ofwncd for Iho prisonora., and 
Irom which thoy wore helping thomscWcs. Qo turned away in 
di^ist, saying, — 

"Officers are to be treated according to their rank, — like 
gentlemen, — and I '11 be d — d if I don't pitch in and give 
somebody a licking ! " 

Some of the oflicere on board conducted tliomsolvos with 
perfect decorum. One young physician garo Ids servicea to 
our wounded. 

AlUiongh Commodore Footo luid boon wounded in Uio gun 
boat attack uj)on the fort, ho intended to pui«h up the river to 
Nashville, and intercept General Albert Sidney Johnston, who 
he kjiow must be falling back from Bowling Oreen, but ho was 
itoppod by a dctipatch from General ilallcck to General Grant. 
*' Poii't let Foote go up the river." 

The gunboats could hare reached Nashville iu eight hours. 
Floyd and Pillow, who made their escajK) from nouclson at sim- 
riso, reached iho city hofoi'o noon, while the congregations were 
ill tho churches. Uad Commodore Footo followed be would 
have been in tlie city by three o'clock, holding the bridges, 
patrolling tl)0 rivers, and ctttlin); olf Johnston's retreat- BueU 
had between thirty and forty tliousand men, Johnston less than 
twenty. On the hool of tlie demoralization incidAnt to the 


rout at Mill .Springs, Fort Henrj, aiid the loss at Donclson, the 
entira Rcbol army in the West ootild liave boon destroyed, but 
for the dictation of General Hollcck, sitting in Llio planter's 
bouse Bro hundred miles distant. 

" nod I been permitted to carry ont my intention wc should 
have put an end to the rebellion in the West," said Commo 
dore Foote. 

General Halleek bad endeavored to enforce his order No. 8, 
tfzcludiug negroes from his Vmm, but before daybreak on Sun- 
day morning at DouoLson a negro entered the lines, tianng 
made bis way out from Dover, past tlie Rebel pickets. He 
reported that tlie Rebels wore fleeing. Some of the officers 
suggested that he was sent out to luro Grant into a trap, and 
proposed to tie him up and give liim a whipping. 

*' You may hang me, shoot me, do anything to me, if it 
ft'n*t as 1 tell you," was his earnest reply. 

One hour later came the Rebel flag of truce from Buokner, 
aokiiig for Uie appointment of Commissioners ; but the infor 
matton already obtained enabled Grant to reply : " I proposa 
to move immediately upon your works." 

Tlio negro was a slave, who entered tlio Onion lines in search 
of freedom, — tliat which his soul most longed for. General 
Grant did not exclude him. Like a sensible man, be took no 
action in tlie matter, gave no directions as to what ehoiild 
be done with him. The slave being at liberty to decide for 
himself, took passage on a transport for Cairo. Tlie steamer 
stopped at a landing for wood, wh n the slave was recoguized 
by some of the citizens, who said thai he belonged to a Union 
■un, and demanded tliat he should bo put otl the boat. The 
captain of tlio steamer was inclined to accede to their demands ; 
but the officers on board, knowing what service be bad ren- 
dered, uiformed the captain that be need not bo under any 
apprehensions of arrest by civil process, as martial law was in 
force. They kept the noji^o under their protection, and gave 
bim hie liberty, thus setting at defiance General Halleok and 
his pro-slavery order. 

A great many negroes came into the lines, and wore weloomed 
bj the soldiers. Among them was a boy, black as anihrMittt, 
vith large, liutrous eyes, an'* teeth as white as pureii ivory 

HOTS orw 


Ho was UiJrt«oii years old, bom in Kentucky, but for sereral 
years liad lived near Dover. His master, he said, was a gentle- 
man, owned twenty-four slaves. Ho had on a greasy bUirt of 
snulTcolored jooa, tho genuine negro cloth, such as ono half 
the Soutliorn army was compelled to wear. Hia slouclied hat 
was tipped back upon his head, showing a countenance ludicor 
tire of intelligence. 

" Well, my boy, what is your name ? " I asked. 

"Dick, massa." 

" Whore do you live 1 " 

*■* About fourteen milos from Povor, mossa, up near dc rollin* 

*' Is your master a SecoBsioiiist ? " 

" Ho was Sccesh, massa, but he be Union now." 

This was correct testimony, tho master appearing wiUi throat 
boldness at General Qrant's head -quarters to let it be known he 
was for tlie Union. 

" Are you a slave, Dick ? " 

" I was a slave, but I 's froe now ; I 'b 'fiscated." 

" Wltore were you when tlie fight was going on at Fort Dou- 
olBon ? " 

" At home ; but when massa found de fort was took he 
started us all oS for do Souf, but wo got away and como dowu 
to Dover, and was Tiscated." 

The master was a Secessionist till his twenty-four chattels, 
which he was tryuig to nin South, became perverse and veorod 
to Uie Norlh witlk much fleotnoss. Not only wore tlicso twenty- 
four started South, but ten times twenty-four, from the vicinity 
of Dover, and an hundred times twenty-four from Clarkesville, 
Nashvillo, and all along the Cumberland. When Donolson 
fell, tho edifice of the Secessionists became very shaky in one 

Columbus was occupied on the 5th of March, tlio Bchelt 
retiring to Island No. 10. Visiting the poat-ofTice, I socurod 
aereral bushels of Southern newspapers, which revealed a state 
of general gloom and despondency throughout the Confeder- 
acy. Inspired by tho events of 1861, — the battles of Bull Run, 
Belmont, and other engagements, — the Southnrn muse had 
■truck its Ivra. 




The battle of Belmont had kiudled a poetic flame in the 
breast of Jo. Augustiito Sigoaigo, in the MempliU Appeal 
Tltc 'opftuiug stanza is as follows : — 

" Now glory to our Southern caum, Atirl pr^eee b« to God, 
lli&t Hfl hall) met tbe Southron's fo«, &ntl sconrgod him mth hii rod ; 
Od the tentwl plAln* of Bvlinont, Uiere in their might thn VftntUli cftnn^ 
And gave unto Destruction alt they foim'l, with >wor<l and Qantm; 
But ibnf met • ttout ronatADoe froni ■ little Inod that d«j, 

' Who dwon that Urn/ would coaqu«r, or returo to motlier cbj * 

After ft description of tho fight, wo havo Um foUowiiig warn 
ng ill tbe tentli stanza : — 

" Let tbe horrors ot thii Amy to the foe a wftraing be, 
Tlukt tbe Lord ia with th« South, ttiat Uia un ia with tbe Irvc ; 
Thtt her khI ia pure and apotlcM w her cImt and suim/ akjr, 
And he wlio d&re poUat« it on her aoil ahall bastsly die ; 
'^CH- Hia fiit both gone forth, e'ea among the Ueatiui borde, 
T}at tbe Soath has got Hia blcaaing, for tbu Sooth is of tba Lord." 

Tlie Now Orleans PieayuTifi had an " Ode on the Mooting of 
tliQ Soutliorn Cougretis, by Honry Timrod," which oponcd in 
tiio foUowiiig lolly linos: — 

■* Hftth not the inuming dftirned with edded light I 
And will not evening call uioihtir atar 
Ont of the infinite rrgioiui of the night 
To mtLrk thio (Ujr in llfAvco ? At hat, we an 
A nation amoiig naUooj; and tbe worid 
Shall aoon behold, in many a distant port, 
Another flag aafurlud L " 

Tliis poet gave chc following contrast between the North ano 
Hoolh : — 

" Look wh«3r« WQ will, we cannot find a ponnd 

For any mournful Bong ! 
CaD up the cUhhing eleinimts aroaod, 

And tcflt the right and wrong 1 
On oa« aide, — pie<lges broken, creeda that hn, 
Bebgion aonk in rague [)hiloM>ph)' ; 
Emptj' prafesnona ; Phariaaia leaven ; 
Soi^ that would tell their btrth-right in tbe afcy ; 
P1u1anthropi«tH who paaa tbe "beiggar \tj, 
An-1 law« which controvert tbe law» of Heares I 
And, on the other, first, a rightcoua cauM t 

Then, honor without flawa, 
[Vvtb, Bible icTerfnce. charitabln wealth. 

W TDZ BOrs OP 'n. fMarah, 

And for the. poor nml humhlA, Uw« wtueb give 
Not ti)A meikn righl to buir tb« right to lir«, 

But lire, bome Kn<l liCraltJ). 
To doubt th« iMuo wi^m distruit tn God I 
IT io bif providoDoe He WL (IwmNKl 
TtiM, t« llie pAMie fur wbkh we ftruy, 
Tfavan^ the Red Sen or Wnr muat lio our whj, 
Donlit BOt, () broth<-rm, wn iiLidl find at aatd 

A Mtjttt with bifi nxl F" 

Tl;o Vicksburg CilUm had tliirtj staiieae rcbearBing the 
•reiiU of tlio joar 1801. Two or tlirco soloctions will be mif- 
^eut to show that tho miiso holtod a IJttlo now and then * — 

" Laflt ycMt^ holiday* bnd icnrculy poaictl, 
Before moniDntotu i^vKnta came thick &nd fiiat ; 
MkMiiMlpfii on the Dili of JannAry irenCoat, 
DeLenuiiicil Io ntitnii BtrutiiK, firm ami atouL 

*• Major Andcraon would not evacuate .Sumtsr, 
Wh«n (icn- Beaure(;&rd made hiin lurrendvr. ^ 
And Mnt him tiume to lii« aboliUon maitor. 
Upon a trot, if do! » little faater. 

^ Th«n Old Abu Lincoln got aw(\il mad, 
BwuiM hia luck had turned out w luid ; 
Aad hagnurped his oM-fiuhionetl i)t«e1 pen, 
And onlerod ont MVfnlx-five thooaand men. 

" May tKfl Almigbty nnil« nn our Sonthcm riM, 
May Liberty ami Imb-pvod^ncs crow apac«. 
Max ^^' Ubertiva thia year be ai:bie«GtI, 
Add our diftrcM and •nrrow {rracioiuly ralieTed.' 

Tbo Iwiulmrdmcnt of Island No. 10 commciicod on the 9tb 
of Marcli, oiid conLiiiucd iioarlf a montli. Qennral Popo iqot- 
ing overland, ciLpturcd Ncv Madrid, planted his guns, and had 
Lho ttcbcl steamboats in a trap. Tbo naval action of Uarch 
17th WAS grand )<cyond description. Tlio mortars were in full 
[day. The Cincinnati, Hcnton, and St. Ixiuia were taalied 
togetliurf and anchored with their Iiows down titrc&m. The 
Carondetet and Mound City were placed in jwMtion to give ■ 
cross-fire with Uie oUior three, wliilu the Pittsburg was held in 

It was past one o'clock in the aftcnioou of a« beautiful • 


day aa ever davucd upon the earth, when a ball of bunting 
went np to the top of tlio Bcatou's flagstaff, and fluttered out 
into the battle sigual. Then came a flash, a Iwlching of smoke 
from her t>ows, a roar nnd reverl)oralion rolling far away,— 
a screaming in the air, a tossing up of cartb and an explosion 
■II the Rebel works. 

The highest artistic skill cannot pnrtraj itie scone of that 
iftemoon, — the flashes and flames, — the great white clouds, 
mounting abore Uio boats, and floating majeBticolly away over 
ibo dark gray forests, — ibo mortars throwing np vast columu 
of sulphurous cloud, which widen, expand, and roll forward in 
CanLostic folds, — the shells one afLcr another in swill succession 
rising, rotating, rushing upward and onward, ^ailing a thou- 
doud feel iiigli, llieir courbo tracking a liglit gos&ainor trail, 
vfaiuh bocomuii a beautiful parabola, and then the terrific oz- 
plo-vion, — a flash, a handful of cloud, a strange whirring of 
the ragged fragments of iron hurled upwards, outwards, and 
downwards, crashing tlirough the forosts ! 

1 was favored witli a position on the Silvor Wave steamer, 
lying just above the Benton, bor wheels slowly turning to keep 
her in position to run down and help the gunboats if by 
chance they were disabled. Tlie lleliel batteries on the main- 
laud and un Uib Island, tlie Rebel Btuamers wondering up and 
down like nts ia a cage, were in full view. Witli my glass 1 
Gould BOO all tlmt took place in and around the nearest Itaitory. 
Columns of water were thrown up by the .shot from Ltie gun- 
boats, tike the flrst gush from the lioso of a steam flro-cngiue, 
whicli falls in rainbow-colored spray. There were little splashes 
iu the stream when the fragments of shell dropped from the 
sky. Bound shot sklp[}ed along tho surface of Uie river, tear- 
ing through tho Rebel works, filling tlio air with sticks, limbers, 
earth, and branches of trees, as if a thunderbolt bad fallen. 
There were eiplo^ions followed by Tolumes of smoke rising 
from tlio ground like tho mists of a summer morning. Tlicrc 
was a hisaing, crackling, and Lliundertug explosion in front and 
rear and overhead. But Uicro were plucky mea in the fort, 
who at inter\'als came out from their bomb-proof, and sent 
back a defiant answer. There was a flash, a volume of sinoko, 
a hissing as if a flying fiery 30r|»ent were sailing through the 




ur, Krowiag louder, cloArer, nearer, more fearful and terrlAo* 
crashing iuto tho Benton, tearing up tlio iron platiug, cuttinf; 
off Ixuuns, spUntoring planks, sma.sliiii|[ Uio crockery in tlio 
pantrj, and breaking up tlio Admiral's writiiig-dosk. 

"Uowlinf; and Rcrcuching ui'l whizxing. 
Tbfl bomWIielLii ajcLed an high, 
Ao<) then, like Gcry nn^uora, 
Dropped *wiflJ;r from the aky." 

All through the sunnj hours, till OTcning, the guuKmti 
maintained their position. W^liilo around tho bright flanhes^ 
clouds of smoke, and heavy thundering brought to mind the 
gorgeous imagerj of ttorclatiou, do^criptire of the last judg- 

While the homhardmeut was at its height, I received a piick- 
age of letters, intrusted to my care. There was one post- 
marked from a town in Uaiiic, directed to a sailor on the St. 
Louis. Jumping on board a tug. which waa coureyiug ammu- 
nition to tho gunboats, I riirited the v&s»el to distribute the 
letters. A gun hod burst duritig the action, killing and wound- 
ing several of tho crow. It was a sad scone. Tboro wore the 
dead, — two of tUcm killed instantly, and one of them the 
bravo follow from Maine. Captain Paulding o^icncd Che letter, 
aiLd fcmnd it to Ijo ftora one who had confided to the noble 
sailor her heart's affections, — who was looking forward to the 
time when the war would bo over, and they would be liappy 
together as liuebuud and wife. 

*' Poor girl I 1 shall have to write her sad news," said the 

Day ol^r day and night after night the siege was kept up, 
till it grow exceedingly uiouotonous. I became so accustomed 
to tlio pouudiug that, though the thirteen-inch mortars were 
not thirty rods distant from my quarters, I was not wakened 
by the tromondous explosions. Commodore Footo found it 
very dinicull to fight down stream, as the water was very high, 
flooding all the country. Colonel Uissetl, of General Pope^i 
anuy, proposed tho cutting of a canal through tho woods, to 
enable tho gunboats to reach New Madrid. It was an Her- 
culBan undertaking. A lightrdraUt transport was rigged for 






tlie eatcrprise. Machincr; was attached to the donkoj-onf^ne 
of the BtAainor by which inimense cotton-wood trees w«re sawed 
off four foet under water. 

There was Bometliing very enchanting in the operation, — to 
sleun out from tlio main river, over coru-fielda and pasture 
lauds, into the dark forests^ threading a narrow and intricate 
cbumel, across the country, — past the Rebel batteries. A 
transport was taken through, and ii tug-boat, but the channel 
was not deep enough for the gunboats. 

Captain Stembcl, commanding the Benton, — a braro and 
oompotcnt ofllcer, Commodoro Footo's right-hand man, — pro- 
poeed to run Uio batteries by night to New Madrid, capture 
the Rebel steamer which Fupc had caught in a trap, then turn- 
ing head up stream take Uic Rebel liatteries in rovorso. The 
Commodore hebitatcd. Ho was cautious as well as brave. At 
length he accepted the plan, and sent the Pittsburg and Caron- 
dclet post the batteries at uight. It was a bold undertaking, 
but accomplished without damage to tlio gunboats. The cur- 
rent was Ewift and strong, and they went with tho speed of 
I raco-horfie. 

Tlieir pro&ence at New Madrid was lioiled with joy by the 
troops. Four steamboats had worked thoir way through the 
oanal. A regiment was token on board each boat. The 
Rebels had a battery on the other side of the river at Wat- 
sou's Lauding, wliich was speedily silenced by the two gun- 
boats. Tlie Lroups lauded, and under Qenoral Paiue drove 
tho Robots from their camp, who fled ui coahisiou, throwing 
avftj tlioir guus, knapsacks, and clotlung. 

Qenoral Pope scut over tho balance of his troops, and with 
his whole force moved upon Qeueral Mackoll, tho Rebel coa>- 
mouder, who surrendered hia entire command, consisting of 
nearly seven thousand prisoners, one hundred and twenty 
three guus, and an immeuse amount of supplies. 

The troops of Qeueral Paine's brigade came across a farm 
yard which was well stocked with poultry, and helped them- 
selvea. The farmer's wife visited the General's Uoad-quarters 
to enter a complaint. 

** They are stealing all my chickens, General I I sha'n't have 
one left," she exclaimed, excitedly. 




The battle of Pitubiu^ Landing, or Shiloh as it is 6om» 
times called, was fought ou tlie 6th oad 7th of April. It wai 
a oontost which has i»carccl)r beeit surpassod for umohood, pluck, 
euduraooe, aud herui&m. lu proportiou to the uumbers en 
gaged the loes iu killed and wounded was as great as that of 
anj battle of the war. The disaiiters to the Rubol caui>e iu Tea 
nessoe moved Daviti to liiLriy ruinforcumetits to Corinth, whicb 
was Uie uow base of Jotuiision's opcrutious. Beauregard waa 
&eut iuto the departmeut. Ue had lliu reputation of being a 
great commauder, t»e<:ause he couimaiidud Uie Rebel baLLuries 
iu the attack on Sumter, and Imd received the glory of wiuuiug 
lb« victory a.t Bull Bun. Time i» the te&t of honor. Meu, 
like the stars, have their hours of rising and setting, lie 
was in the zenith of his fame. 

Albert Sjdncy Johnston was siill in comnuniil, but lie was 
induced to move (rom Corinth to PilLiLurg Landing and attack 
Grant before Bucll, who was slowlj motiug across the couutry 
from XasbTillc, could join liitn. 

Buell marched witli ^rcat deliberation. He even gare ex* 
press orders that there tihould l>c six miles' spaco betweeu the 
din&ions of his armj. The position at Pittsburg Landing was 
cliosen by General Smith, as being a convenient base for > 
moromcnt upon Corinth. It had some natural advantages fur 
dcfonco, — Lick Creek and a ravine abore the Landing, — but 
notliiug was done towards erecting bonicados or breastworks. 
There are writcni who maintain Umt the attack of the Bebols 
was expected; but if expected, would not prudence have dio* 
t&ted ibo slashing of trees, the ereotiou of breastworks, and 
a regular dihposition of the forces ? On Friday and Saturday 
the Bebel cavalrjr appeared in our fnmt, but were eaaily drivM 
back towards Corinth. 

BOTS OP *«l. 


Nothing was douo towards Htrnngtheiiing the line ; no ordon 
were iBRtied in anticipntinn of a, battlo till tlie pickets von 
attacked on Sunday morning, whito tlio troops wore cooking 
their cofToo, and wliilo many of tlio ofGcont wore in bod. 

I*ittj;burg is tliu ueurust point to Corinth oti the river. The 
road wiiMJB np the bank, pasftos along the edge of a deep 
ravine, lending southwest. It forks a half-mile fWim the 
Landing, tho lolVhaud pnth leading to Ilaroburg up the rivor 
and tho main road leading to Shiloh Church, four miles from 
the Landing. Tho accomimiijing sketch of tho cbnrcli was 
taken tho wook aftor tho battto, with tho hoad-quartor tents of 
nenoral Sbonnan around it. }*£ architecture is ezccodingly 
primidro. It is a fair type of iho inertness of tho people of 
that region at tho timo. It is altout twenty-fire or thirty 
fbot square, built of logs, without |)ulpit or pews, with rude 
honchea for seats. Once it was chinked with clay, but the 
rains have washed out the mortar, and ttio wind oomes in 
Uirougfa all tho crevices. It is thoroughly ventilated. It 
v^uld make a good corn-crib for an Illinois former. 

A brook meanders through tho furo^t, runiisliiiig water for 
tbo worshipping assombtios. South of tho church, and acroBs 
tho brook, is a clearing, — an old farm-house whore Beauregard 
wroto his despatch to Jeflf Davis on Sunday night, announciug 
a great victory. Tliore are other little clearings, which have 
boon long under cultivation. Tlio people wore too indolent to 
mako new openings in the forest, where contnrios of mould had 
accumulated. The country was but littlo furtlier advanced 
than when Daniel Boone passed through tho Cumlwrland Gap. 
Civilization came and made a beginning ; but tho blight of slav- 
ery was there. How the tillage and culture of New England 
or Ohio would crown those swells of laud witli sheaves of grain! 
What corn and clover fields, pastures of honeysuckle, gardens 
of rosea! Within (bur miles of one of tho most beautiful rivers 
in the world, — in a country needing only industry to make it 
a paradise, — the mourning dove filled the air with its plalutivo 
notes in the depths of on almost unbroken fbrest, while the 
few people, Ehlftlcsp and destituto of the comforts of civilixa- 
tion, knew no better than to fight against their own best in^ 




The majorii; of tho poor whites of the South are very Igno- 
Mnt. Few of them bavo over attondod scIkm). In Tonoeesee, 
by the census of 18<00, thoro wore mora tlian seventy thoui»aud 
□ative-lturn Anioricaii adulis who could not read. Not oa« 
balf of the prisoners captured at Douolsoii could rood or vrito. 
Willie tlio army was lying before Corinth, I visitod a Misaifr 
aippi school- liottso, — a log building chiuked with mud, covered 
with long split oak shingles. It had a huge fireplace, built 
of stonos, and a chimney laid up with eUcks and mud. There 
were oiKiiings for two wiudovs, but fnunos^ Bash, and glass 
all vore wanting. There was no floor but the hcaton earth, 
— no desks. Stakes were driven into the ground, upou which 
slaha of oak were laid for seals. The teacher's deak was a 
largo dry-goods box. 

The State of North Carolina, with a white population of 
fire hundred and fifty-throe thousand, had eighty thousand 
a&tiTc whites, over twenty years of age, who bad nerer at- 
tended school. In tho State uf Virginia, North Carolina, 
Soutli Carolhia, Georgia, and Alabama, 6ve States having a 
populadoD of two nulliou six hundred and seventy thousand, 
there were two hundred and sixty-two thousand native-born 
AjDoricans, over twenty years of age, unable to read or write ! 

It ▼ill be no easy matter to awaken aspirations in the minds 
of thi*i class. Tliey have been so long inert, so loug taught to 
heliovo that labor is degrading, that rapid progress of Southern 
society cannot be expected immediately, unless emigration in- 
fhsea a new vilali^ into the community. 

Ignorance was on the increase throughout the South. Pubbo 
schools were of little value whore they existed, and the eoontj 
was so sparsely settled in many places there were not scholan 
enough to form one. The school fund arising from tho sale of 
public lands was often appropriated to other uses. In Arkan 
sas it had been squandered by worthless officials. The planters 
and wealthy farmers employed tcacliers in their families. Bo- 
Ibre the war, thotisands of yoting ladies fVom the Kortb were 
thus engaged. They sat at the planter's tab>o and asBOciatod 
with his daughters ; but, however intelligenl, refined, or agree 
able they might be, they were not admitted as their equals in 
•odecy. Such teaching as they received, althoi^h the tcauhw 



night be ftu'tltful, was of UlUo account. TKo childroii, proud 
kod haughty, daily hoaring of the inferiority of the pooplo of 
iho North, were not always -ii^posed to rccoiro iiiBtructiou, 
nuch less to submit to correctiou, at the hoiids of n " TaBke« 
Bchoolma'am." To bo chivalrous, courteous, high-mindod, aod 
generous toward woman has ever bocti the Iwast of the men 
of the South ; but, during tho montlis immediately preceding 
tho outbreak of the Rebellion, insulting and abusive language 
WM (Vocly uttered m tlio pi-cscnco of Nortiicrri ladies. Tlicre 
W9B rudeness not only of language, but in some instances of 
lotion. The young bloods of the aristocrncy, learning to crow 
u tlioy heard tho old cocks, not nnrrofiuciilly rose in robellioo 
againnt tho authority of the teacher. Especially was this the 
ease with teachers employed in the public schools. A Yan 
keo schoolmaster or school mi»trcs<i was ono who could be in 
suited with impunity ; and so bitter was titc hatred, tlmt, weeks 
before tho first gun was fired at Sumter, Northern teachers 
were forced to leave their schools and retire from Uio Confod 

To OoncntI Sherman mnre than to any division uonunander 
Is credit due Tur iLiu viuiury at Pittsburg Landing. When the 
first volley of mu.skotry reverberated through the forest on Sun- 
day moniiog ho leaped into his saddle. Ho was conspicuous 
everywhere, riding along the lines regiirdless of the bullets 
which riildlod his clothoa. Early in the buttle he was wounded 
In tho wrist, but wrapping a bandage round his arm, continued 
in Uio Geld. Tliroe horses were sliot under him. Ho was a 
oonspiououa mark for tbu Rebel riflemen. His fearless example 
was inspiring to tho men. And so through tlie long hours of 
tlie day ho was able to hold hi^ [lutiiition by tlie church, till the 
gi^ug way of Prentiss and Hurlbnrt, nearer the river, made it 
ueuossary to fall l>ack. Ilere Grant first exhibited thoso quali- 
ties of character which have made hiin tJio great uiilitary com 
mandor of the ago. " We will beat tbcm yet. They can't pass 
tliis raviuo," were bis words of encouragement as ho selected 
the final line, loading to tho laiidiug. The contoKt was virtu- 
ally decided at fivo o'clock on Sunday afternoon, whon Greek- 
enridge attempted to cross ili'i gorge near the river and waa 
hurled back with groat loss. Johnston and Besuregard mads 


THE ROTS or '« 


CA5«u of dead hones tainted the air. There were piles -of earth 
Dfiwlj hoapod aboTo llio»o who died from their wouiide. Thoy 
fled in a fVight on Monday iiiglit I came uneipoctedly upon ■ 
little Inf;-hut, on a bj-patli leading toward Monterey. Two of 
HcOook^B cavalry rode up in advanco of me. A widow woman, 
middle agod, with a littlo girl and two little Ixiyv occupied it. 
She kindly gave me a drink of water, and informed me Oiat 
Uiero wore throe Confodorato wounded in tlio other room. I 
looked in upon thom for a moment. Suffering had wasted 
them, and they liad no disposition to talk of the past or tJie 
ftitiiro. The good woman liad been kind to them, but she had 
•een a groat deal of sorrow. On Monday night one hundred 
.wounuuii wore brought to her liouso. Her two horses had 
been ioized by tlie Rebols, her com oaton, and no oquivalont 
returned. She conversed unroservedly ; deplored tlie war, and 
wished it over. There were seven new-made graves in her 
garden, and in her dooryard a heap of cindera and ashes, 
and charred brands, ~- fragments of wagons and tent-polea. 
On the upper Corinth road fifty wounded were lying, cared 
(br by our surgeons. 

I recall some of the scones of the movement upon Corinth. 
Bore is an open forest, undulating land with little or no under 
brush; thousands of wagons, all plodding on, not in slow, eaej 
motion, but by fits and starts, with cutting, Blashing, shouting, 
swearing, a chorus of profanity resounding through tlie foroflta. 
A mule Bticka Out ; he tumbles ; hia mate folia upon him. The 
drivera become enraged; then followa a general twW<, a long 
halt, frantic attompta to start again, an unloading and reloaditig. 
Otiier tzaine in the rear, tired of waiting, turn to the right ut 
left, perhaps to pass the littlo elough safely, only to meet with 
a similar mishap ten rods farther along. A battery Etmgglei 
along, with twolvo horses attaclied to a single piece of artillary. 
The entire forest is cut up by passing teams. Mingled with 
the thousands of wagons are ri^mcnta. They, too, are in cou- 
fosion. Buell's and Grant's forces have become mixed. Tlie 
diriiiionB have been ordered to move, but evidently witli no pr^ 
arranged system. Aji far as the eye can soe it is one grand 
burly-btirly, — one fiantio struggle to make headway, — and 
Uiii for a half-doeeu miles. Wliat a waste of horM-flosb .' 


1593.] rrrrsKCBO LAXoaa, rosr pillow, axd mesipbis. 


Here are six mules attempting to dnw lU boxei of tH«ad, — 
veigbt perbape six hundred pouDda. The cmrtlry bring oat 
their supplies on horaee, each caTalijmaii bringing a bag of 
oala. There is cursing, swearing, pouoding. The armj in 
FUndere coxild not bare been more pro&Lue. The bnitalitj 
(J the driren is terrible. A miserable follow, destitute of 
Muse and hmnajii^, strikes a mule ovor the bead, leUing the 
animal to the ground. Noble hor^ee are remorseleaaly cut op 
bj tbeee fiendish beings in human form. There is no obec^ 
upon their cnieltj. Tou see dead horse* eTerjrwhere. All 
the finer sensibilities become callous. One miut seo, but uot 
feel. There would be pleasure in snatching a whip Irom the 
hands of these sarages and giving them a doee of their own 

General Halleck advanced with extreme caution. He built 
Ibar lines of breastworks, each line nearly ten miles long, so 
that if driven from one be could fall back to another. He sunk 
deep wells for water, be was preparing to be besieged instead 
of opening a siege. 

He doubted all the reports of his scouta, — disbeliered the 
stones of n^roes who came to htm, — issued Order No. 57, 
that all " unauthorixed persons " in his lines should be seat 
out, especially fugitiTe slaves, — threw up redoubts, dra^^ged 
his heavy eiege-gims through the mud (torn the Landing, 
— planted them behind sodded earthworks, erected bomb- 
proof magazines, — issued his final orders to his army of an 
hundred thousand men, — opened fire from his heavy guns, — 
threw forward his skirmishers, and found — a deserted town ! 

Joining the fleet upon the MistdtK^ippi once more on the 3d 
of Jane, I found Commodore (now Admiral) Davis in com- 
mand, Admiral Foote baring been relieved at his own request. 
His wound was painful, and he was so debilitated that ho was 
unable to discbar^ his duties. The idea was generally enter- 
tained tliat the Rebels bad evacuated Fort Pillow. The evacu* 
aliou of Corinth was the V>asi8 for expectation of such an event. 
Biree were seen over the point on the bluffs and beyond, toward 
Baudolph. Of course no one could say what was bumiuft, but 
from the past conduct of Rebels, it was reasonable to suppose 
that the evacuation had taken place, inasmuch as there « as an 


BOYS OF '«!. 


ominoua Bilonce of Rebel batteries. But ttiey Buddenljr waked 
np. ABoending to the pilot-house of the steamer, I could see 
hatidfuls of white cloud ahore aud bojond the donso foliage 
of the forest. Then there came a dull, heavy roar, — boom — 
boom — boom, — and tlie nearer explosion of the Hliella which 
burst ill the air above our gunboatA. Not evacuated ! They 
worn there lively as over. 

Thin suddon and unexpected domonBtration aroiued Ca[>' 
tain Maynadior, and nglit merrily aiisworod the mortars till 
Doon. Tlion there was a respite, while tho mortar crows sat 
down boniiaLh tho dark green foliage of tho forest, aheltored 
from the Imruing sun, and ate their rations, and rested the 

Seven or eight miles below Craighead Point is Lanier's plon- 
tatiou. Tlie proprietor being a SoceBsionist, burned his cotton^ 
but for some caiise he had lost feith, or pretended to Ioko faith, 
to tho Confodoracy, and desired to bo pomiitted to return to 
his oomfortablo home, there to remain unmnlostod. He sent a 
note to Colonel Fitctv, commanding tho land forces, soliciting 
u Intorviow. Hie request woa grouted, and ho so ingratiated 
himaolf into Colonel Htch's good (boling that he bocamo again 
ftn ocoupant of his hnine^tnad. 

Subsequently it was ascertained that ho was supplying ths 
Babel floot with ico, spring ohickeaB, garden vegetabloa, Ao. 
It was decided to spring a trap upon the gentlemen of the 
Southern navy. A email party was sent out by Colonol Fitch, 
which reached the locality undiscovered. After a few minutos' 
rooonnoissauce, eight men wore ditucovorcii liolping themselvee 
to ioe in Mr. Lutiicr's ico-cellur. Tlioy woro burjirised. One 
resisted, but was shot, and tho rest, after a short parleying, 
Minnderod. Tlioy were brought to tlie Bonton, but were very 
WkOommunicatJTe and Eour. 

The loss of a Ueutouant aud seven men was not well relished 
at Fort Pillow. Soon after noon tlic guua ou the bluff com- 
menced a vigorous but random firo, as if ammunition cost 
nothing, and it were mere pastime to burn powder and huri 
■hell over the point at our Duet. It woii very pleasant to 
■ee tlie round sliot plump into the water all around our gun- 
boets, with an occasional shell pufTmg into cloud overhead, and 


r^iuiog Cragmeuts of irou iuto the river, — for with euck ran- 
dom firing, there was but Uttle danger of being hit. 

The dajr bad been hot and avltrj, but just befbre nightfall a 
huge bank of cloudfl rolled up in the western horizon, and buret 
with the ftxiy of a tornado upon the fleet. Some of the tran»- 
ports dragged their anchors before the gale, but all kept up 
Bteam ; thoj- were cot long in making bead against the breeze. 
There waa but little rain, but a deuee cloud of dust wati whirled 
up from the saodban. 

I was mrpriaed to eee, when the storm was at it« he^t, two 
of our rams steam rapidl; down to the point aud turn ttieir 
prowa towards the Rebel batteries. They disappeared in the 
whirling diist-cloud, vanishing &om sight like ships at sea when 
olght comes on. Thoy steamed swiftly down the stream and 
turned Oraighead Point. 

Heir nussion, at such a moment, was to take advantage of 
the Btormf — of the enveloping dust-cloud, -^ to asoertaiti what 
the Rebels were doing. We could hear the sudden waking up 
if heavy guns, — those that had spoken to us in the past, — 
tist as, in high party timeet great orators hold forth the night 
kefore election. The rams were disoorered, and at once the 
Mtttiriee were in a blaze. Then they quietly steamed across 
ite Itend, in face of the batteries, turned their prows up stream, 
tod appwred in sight once more. Onward rolled tiie oloud, 
nd the Rebel cannon botched and thundered, firing shot at 
random into the river. Bang — bang — bang, — two or three 
at a tinte, — roorod the guns. It was amusing, laughable, to 
•ee the rams returning, and hear the uproar below. 

The duBtrcloud, with its fine, misty rain, rolled away. The 
sun shone once more, and bridged the Mississippi with a gar- 
geous rainbow. While admiring it, a Robol gunboat poked 
her uoae around tlie point. Then, after a little hesitancy, her 
entire body, to see what we were up to. She was a black craft, 
bearing the flag of the Confederacy. Seeing how far off 
we were, she steamed boldly past the point, up stream far 
enotigb to get a sight of ^e entire Federal fleet; turned 
dowly, placed her head downward, to be ready for a quick 
run home, if need be ; then turned her paddles against the 
eurrent, and surveyed us leisurely. The Mound City and 


THK BOYS or '«!. 


Cairo beiug nearest, opened fire upon ilie cnid. A sigutil wAb 
ruD up from tlie Benton, and immediately from the chimneyf 
of the entire floot rose hoary columns of blackest smoko, wliich 
mingled with llio white puffs of Bteam, and roUod away into 
tho blackness of tlio receding storm. Tlio sim had gone 

Uiiliectliug the shot falliiig close at her bows, or whistling 
over her decks, the steamer took her own time and slowly do- 
icendcd Uio Btream and disappeared beyond the jutting head- 

At sunset on tho 4lh of June, the Rebel batteries opened a 
Gorcu and sudden firo upon tlie gunboats. Then there CAoa* 
heavy oipiosiotks, rising columns of smoke, faint and whit< ai 
Er»t, but iiicrousiiig in volume and blackness. Another, — a 
third, a fourth, — expanding into one broad column, all along 
the height occupied by the Rebel batteries. Daylight waa 
fading away, the lurid flames filled the southern sky, and a 
bearing, surging bank of smoke and flame laid along the tree- 
tope of the intervening forest. Occasionally there were flashes 
and faint explosions, and sudden puffs of smoke, spreading out 
like flakes of cotton or fleeces of whitest wool. This was alt we 
could see. We were ignomul of what was feeding the fl&iue«, 
whether steamers or bales of cotton, or barracks or tents or 
houses, but were sure that it was a burning of that which had 
cost a pile of Confederate notes. After taking posBOsaion of 
the works in Uie moruiiig, the fleet pursued the retreating 
Etebels down the river. 

It was dark when we came to anohor four miles above the 
city of Memphis on the 6tli of June. 

" I think that we shall have a lively time in the morning," 
said the Admiral. My own quartern were on board of the J. 
H. Dickey, which lay a mile up stream. I was astir before 
daylight on the 6th. Tlie air was clear, — tho sky witliout ft 
clouij. The stars were fading in the west, and the c<Jumui 
of jght were rising in tho east. The gunboats — five of 
them — were in a lino across the stream, wttti the steam 
escaping Irom their pipes. The city was hi full view. People 
wer: gathering upon the banks gazing upon the fleet. A dark 
ooluuin of smoke rose from above the greeu foliage of the 



forest oppwiU tlie city, but whether produced by burning 
baildings or bj the Rebel fleet, was whoUj a matter of con- 

The tugboat Jessio Bonton, toudor to the Admiral, came np 
to the advance boat, whicU was iTuig hj our side. 

"The Admiral thinka that the Rebel flcot ia below the city, 
and that we are to have a figlit- You caji go duwu if you waiit 
to," said the captaiu. 

I was on board in au iuaUnt, loaviiig the other geutlomeu ol 
the pross asleep in their etaio-room. The soldiers were heav- 
ing the anchors as we approached the Qcot, shouting in chorus, 
** TeaTQ ho ! yeavo ho ! ** The drummer-boys were beating to 
quarters, the marines were mustering, ofSccrs and sailors all 
were busy. 

The Admiral was standing on the upper deck with Captain 
Fhdps, commanding the Bcntou, by his side. Tlie Admiral U 
a tall, well-proportioned man, about fifly years old, with gray 
hair and blue eyes. He is a perfect gentleman, — kind, cour 
teoufl, and a£bble, not only to his ofGccrs, but to the crews. 
Captain Phelps is shorter, and smaller in stature. His features 
aru sharply cut. Ho stands erect, looks upon the preparations 
with keen oycs, giWug orders with precision and promptness. 
Tlio Benton in a few moments is ready for action, so quickly 
are his orders ozecutod. 

" Drop down toward the city, sir, and see if you can dis- 
cover the Rebel fleet," is the word of the Admiral to our 

Wo pass through the fleet, sud move slowly dowu stream, 
bdlowed by the Benton and Oarondolet, which drift with the 

The nm was beginning to gild tlio spires of the oi^, and 
its slant rays came streaming over tlio waters into our faces- 
lien, women, and children wore gatlionng upon the lovoo, od 
foot, on horseback, and in carriages. The crowd became more 
dense. Wore tlioy assembling to welcome us ? 8hould we 
steam down to them, and ask them what tliey thought of the 
Rebellion 'i The Rebel flag was flying from the cupola of tlie 
oourt-houso, and from a tall flagsiaif on the levee. I remem- 
bored that on the 6tli uf May. liiirttwn montlis before, on the 


TBS &OTB 07 '«!. 


«Tening afler the MOMiioa of the State, the people had torn 
down the Rta,ra and ftripoc, borno thorn out to tlio Guburl>s of 
iho citj, dug a gn^o, and buried the flag, trampling it in Uie 

Snddenljr a Robol gunboat etcamed out into the Btreom, from 
the shelter of the Arkansas woods; — another, — another,— 
till eight had ranged themselves in two linos of battle. " Helm 
aport ! '• shoutod our capuiin to the pilot, and we were ruRliing 
op stream again. The Admiral was not quito ready for actiou, 
and the Ronton and Garondelet returned to their original 

The appearance of the Rebel fleet, — the orderly formation 
of the battle lino, — looked liko work. TIio affair of the 10th 
of May, when the Rebel gunboats stoto round Craighead Point 
tbore Fort Pillow, and sunk the Cincinnati, was euffioiontly 
spirited to warrant tbo supposiUon that an engagement would 
be desperate. Several of the Rebel boata were Bttod out at 
Ifemphis, and wore manned by the old rirermon of that dty, 
who would fight with great bravery under the oyes of their 
fellow-citirons, their wives and swcothcarts. 

" Let the sailors have broakfaat," said the Admiral, who bo> 
Uered in fighting on a ftill stomach. I took mine on dock, — a 
cup of coffee, hard-tack, and a slice of salt junk, — for the movo- 
montB in fhint of the city were too interesting to be lost sight 
of. The Little Rebel, the flag-ship of Commodore Montgom* 
•ry, was passing (torn boat to lx>at. With my glass I could soe 
tbe officers of *he Teasels. Montgomery was issuing his Ana] 

Suddenly the Rebel fleet began to movo up stream. A Sag 
went up to the head of the Denton's flagstaff. It was the 
signal to be ready for action. Sailors dropped their plates, 
knives and forks, and sprang to tliotr guns. The Benton was 
nearest tlio Tonnessoo shore, thon the Carondolot, the St. Louis, 
LouisriUo, and Cairo. Our own littlo tug was dose by the 
flag-ship, keeping ita place in the stream by tbo slow working 
of its engine. 

Tlie Rebel fleet was composed of tlie Van Dom, General 
Price, Qoueral Bragg, Joff Tliompson, General Lovotl, Gen- 
eral Beauregard, Sumter, and Little Rebel, — all gunboats 



■nd all nuns, built ezprosalj with a view of butting our floet 
out of ozUteiico. The Tk-aurt^ard was oearost the shoro, uoxl 
the Little Bobol, then the Cknoral Prico, next the Oooeral 
Bragg and tho Qenaral Beauregard, which composed the froDt 
Uiii>- Immodiaioly in rear was tho General Loroll, uaar the 
Memphis shore, her positioD being directly m fVont of die tit/ 
wliarf boot; next the Van Dora, then the Jeff Thompson- and 
<astlf tho Sumter. 

How Btrango, peculiar, and indoscribablo aro one's feelingi 
#hea gmng into battle ! There is a Ught-heartedneeB, — a 
quiokening of all Uie springs of lifo. Thoro is thrill in OTeiy 
nerre, — an exhilaration of spirit, — a tonsion of every fibre. 
Ton see every movement, hear every sound, and think noi 
only of what is before you, but of home, of the loved ones 
there, — of the possibility that you may uevor behold them 
again. Some men review their lives, and ask themsolvee if 
they have leil anything undone which ought to have booo 
draOf — U their lives have been complete. 

Ttie Little Rebel was opposite the Benton. There was a 
Bash, — a puff of smoke fh}m her side, — a screaming of stHne- 
thing unseen in the air over my head, — a frightful souod 
The shot fell &r in our rear. Another puff tfom the Boaore- 
gard, and the shot fell near the Benton. A third came from 
the (General Price, uined at the Carondelet, passed very near 
hor larboard ports, and almost took our own boat in the bow. 
Uy (ear was all gone. I was in the fight. There was no pa»- 
■ifaili^ of escaping from it. Wherever the boat want I must 
go. I should be just as safe to keep cool as to be excited 
Beeddes, it was a new experience, — a uew sight, — a grand 
axhibitioa. Interest, curiosity, and reasou mastered fear. I 
sat down in an arm-chair on the deck beside the pilot-house, 
and made rapid notes of all tliat I saw. I tianscribe them : — 

5.40 A. M. Cairo opens with a stern gun, — shot strikes close 
ander hull of Little Rebel. Our boats' bows up stream. Rebels 
idTBacing slowly. Baug — hong — bang — hang from each of 
the Teanla. A whole broadside from Gsiro. Another from 
Louisville. Air fUll of strange noises. Shells burst overhead 
Pieoea rminiog all round us. Columns of water tossed up 
Both fleets enveloped lu smoke. Very little wind. Splinter 


BOT» xj* 'n. 


throwu ont from Uoncrol Prico. Caa eoo a shot-hole with my 
glaas. Robel floot iiolT-milc distant. Gomo9 to a stand still. 
6.00. Quoon of tho West cuuing loose from shoro. Monarch 
also, (iroat block clouds of smoke rolling up from their stacks. 
Stoam lusaing from ilicir pipes. Commodore Kllct on the 
Quuou. Staudi boeido tho pilot-liouso. Shariishootere look- 
ing from loop-holo8. Quoou whoch out into stream. Taaeci 
botvoon Bouton and Carotidolct. Aro near enough to sa} 
good momiug to Commodore Eliot and wish him euccoM 
Monarch foUoviug Qucon, passing iKitwocn Cairo and St. 
LoiiIb. 0.25. Bobols moving down stream. C.36. Signal 
from Boiitoti to round to and come to cIom quartors. Quoeo 
rarging alicad under full gpccd. Ploughs a vido furrov. Aim- 
ing fbr Beauregard. Rebel fleet all opening ou her. Shot 
cnah tlirough her. Exciting scene. Sharpshooters at work. 
Beauref;;ani puts her helm down. Sheers off. Queen nuhef 
Yj. Baa miewd her aim. Coming round in a curro. 8trikw 
tho General Price. Tremendous crash. Men jtimpiiig into 
water. Boauregard falling upon Qiiccn of tlie West. Auotlior 
':ruh. Monarch close at hand. Smashes into Beauregard. 
Graokliig of liflos and muskets. Queen of tiie West sinkiog. 
Mooarch tlirowing out a warp. Towing her ashore. Benton 
cloM upon tho Geuoral Lorell. Shot strikes I#otcU in bow. 
Ripe from stem to stem. Water l\ill of timber and fragment!. 
U)TeU flinkiug. Man ou deck. Lett arm shattered, ciyiug 
help ! help ! help ! Commotion ou shore. Liovell goes down 
with a lurch. River full of poor wrotchoo struggling for life. 
Throwing up their arms. Stream swccpci tliom awaf. Little 
Eebol floeuig to Arkansas shore. Tho JelT Thompson oa fire. 
7.05. Rebel floot broken. Their guns all silent. Beauregard 
sinking. We run alongside. Rebel oflicors lay sltatterod 
Sides of vessel spotted with blood. Pool of blood on dock 
Orawflod. Taken off bj Little Rebel. Help lid woundod Rebel 
olBcor ou our boat. Tliankod us, and said, " You are kinder 
tliau my own comrades, for one of them was moan enough to 
steal my watch and pick my pocket." Little Rebel run ashore, 
Crew fleeing into woods. Cairo gives Uicm parting broadside. 
Rebels crawling up tho bank dripping with water. 7.10. Boat* 
<^r Benton and Caroiidelct picking up the wretches. Tan 


Dom encaping down Btrcam. 7.'2<5. Fight over. Van Doni 
out of siglit. I^st f;uu fired, JcfT Thompson on fire !n OTerj 
part. Orand oxploiiion. Wbolo intorior of boat lifted five ban 
drod foot high. Flamos. Volumes of smoko. Bunting 
sbelb. Timbers, plauks, fragments, raiuiiif: all aroand us. 

It WOE a complete auQiliilatioti of tho Relwl Soot. Not i 
man was lost on our gunboats, and Commodoni £Uet vaa tli>^ 
ontf DUO voundcd. 

The Rebel fleet bo^an the action in good stjlo, but mam 
tained the lino of battle a few minutes only. Tlie appearance 
of tbo nuns threw them into disorder. Ou the other hand, the 
line of battle taken b; Commodore Davis was preeorvod to tlie 
end. Eterythiug was as systematic and orderly as la a woU 
regulatv-i household. The thought occurred, as I saw Uie 
steftdy onward moromeut of the fleet, which, afler onoe Etart- 
iug to close in with the Rebels, did not for an inataut slacken 
Bpuod, that ho was clearing the river of all Rebel obstructions 
with the same ease that a housewife sweeps dirt through a 
doorwaj. UIh orders were tbw. The main thing was to got 
to doee quarters. 

Ehubracitig an early opportunity to reach tlie slmre, I min- 
gled freely with the crowd, to see how Uio thing tviJ rolishod 
and to study the feelings of tlio people. Some looked ozcccd- 
in^y sour; some disconsolate; a few were defiant; many 
of the people were eTidently good-natured, but deeply bu- 
miliatod- A gentleman, resident of the city, informed me that 
he did not think the people cared anytliing at>out the Union, 
or had any dosiro to retnm to it, but they liad an intense 
hatnd of the tyranny to which they had been subjected, 
and wore ready to welcome anything which would relieve 

The Av<Uanefu of that morning, hardly issued when tho ixm- 
fliet began, said : — 

"There wM not ■ Utile ezcitemeDt about tbe levee but night, ooc» 
■ooed by an offlc«r oomiitft down in a akilf viDOiincing thai ihnt ci 
the Federal jpjoboats were in ibe 'abate' above tbe IhUiuL Tlie sig- 
aak and movemeaUf of the boate si^emed lo cooftna tl« report, but we 
have DO idea that il was tnne. 

" Tasterday was quite lively. All repona about Fori Hllow wera 


THR lOTft 


bsiened towitb ioteresl, and lliey wer« not a Tew. Bj noon it wat knows 
[tuii the fort whs eracuated, and there wa.>4 not a liltle pxcit<ment in 
coQ6eqa«oce. Svai]j all the Blorw were cloEcd, and ilioj>e that were 
op«n, with few ex(?<^ption», wer« rather tnduposed to $ell. V,Ttn a npool 
of coitoD oould not be tind ycAterday in alores which the day b«fure bad 
plectT "nd to spare. Decides the roldiers froiD Fort Pillow a fleet 
mad« m * Tmt which attracted much attention and fomwid the lubject 
sf general ooovarsatioii. All nevmed In regret what liad been done and 
wiflbed it w*re otburwige. So prevailing wai the excitement that the 
BommoQ mode of ulutation on Mnin Stn.'Cl was, ' When do 70a think 
the FedeimU will be here ? * Each one made armngemcnta accxmlitig 
to the tenor of the reply. Many personji were packing up to leavr. 

" In a word, all who ooald began lo consider anziounly the que^tioD 
whether to go or atay. There was much running aboat on the atreetB, 
and eridently more or le^ excitement on ererj oounlenatKe. Soma 
took mattora coolly, and still believe that \he Federab will never go to 
Hemphill by river. Alt obatructioRS to their [irogn>.aa have not been 
removed and probably will not be. In fact, the prospect ia rery good 
for a graad naval engagemeol, which shall eclipse anything ever seen 
before. There are many who woald like the engagement lo oocor, wbe 
do not much relish the proapect of its oocurriog very near the cttj. 
Tbey think deeper water and Mwpe and verge enough for socb an eo- 
ooanler may be found farther up the river. All, however, are rejoiced 
thai Uemphia will not fall till ooochisioos are first tried on water and 
at the cannon's mouth." 

The " coiiclusious " had been tried and the peo|Je had wen 
their fleet uncoremoniously knocked to piecee. 

There were thoitsaad« of Qeg>"^'>Q ou the levee, interected 
Bpoctators of the scene. I aaku<i one atliletic man what he 
Uiouglit of it? "0 luassa, I tinks a good deal of it. Uncle 
Abe'a boats might; powerful. Dey go through our boats joi 
Uke dey was eggshells." Another one standing by at onc< bfr 
came iiiterestod in the conversation. Said he, "Captain Jeff 
Thompeon, he cotch it dis time ! He ; - hi ! how de balls did 
whiz ! " There was an unmistakable dgn of pleasure on the 
countenances of the colored population. 

Id fifteen minutes after the occupation of the dtj, entw^ 
urising nowfr-boys accompanjing the fleet were crying, " Ilera 't 
the Xcw York Hora3d ! THmes and Tribune '. Chicago and St. 
fioais papers ! '* 

L86t:.J piTTSBUBa uKDoia, Fon pillov, Arm imcpms. 


Uow Tondorfully liad tlio upper Missiseippi bcoQ repossessed ! 
Olio hj one Uio Rebel obBtructious had beea romovod. Uoii 
ofteu bad wc bceu told Ibat tliej were imprognablo ! How 
oflen tlist tlie guiiboaU) would be dostrojed ! How often that 
uever vould the rirer be opened till the Coufedoracy was a 
recoguized iadopcndont powor I Ouo short year aud Uicir 
labors, — the ditch-digging, the connon-^astiiig, boat-building. 
thoir braggadocio, had come to naught. 

The part taken by Commodore Kilet was glorious. He weu 
a brave, gallant, dabtiing officer, tlie son of a noble mother, 
who lived in Pliitadolphia. Mr. Stuart, President of the Chri« 
tian Commission, relates that later in the war he called to see 
her, at her request, to rec«iTe a large donation. He found a 
lady eighty<four years of age. A grandson had been killed In 
battle, tlie body had Ibcen brought homo, and was lying in th« 
bouse, ^aid Mrs. Rllct : " I have gircu my two sons, Com- 
modoro ElU-.i ami General Eliot, and four grandchildren to my 
country. I don't rcgrci this gift. If I had twenty sons I would 
(jive them all, Tor ilie country must bo preserved. And if ! 
»as twenty years younger, I would go and fight myself to tli« 

-"■Mi' :r; 



THE BOYS or ■«! 




Qbut oTOiits wore transpiring in Virginia. The magnifi 
oent army whicb passed down the Potomac in March, which 
had thrown up tlio tremeudous fortificatiouB at Yorktown» 
which had fought at Wtlliamslmrg, Fair Oaks, Gaines's Milla, 
Hsvago Station, Gleudulo, and Miilvuru, was once moru at 
Wasliiugtou. Manassas wob a bloody plain. Popo had been 
defeated, sacrificed by Fitz John Porter. Day after day tlie 
booming of cannon had been heard in Washington, borne by 
the breezes along tlie woodod valley of tlie Potomac ; far away 
at first, then nearer at Cliantilly aud Fairfax Court-Houoe. 
Then came the stream of f\igitives, and broken, ditJieartened 
ronkit luck to AxUnj^u. The streut« of Washington wan 
thick wiUi hungry, war-worn mou. Long Liuos of ambulances 
wended into the city, with wounded for the hospitals, alreai}/ 
overcrowded. The euldierb had pitiful talcs to tell of Um 
scenes of the Peninsula, aud of the gory field of Mauassas,^ 
how uoar Uiey came to victory, — how Uookor and IIointKel- 
loau rolled back the lines of Stonewall Jack&on, — how Fits 
J(^ Porter lingered withiu an hour's march of the coufiict, 
tardily coming iuto line, and moving away when lightly ])re!'sed 
by the enemy. There wore curses loud aud deep breathed 
against Porter, Popo, aud McCloUau. The partisans of Porter 
and McGlellan c&Jlcd Popo a braggadocio, while the soldiers 
who had fought witli obstinacy, who had doubled up Jackson 
in the first day's batUo, retorted that McCIellaQ was a coward, 
who, tlirough all the engagements on the Peninsula took good 
care to be out of the reach of hostile bullets or cannon shot- 
The cause of the Union was gloomy. Bumside had been 
harried up from North Carolina to aid in repelling the invad- 
er. Tlie Bun shone poacofuUy through the August days, — 
luiumer passMl into autumn, 



•■ Ani calm ud pabcot Nstore k«^ 
Bv MicicQi pmniM well, 
lW(gb o'er her Uooni and gneanem vwepi 
IV haule'i breath o( beU." 

Adversitj is a teal of faitli. In thoee darkest boura tbert 
WHS DO faltering of liopo. TIig heart of the nation was seraiM. 
Tho people bolioved tliat Qod would give them the rictory. 
The Boldien beiierod it. Those who were poEsing awaj from 
earth, who with quickened raglit beheld tlie ovents of tlie hour 
in the light of eterait;, trusiod that Provideaco would give 
tiie victory to their companions in arms. 

Colonel Broadliead, of Michigan, Ijiug upon the battle-field 
of Hanassas, with the shadow of death stoaling over him, wrote 
a most touching farawell letter to his wife, in which he ox- 
pressed his oonyictioDs as to who was responsible for the defeat 

** Mt dear Wm : — 

"1 write to 70a moriallT^ woanded, from the batUe-fteld. We 
haw agaia been defeat«d, and «ni this reaches yoa joar children will 
babtberleaa. Before I die let me implore that id aome way il may 

be stated that General luu beeo outwitted, find that i» a 

Dmitor. Had they doae their daty as I did mine, sad had led aa I did, 
Uw dear old flag bad wared ia trinmpb. I wrote to you yeaterday 
BMRling- To-day is SuDday, and to-day I sink to the green coach of 
ear flnal rest. I have fou^t well, my darling ; and I was shot in the 
efxleaTor to raily oar broken battalions. 1 ooald bare eacsped, bat 
would not until all oar hope was gone, and was shot, — ahoat tb« only 
Doe (d oar foroes left 00 tbe field. Our eaase is jast, and oar gener- 
als, — not the «n«aiy'9, •^ have defeated ua. In God's good time he 
will gire as the victory. 

** And now, good by, wife and cbitdreo. Bring tbem up — I know 
fOQ will — in tbe fear of God and lore for the Saviour. Bat for yo« 
and tbe dear ooea dependent, I should die happy. I know the blow 
will fall with crushing weight on yoo- Truat in Ilim wbo gave maima 
b tbe wilderness. 

" Dr. North is with ske. It is oow after midaigbt, and I ban qpani 
most of tba night to sending messages to you. Two baltei« bare gooe 
through my cheat, and dir«ct]y ihrongb my langs. I suffer little now, 
bat at drat tbe pain was acute. I have won tbe soldier's name, and 
am ready to meet now, as I ntoaL, the aoldier'a fate. I bope that from 
hsasen I may see the glorioos old flag ware again orar the andinde<' 
SO ODlry I have lo^ed so well. 

" Farewell, wife and friends, we shall meet again.' 




The militarj authorittos wore oftou iudebted to uevspaper 
correspondents for intolligonce concerning the movementu of 
the Kcbcls. One of the most tndoratigalile of the corps wu 
Mr. U. n. Paintor, of the Philadelphia Inquirer. He waa at 
Bristow Statiou when Rtuart made liis first appenraace iu 
Pope's roar, captiirii^ tlie baggage of that ufljccr. Mr. Point- 
er was takou prisouer, but, true to Kis profession, kept his eyes 
and oars opoii, listcuing to all that was said bj Stuart and hie 
subordinate oHiccni. Going in citizen's dress, ho managed to 
slip through the guard, but not till after ho bad obtainod im- 
portant informatiou relative to the movements of the caemj. 
Reaching Washington, he at once sent an atticb^ of the paper 
up the Potomac to Point of Rocks, also informed the govern 
mcnt that the Rebels wore intending to invade Maryland. No 
credence was given to his assertion ; the government believed 
that Wa.shington was the point aimed at. Tlie Robots made 
their appearance at Point of Rocks, the messenger on watcb 
gave Mr. Painter information by lelegraph that Stuart waa 
crossing. Thai gentleman informed the government of the 
fiujt, and forwarded a despatch to his paper. The Wa-shingtoD 
papers in the aftonioon coutahiod semi-official denials of the 
despatch to the Inquirer. But information from the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad Company tliat the Rebels had possoHsion of 
the road at I*oint of Uocks could not be disputed. Even then 
die government was slow to Ivcliove that the Rebels seriously 
intended a movement upon Maryland. 

General Ijoe was flushed wlili success. He had reason to 
tliink well of himself and of his troops. Flo liad I'aisod the 
siege of Richmond, transferred the war to the ^ncinily of Wash- 
ington, had defeated Popo on the old battlo-ground of Manassas, 
and driven the Union forces into the defences of the capital. 
Tho troo|>8 bcliovud that thoy could accomplish anything^— 
OTorcomo all obstack-s, — sweep away tho Union army, and 
tmirch to Baltimore, Philadelphia, ajid New York ; and yet Lee 
had made a miscalculation of tho power of enduranco on the 
port of his troops, and the first invasion of the North failed, 
uot only IwcjiuHO of the courage and tenacity of tho Uuiou 
wldiors at Anticlam, but also because the Rebel army had lost 
much of its aggrossive power through hard marctiing, constaal 





flgfatini;, &nd want of food. Jac1t«mi had so voni dovn his 
troopfl Umt in tlie first day's fight at Manassas he iru defeated 
by Hooker and [IcmtzoImaD, and Iiid it not boon for tlie ttmelj 
■iriT&I of Longstroet, would hare been driTon trtmi the field. 
In the second day's fight he could only hold his own, while 
Longstroet, meeting with little opposition, was able to txirn 
Pope's left flank, and win the Ttctory. 

Leo ontorod Maryland as a liberator, holiering that the peo- 
ple would rise tn 7ruu*t to welcome him ; bat he was greatly 
mis token. 

Taking the traiu from Philadelphia, I wont to Harrisburg, 
Lancaster, and York in Ponnsylrauia, and Cbenoe into western 
Maryland. Everywhere tlie people were arming. All the abl»- 
bodied men were drilling. All labor was at a Btand-still. The 
firea of the foundorics went out; tlio farmers left their uncut 
grain in the field. Men worth millions of dollars were in the 
ranks an privates. Members of Congress, professors of colle- 
ges with their classes, iron-masters with their workmen, min- 
isters and Uie able-bodied men of their eongrcgatious, were 
hastening to the rendezvous. The State Capitol grounds wore 
Bwamiing with men, rcctiiring arms and ammunition. It was 
■ glorious exhibition of patriotism ; yet I oould but think that 
tbey would offer a feeble rosistance in the open field to well- 
drilled troops. At Bunker Oill raw militia stood the fire of 
British veterans ; but such iustauceti of pluck are rare in 

Going up the Cumberland Valley I reached Oroencafttle on 
the 14th of September, ten miles irom Hagerstowu. I could 
bear a dull and heary booming of cannon to the south, in Uie 
direction of South Mountain ; but the RoboU were at Hagers- 
towu, and bad made a dash almost up to Greencastlc. The 
only troop« in the place were a few companies watching the 
border, and momentarily expecting the Re^wU to appear. Oiti 
sens of Maryland, some from Virginia, Ujiion men, were there, 
ready to run farther N'orth on the slightest alarm. 

The little village was suddenly excited by the cry, "They 
are coming ! " " They are coming ! " It was not a body of 
Rebels, however, bat tlie Union cavalry, which had cut tbur 
way out from Harpcr*a Ferry in the night before the pusillani- 




mouB Burrnniior of Coloim! SfilflB. Tlioy orossod the (loiitooD 
bridge, moved itp tlie Potomac, through wood-pttLlis and by- 
wajK, twice coming in contact with tlie Rebol pickets, and 
falling in with liOiigstroot'H ammiitiitioii trains between Ilat^ora- 
town and WjUiiimsport, consisting of one liuudrod wagons, 
which were captured. Many of the teamfitors were elavea, 
who wore very glad to see tlio Yankees. They were coutouted 
under their capture. 

" Were you not frightened when you saw the YankeeB ? " 1 
asked of one. 

" Not de leasteot bit, massa. I was glad to see 'em. Ye see, 
wo all wanted to get Korf. De captain of dc guard, he tell 
mo to whip up my horso;) and got away, but I done cut for de 
woods right towards de N'orf," 

lie chuckled merrily over it, and said, "I'e in de serrioe 
of do Union now." 

Ho was driring the horses with evident satisfaction at the 
■udd<^ii change in his fortnnos. 

Wlicn John Brown woke the worid from it« dreaming at 
flarpor'a Perry, he had an accomplice naraod Cook, who 
escaped and concealed himself in the mountains of F^cnnsyl- 
Tania, but who was hunted down by Fitz Hugh Miller of 
Ohambcr«burg. Among the Rclicl prisoners was this same 
Fitz Hugh, drossod in a suit of rusty gray, with a black ostrich 
plume in his hat, sun-hurncd, dusty, having a hang-dog took. 
no was a captain in Uio Rebel norvicc. Tlic Dutch blood of 
the citizens, usually as calm and steady in its flow as the rivers 
of tlioir Fatherland, cnmo up with a rush. 

" Hang liim ! Down with tlio traitor ! Kill him ! " they 
shouted. Tliey nished to seize liim, but tlio guards kept the 
populace at bay. Tlio oxcitcment increased. Miller appealed 
to the guards to protect liim. He was quickly hurried into 
iho jail, which was strongly guarded. A great change had 
laken place in the opinions of the people. They had boen iu- 
dificront to the quostions of the hour, but Uie Rebel raid, by 
which they had lost thoir horses, had taught thorn an excellent 
lesson. .Sclf-intorest is sometimes a stimuhuit to patnotism. 
Tbej even oegan to look with Domplaeenoy upon what John 
Brown had done 





The Rc1>ols evacuated H^j^rstovn on the morning of th« 
I6th of September, and an hour later 1 outorcd it on Uie first 
train, which was greeted bj the people with shouts and hurrahs 
and demonstrations of joj, as if it brought emancipation &om 
long bondage. Some of tlie citizens liad manifested sympathy 
wiUi the Rebels. Still there were groups of excited men in 
the streets, shouting, *^ We'll hang the cusses. Wo Ve spotted 
Uicro, and if tbejr ever como hack vo '11 be the death of them, 
18 suro as tlioro is a God." 

The battle of Soutli Mountain had l>ecn fought, and tlio hos- 
t3e armies were oonccntrating for a trial of streugtli along the 
peaceful baaks of tlio AntictAm. 

I was awakened at daylight on the mornuig of tho 17th of 
September by tho booming of cannon. It was a dull, leaden 
morning. The clouds hung low upon the mouutaius, and 
swept in drifts along the hillsides. Tlie citizens of Hagerstowu 
were astir, — some standing on the houso-topH, listening to the 
increasing thunder of the cannonade, some in ttie church- 
steeples, otliors making haste to visit tlie Field of battle. I 
had no horse, )>ut Gnding a stable-keeper, was soon the owner 
of one. Tho horse-dealer was quite willing lo dispose of his 
animals. ** Horso-flosli is mighty onsartin tlicso days," said 
he. " TIio Rebels took my best ones, and if Lhey should oomc 
hero again, I reckon they would clean mo ont." 

Uy first impulse was to push directly down the Sharpsburg 
turnpike and gain tlio rear of tho Rebels, enter their lines as a 
citizen, and see the battle from their side. 

" Don't do it, sir," said a citizen. 

Upon reflection, it appeared to be good advice, and eo turu 
ijig about (fur I had already gone a mile or more in that direc- 
tion) I took the Boousboro pike and rode rapidly towards the 
battle-Bold. Two or throe miles ont I came across a Uobcl 
soldier^ — barefoot and bareheaded, pale, sallow, worn out by 
hard marcliing, lying under an oak-tree by the roadside. Uii 
gun was by his side. He raised lus head and held up his hand, 
OS if to implore mo not to harm him. He belonged to a Georgia 
n^iment, and had dropped by the way, too feeble to keep liii 
place in tlie ranks. He was token core of by two dtizens. 

Striking off from the tum|akQ in a by-patli, then aonwi 




fields, Uirough oak grovos, directed Uj the roar of battle, 
deeconding a »tc«p hill, and fording the Antietam, I gained 
tlio bfttlle-ficld ill roar of the right vriiig, wlicrc ITooltor waa id 
comiuatid. Pasaiiig ^tojond tho field hospitals, I reached the 
hill, 00 Poffcnbcrg's farm. 

Tho fire was raging fearfully iu front of Sumoor ; but 
Hooker's aud Wansfiuid'ti cannon were Bilcut, cooling their 
brazen lips after tlic morning's fever. In the hollow behind 
the ridge, east of Poffenlwrg's house, the PcnnsjlTania Rencrve 
Corps — what wan left of thorn — were lyitig, sml, yet not dis- 
heartened. Qow chiuigod iVom what thoy were a year before, 
then fifteen tliousand strong! 

" Wc cannot loso many more," said one, as I talked of the 
morniug'b action. Gibbona's brigade, of Uookcr's corpe, had 
croBsod the turnpike, and was holding tlic ground in the woods 
between it and tho Potomac. 

Aflccudiiig the ridge, 1 come upon Battery B, Fourth Artil- 
lery, also Cooper's and Boston's Ponnsylvania batteries, the 
New Hampshire Ninth and Rho<le Island Fifth, — tliirty pioooe 
bearing on tho cornfield and tlio wood-crovned hill, where, 
alas I a Uiousaiid of as brave men as over broatlied wore lying, 
who just boforo hod moved to moot ihe enemy. 

TliQ firing was hot and hoary a few rods soutli. 

Tho ftglit began with tho pickets in tho night, and was token 
up by the artillery at dnyliglit. Tlio Rebels had concentrated 
a heavy force on thoir left, we ou our right, because Iho lay 
of tlie land required it, tho right being our stroagwt grouud, 
and Uieir lofl their weakest. Tlie ridge behind Poffcnberg's 
house was tho door-post uu which our fortunes hinged. Not 
BO with thorn, — thoira was a double door, its liinge being in 
the woods bordoring tlio tnnjpiko south of tlic toll-house. 

Hooker gave Meade, with tlic Pcnnsylrociia Rcscrres, the 
right, Ricketia tlie left, nniJ placed Poublcday in support iu 
rear. Mansricld joined Uooker'it left, but was an hour behind 
time. Sumner was blow to come into action. Hooker ad- 
T-Auoed, drove in thu Rebel pickets, found a Rebel battery on 
bts extreme right, which, as soon as he came within its range 
wipvi to plougli him willi u Hanking drQ. Alcudo obliqued to 
'*«igbt, poured iu a few *>lluyB, and drove the enemy across 





tli« turnpike. Tliit; watt the extreme loH; of the enemy's line 
Hooker crossed tlio turnpike a few rods north of Poffenborg**, 
marehod through the ficlde to tlio ridgo by tlic oomfiold. Har- 
ing obtAioed posi^esi^ion of tlio fidgo cost of Poflcnberff's, be 
ptuited his batteries and opened a fiorco caunonode ajK>Q tbe 

Tlte ground in front of Hooker was the scene of repeated 
stniggloB. Ill tlie aftoriiooii tlic Rebels made a doftperate a^ 
tempt to regain what they had lost. They came down through 
lite cornfield, west of the turtipikOf under cover of tlieir bat- 
teries. Hooker, Dana, .Sedgwick, HartsuH*, Ricliardsou, and 
Mansfield, all general ofTicors, had been carried from the field 
wounded. General Howard was in coumiaud of the right 
wing. I was talking witli him, when an onioQr daslied up and 
said, ** Geueral, the Rebels are coming down on us." 

We were in tlie ofioii field, a few rods soutlicast of Poflbn- 
oei^'s bam. Oenoral Howard rodo forward a few steps, looked 
through the leafy branches of tlio oaks along tlio turnpike. 
We could see the dark lines of ttio onemy moTing through the 
cornfield. *' Tell tlie batteries to give them the boaTiost fire 
possible," he said. It was spoken as dcliboratoly aa if he had 
said to his sonront, *' Bring me a glass of water." How 
those thirty pieces of artillery opened ! Crock ! crack ! crack ! 
and then a ToUoy by artillery ! How tlio&o gray lines wavered, 
swayed to and fro, and melted away ! 

In Fofleuborg's duor-yard, along the turnpike, wore two noble 
hcH'see, botli killed by the same cannon-shot, smashing the head 
of one and tearing the nock of the other. Tlio dead of the 
I'ounsylvania Rc&ervee laid under the palings of the garden 
fence. The gable of tlie house was torn to pieces by a shell. 
In the field in front dead men in blue aud dead men in gray 
wore thickly strowu ; aud still fartlior out, along the narrow 
lane which rune» southwest from the house, Uioy were as tliick 
as the withered leaves m autumn. How the battle-storm howled 
Lluvugh tliosu woods, fiercer than the blasts of NoTembor ! It 
was a tornado which wrenched ofi* the trunks of oaka large 
enougli for a idiip's keelson, — riving them, spUntering Uiem 
flrith the force of a tlimiderLiolt. 

if the blow wliich Hooker gave had been a little mrro power 




Ital, —if Mansfield had been ordered in at the same instant 
will) Hooker, — if Sumner had fallen upon the Rebel centre 
It tlio same time, — there can bo but little doitbt as to what 
woTild have been the result. But iho battle of .\nlietam waa 
Touglit b^ piecemeal. Hooker ezlmusted liiB strength before 
Mansfield cnmo up ; Mansfield was repulsed before Snmner 
came in ; while niiniside, who had the most difficult task of 
all, wa« censured by McClollan for not carrying the bridge 
earlj in the morning. Yet Franklin, who arrived at noon, 
iras only partially engaged, while Porter was ordered to stand 
\ silent spectator through the day. Tlie several corps of the 
Dnioii army were like untrained teams of borsos^ — each pulled 
with all its strength, but no two succeeded in pulling together. 

It was not far from twelve o'clock when the arrangementa 
were completed for .Sumner's movement. The artillery pre- 
pared the way for advance, by pouring in a heavy fire from 
til directions. The coiifiguration of the ground admittod of 
this. Tlie cornfield sloiicd toward the Antiotam, and by car** 
fkil scrutiny the Rebels could be seen lying down to avoid the 
shot and shells. It was a moment of anxious expectation to 
as who Ixibeld the movement. 

7*Iio divisions moved past the cemetery, post Boulet's house, 
the loft, of French's and the right of Richardson's, jouiing in 
the ravine. A few rods beyond the house tlic Rebel skirmish- 
ers ojiened a galling firo. Our own advanced rapidly, drove 
them in through the nearest conifield. Tliey fled to the rood, 
and the field beyond. 

Tlie road is narrow, and by long usage and heavy rains, haa 
become a trench, a natural riflo-pit about two and a half feel 
deep. The Rebels had thrown off tlie top rails of tlie fence in 
(W>nt, and strengthened the position by making them into 
o&ifft, — imitating tlie example set by General Stark oa the 
northeastern ^lopo of Bunker Hill, in 1775. 

The roadway was their first line ; their second was in tlia 
oom, five or six rods farther west. 

The Union troops advanced in front of tlie road, when up 
rose the first Rebel line. Tlie fence became a line of fiame and 
fmoke. Tlie cornfield beyond, on higher ground, waa a sheet 
of fire. With a rush and cheer, the men in blue moved up 




to the fouce, ploughed through and through bj the batteriee 
aboro, cut and gashed bj tho leaden hail, thrust the muzzlM of 
their guns iuto the facoa of tho Rebels and firod. 

The first Bebel lino was nearlj annibilatod, and the dead 
Ipng beneath the tassclled corn were almoet as many as the 
golden ears upon tho fltalks. Visiting the spot when tlie coo- 
teet was orer, I judged (h>m a little counting that a thousand 
of tho onomj's dead were bi tho road and the adjoining field. 
A shell hod thrown seven into one heap, — some on their 
fttoee, 8omo on their baoka, — fallen as a liandf^il of straws 
would fiJI when dropited upon tho ground. Btit not thej alone 
toflteed. The bloody tide which had surged through all the 
moruiug between the ridgee above, along the right, had flowed 
over the hiU at this noontide hour. Ttio yoUow soil became 
orimson ; the russet oom-leavoo turned to rod, as if uutumn 
had put on in a moment her riohest glory. How costly ! FItb 
tbonsaud men, — I think T do not oiaggerate, — wounded and 
dead, lay along that pathway and iu the adjoining Held ! ' 

To Bumside was assigned the duty of carrying tho stone 
bridge, two miles below the tompi'io, and taking the batteries 
which were iu position south ot' :i..^.^'..hLirg. It was a dilficuJt 
tMk. A high-banked stream, bordered 1/ willows ; a narrow 
Ividge ; a Bleep hill ; cleared lands, with no shelter from the 
liAttMiM in front and on both his flanks, after ho sbould have 
nuxeeded in croesing the Btream. 

Burusido planted his cannon on the high hQls or ridges eaat 
of the riror, and kept thom iu play a long time beforo any 
attempt was made on the bridge by infantry. The Bebel bat- 
teries replied, and there was an inoeesaut storm of shot and 

The road on the eastern side winds down a ravine to the 
rirer, which is an hundred feet below the summit of the hills 
where his artillery was poet«d. It is a narrow path, with a 
natural embankment on *^' ^ut hand, covered with oaka. 

* Tha aoDOBpuijin^ lUtutnlkw b an ■oennla raprfwitnloa drawn bj Mr 
W«Bd, wlko vitaMMd iba bktUe. The baitorj in the roregTtiaad it 0»nb of tka 
boueof Mr. BoBloftBov tbe centre or 8Dmn«r's tin* Fnedi'i ud Rkhart- 
Ms'i diTUoai an mm ia tht niddJa of ibe pictart. ud tbe Hebdi andar D. H 
Wiaaiha ag tQm t Hjmi. 


THE BOTS OF "fll- 


Thoro IB a piooe of hottou laud eight or tea rods wide 'm the 
easteni eido of tho river. Tho bridge is narrow and about 
eeTenly-Hvo foot long. After crossing tlic etroau tbo ruad 
runs diagonally up the bank toward tbe nortli. On tbo west- 
ern tide are willows flinging the stroun. tbeir graceful 
braudios l<oudiiig dowu to the water, aud covering tbu oppo- 
site slioro. Ttio bank is Tory abrupt. A small force ou eilbor 
side can bold ibe bridge against a largo body of ueu. 

Tlio bridge was carried in the aftornooii by a dosporato 
ciiar^. I was watcbing operations in Uie ccntro at tbe time, 
and saw only tbo smoke of tbo contest on ttio left, and hoard 
its deafening roar, Hiding down there later in Uio day, I wi^ 
Doesod tlie latit attack. Uoih parties had put ou now vigor ftt 
the sunsot hour. Tlio Bro kindled along tho lino. Far upon 
tlie right was tho smoko of thirty cannon, rising in a whit« 
sulphurous cloud. Tbo woods opposite, where tbe RoIjoI bat- 
teries were, flamed like a riirnaco. A little nearer •Sumner's 
artillery was thundering aud hurling its bolts into the Rebels 
by tbo Dunkoi- church. Ayors'e battery was pouring a deadly 
fire into tbe coruBeld, west of Roulet's, where the R«bol line 
was lying under cover. Above, on tho highest hillock, a half- 
mile from Sharpsburg, a heavy Rolwl battery boomed defiance. 
Kchardson's artillery, imnjodiatoly in front, was sending sheUs 
upon tlio hill and into f^harpsburg, where bay-stacks, houses 
Vkd bams woro burning, rolling up tall pillars of cloud and 
flame to hoaven. At our loft Bumside's hoary guns worked 
mightily, answered by tho opposiug batlonos. The musketry 
had ocoBod, save a fow volleys rolling from lioyond tbe willows 
in the valley, and a little dripping, like raindrops after a 
riiower. It was a continuous roll of thunder. The suu went 
down, roddeued hi tho smoky haxe. 

After tho retreat of Loo, I rode over tho ground occupied 
by the Rolwts, and surveyed the field from every polut llie 
dead wore thickly strewn. A Eebol battery bad occupied the 
ground around tbe Hunker church, a small brick building on 
the turnpike, a mile south of Foffenberg's. At ita door-step 
lay a major, a captain, and eloren men, all dead. A wounded 
horse, unable to liu down, was standing near a dismantled cais- 
toD. Almost hujuan was tlio beB'>eching look of the dumb 




beast ! Near by was a soldier lying with his eyes 6xod od 
heaven. He had died calmlj. His pocket Bible was open 
apon his breast. Taking it up my eye full upon the words: 
''Tliough I walk through the valley of the shadow of death I 
will fear no e^, for thou art with me ; thy rod and lliy staff, 
they comfort me." All the turmoil of life was over. He had 
done his duty, and had passed on to his reword.* 

Leo rocrosscd the Potomac without molestation from McClel- 
Un, and the two armies went into camp, as if mutually agreed 
upon baring a season of rest alter tlio hardships of the cam- 

• Wunt of if&ee compel* me to ^ire onlj m tLetcb of the battle ; bnl * ftiU, tit- 
(mmtuntiiil, ko4 dctAilcd u:couni of the positioR* uid iDorcmenU of tb« tm 
■flBi« loaj be (oaaA in " FoUowiai; the Flae." pabliilied bv Miwsn. Ticknor uti 


■OR mr. B0T9 n blub 








SmuLTANBOirs with Lcc*8 adraiice into Marylaud was (hat of 
Qeueral Bragg into KciitiiclcT. As thcro vero no indic&tiotu 
that McClolIan would follow Lee into Virginia, I hastened to 
Kentucky to ol>8orvo the events transpiring in that departmoat. 
Qeneral Buell was still in command of the Union forces. He 
twd boon lying quiet through the summer, occupring ChattA* 
aooga on the east, Florence on the west, and spreading lus 
troops over a large territory. Tliere were detachments at 
Ifashrillo, McSfinoTillc, Murfreosboro, and Mumfordrille. Thii 
force in Tcnnossco was piled in tlie form of a pyramid, Flor* 
mco and Chattanooga being the baso and Nashville the 
apex. In addition there was a force' under General Morgan 
holding Cuml>crlaiid Gap, a. i>assagc in the mountains at the 
extreme southwestern part of Virginia, where the Old Do- 
ounion rests like tbe point of a ploughshare against the mooik- 
Ains which separate it from Kentucky. Since Daniel Boone 
passed through it, tlw Gap has been the great thoroughfare be- 
tween the West and East. The distance fW>m the Gap. where 
Morgan was keeping watch and ward, to Chattanooga, is aboat 
one hundred and forty miles. Through this gateway tbe B^ 
«)0 resolred to enter Kentucky, replenish their stores, make 
a demonstration upon Gncinnad, capture Louisrille, cat off 
Buell's supplies and communications, outflank him, destroy hia 
army, transfer the war to the Ohio River, and redeem Kentndcj. 
Buell was in reposo, unconscious of General Bragg** inteo* 

Bragg formed his army in three columns netr SoioxviQe, — 
OM to move upon the G^, approaching it from the we»t. th« 
■eoond, under Khbf Smith, to more directly upon Lexiogtoa, 
Danville, and fVankfort^ the third to capcan the six tbouMod 
at Uumfordville, and then joimng iht weeooa divisiofj at Le^ 




ington, push on in ootyuncdou with it to Louisville. Jolm Hoi^ 
gan, the commaiidur of tlie Rebel cavalry, moved iiL advaiioe 
and captured Morgan's supply traiitti on tlie ITtli of August. 
It was tlie first iutimatiou General Morgan or Buell had of the 
iutooiioiis of tlio Rcljcls. Morgnn know not what wtw ^ing 
on in his rear. Tlie Rebels pmaciiitly refrained from attacking 
hiin. The pass would fall into tlioir hands when all tlioir plans 
wore ripo. Morf^an hold his |K)sitioii till the 17th of Soploniher, 
when, having exhausted his provisions, he spiked his guus, dfy 
Btrojred the fortifications, and all his tent equipage, and marched 
north to the Ohio River, tluvugh the mountains, reacliing it 
without lots. 

The centre column of tlie Rebels moved upou Kratikfori, 
galhering up cattle, hortes, goods of all kinds, cloth, clothes, 
boots, shoes, grain^ and everything which could minister to 
their comfort, lliey visitod the wealthy farmers of the blue- 
grass region, selected the \)&st Kentucky slock, ptircbased all 
the now wheat, set the ilour-millD n hiiinining, kooping the 
millorb at it day and night. Never wore mtllors so busy, each 
miltor ttijidhig his gnndiug with a Rebel bayouot ni hin door, 
the glittering of which romiiiided liiui tliat lie had a duty to 
perform to the Gonfbdoracy. 

At Frankfort, the capital of the State, tliey took pcsseesion 
of the state-bouse, inaugurated a governor, had a grand pro 
OBBsion, with Hpeocbes, and a banquet, and a general gala 
day. Tbey invited the merchants to open their 6iurei>, nuulp 
princely purchases of goods, [aying liberally m the legal cur- 
rency of the Confederacy. Tliey sent olT long linos of wagons 
toward the South liideu with Bupplies. The Kentucky farmers 
were relieved of tlieir negroes as well as of tlieir horses. They 
look the negroes, saying lo their masters, '* Swear allegiauoe 
to the Coufeduniey and you shall be paid, but otherwise they 
itliatl be confiscatud." 

Tlmusands uf slaves lied across the Oliio, fur fear of being 
captured. Thus Uio war was a double roverso acting mill} 
griudiiig slavery to powder in the Suite. Kor six weeks tiie 
Rebels had it all their own way. 

Tlie third column moved ii|ioii Muiufordville, surprised tha 
nx Uiuusand men iu that rUicc, uiid pubbed ou towards Louis 


in BOYS or *8i. 


riUe. TUo Robet forcoi* were far uu their vay before BueU 
awotcu from liia dreaming. He gathered in his divisions, and 
kt'oping west of Uragg, made hosto to reach Ijouisville, If 
after taking Mumfordvillo Bragg had pushed on rapidly, he 
iloiibilo»8 could hare takou Ijouisvillc, )mt waiting a day, the 
golden opportunity wa« IobI. Uc was evidently well pleased 
with his rcocptioii at Lexington and Frankfort. A Rebel writer 
thus describes the former : — 

' I'll'- riitninoe of our troops inio L«iioglon wu tlie occuion of the 
mtM iii*|iiritiRj{ and toudiing iicene*. Streetii, wiiidowfi, and gftrdena 
were niliil (villi Ucliefl and liiile gtrln «rirli Btrcameni of tvtl aud blue 
ribbons Hiid fl&gl tritti »ian). lieautiful womvn t«ix«d the htLri bromo 
hftodi of our rough luid ragged soldit^n, and with teare and BmilM 
thauksd them agaia and agaiu for coming into Kentucky and rreebg 
them from tlie prM«uc« and insults of tlie hat«d and iusolent Yankeea 
For bmm the eathoua.'^a] of the people was unbounded. At every earner 
ti Ike itreeti baaketa of proviuoas and hucketn of water were placed 
for the reft-eahmenl of our weary soldiers, and hundreds of oar nuo were 
preaeoted wtlli shoes and hnu and ooatti and toharoo by the gnteftil 
people. Private residences wen; turned for ttio tiuic into paUic booaes 
of entermiamont, fr«e to all who could he pen^iiadrd to go and eaL 
Bat if ttie rureptioD of the infantry wan eiithuMaHtic, the tears, the 
imiha, and sbouts and cbeere of wild delight which gro«led GSeoera) 
John Morgan's cxvalry, lu thcjr came daflhing through Ui« streets 
amidst douda of dust, wiu> without a pandlcL The wildest Joy rnled 
the bonra. The bells of the city pealed forth tbeir joyous weloome, 
whikl the waving of (hoii«andA of whito hHndkorchiefii and Liny o*n- 
federalo flags attested the ghidneeB and deliffht of erery heart. " ' 

There were also gay times in Frankfort. Mr. Harris was in 
auguratod I'roTisionoI Govornor of the State by special order 
•f General Bragg, which read as fbllows: — 

" B>u>H)CAmTKKS AajTT or KsirrocsT, L>xin||:too, OctobBf t. IMl. 

•• DiBtallation of the Provisional Governor at Frankfort on Saturday, 
October 4tb, at 12 M. Migor-General Smith is charged with the mao- 
■gaiaeut of the military eacort, guard, and salute. 

" The Governor will be caeorted from bis quarter* by a squadron of 
mvalry, and acoompauiud by the Cummuider of Uie Coafederate State 
fanes, Uiyor-Gi^neml Buckner. RrigAdier-Geoeral Preston, and theb 


• FiDUtfd's SMeod Tear «f lbs War, p lit. 




respective etafla. Tho Commanding Guneral will pmseni th« Govomo* 
to the |ieo[iIe, and traoBfor in tM^half of tho Confederate Slatw Um 
dril onlen at the State, and public rooords aiid property. 
"By order. 

" BrAXTOIT Bk&OO, G«n*n2 Commanding.' 

A host of generals graced the occasion, — Bragg, Kirby 
Smith, Buckiior, StevenBoti, Claiborne, HBatli, Chiircliill. Pres- 
ton Smith, and William Pre*<tou. The Capital notcl, where 
the politico of the country were wont to be discussed by Henry 
Clay, Crittenden, and uther great liglit«i of former days, was 
crowded by tho chivalry of the South. The landlord found hin 
larder depleting, his liquors disappoarmg, but he had baskets 
fllfl of Cuitfodorato iiototi, in oxchaiigo for food, fire, and lodg- 
ing, liquors and cigare. The ladies kept open house, and 
invited the Robel ofHcora to tea on the auspicious occasion. 

Heuiwhilo General Dumont's division of Union troops, and 
General Sill's division wore approaching Frankfort from the 
north. General Bragg was dining with the accomplished Ura. 
Preeton, when a messenger dashed into town witJi the intelU- 
genco of the adToucu of the Union troops. Gorornor Ilarris, — 
six hotirs a Goremor, — packed his corpot-bag in great haste. 
The brilliant tlirong of Rebel officers mounted their horses, 
the ladies took down their miniature flags, while the citizens 
of the place prepared to ctiange their politics. The Rebel 
fbrce in the town consisted of two regiments of infantry and 
one of cavalry, guarding the turnpike bridge across tho Keo* 
tucky river, 

Ttio Cuion cavalry came thundering down the hill. It was 
in Uie ovouing; and nitliout tialting to ascertain wliu or what 
they wore to encounter, dashed across tho bridge. Tlio Rebels 
gave one irresolute volley and fled precipitately from tho town, 
which was onoe more and for a finality in tho hands of llie 
Union men. Four days later tho battle of Pcrryvillo was 
fought, and then the Rebels retired from the State with their 

Their visit was at once a curse and a blessing, — a curse, 
boGftose of Uie havoc, the desolation, and pUIago ; a blessing, 
beoansB it brought Keutuckians to a sharp comer. The Free 
ident had just issued his Proclamation of freedom, and Ken 


m B<nrs or '<l 


tuckj clkveboldon were grumbUog, and were re&dj to iliake 
faADdi witL tilt BcbcU. Tbej lt«d wdcouud Uieir Boutherp 
frteuds, who liad robbed and plundered them witliout Btmt. 

Tliore wu a mu-ked chAjjge ritihlo m Uio opintons of moat 
oun. Tlie hiKlhluuidcd outraget, Uie authorized thieving, tli« 
forchig of Conftidcrato notes upon the people, making it troaMm 
lo refttae tlicm in exchauge for horaon, catUe, clothes, and pro- 
rftloni, the coufiKatton of uegroeo, tlie grotoaquo appcorauco 
oftbo Rebel aoldient — 

** 8<na* io ng*^ xxne in t^>. 
But Boot in reirei gvwni," — 

■a roads tlu) old uuracry rhjrmo, dinsifHitcd tho illusion a 
wliich many men luid indulged. Bunyaii's two pilgrims, 
OhriitiaD and Faithful, mot a block man clotlted in white 
Ifaniients, aa tlioy journeyed over tlio onchantod ground, who, 
witli many fair spcochctt, would Iulto tunied tlicm from tho 
flill4)ring gule« of tho gulden city ; but when the robe dropped 
from his limbn tliey saw tliat ho was hideous, and tliat to fd- 
low him was to go bock again to tho city of Destruction. So 
Kentucky had soon tho flattoror. Tlic white robo had fallen; 
tw was repulsive. I^adics who wished to welcome tlio Rebels 
as soldiorti of Uio chivaLrous Houth Hlirauk witli horror from 
tlio llltliy crowd. Tlie enchantment was ended. Ijoyalty was 
taking rout. 

Yot thero wcro many old plantora, partinans of an ofTete 
party, — once Domocratio in principle, — who clung to slav- 
•ry with a tenacity like that of barnactos to a worm-eaten 
hulk. Tlio Ijoulsvilio Journal condemned tho Proclamation, 
giving ntterancu U> tliu vuico uf the slavcholdors, declaring 
Uut llie Proclamutinn would have no binding forco in that 
Htttto ; but tho suhliurs hailed it witli Joy. They felt tlial 
slavery was tho cuuhu of thu wur, and wore longiug to see il 
overtliruwij. Bragg having loll Llie .State, many masters began 
to look up their slaves, bomo of whom had flod to tho Union 
UiiL^s for prateotion. 

Ono wing of tho army wa» resting at Williamstowii, about 
twutity-rtvo miloH south uf Cincinnati, in wluch was a division 
eommand(>d by Gonoral Q. A. (lillmoro; thon a brigadier who, 





in oommon with maiij other officers, believed in what wai 
called the " Keutuckjr policj." Wheu the army began a for- 
ward moTomeut m pursuit of Bragg, Goiioral Qillmoro issued 
ail order, kuown as GeuexiU Order No. 5, whiuU rcadu as fol- 

" All conirabandit, ozcopt officori* tterraniB, wilt bo left behind wheTi 
the iLnny moves (o-murrow mornint;. Public traDSportation will in oo 
CAM be furnished to officers' .servonU. 

" Cooimuiden of r^fimeiiia itcd duUclimentH will e«e Uii> ordfli 
promptly enforced." 

Ajnoiig the re^imeiics uf the division was tlio Tweaty-Second 
WJBCOusiii, Colouol Dcley, ati officer who had no sympathy 
witli hiavery. Ho liad a cool head and a good deal of nerve. 
He had read the Proclaiuatiou of Proi^ident Lincoln, and made 
u{> liis mind to do what was right, recognizing the Prooldeiit a£ 
his CoDunandcr-in- Chief, and not the 8iatc of Kotituuky. Tliore 
wore negroes occompauyiiig hla regiment, and ho did not see tit 
to turn them out. Throe days later ho received the Ibllowing 
Doto: — 

" October 1«. IMS. 
" CoLOwu. : You will at oDce send to my bead-^juanere tbc luur c>on- 
traband-s John, Ab«, George, and Dick, known to belon;; to good and 
loyal dtizuDs. Tbey are in your regimejut, or were tide moruiog. 
*• Your obedient »c^van^ 

" Q. A. GiLLUOBK, Brigadier- Genertd^ 

Colonel Utley, iustead of sending tlio mun, repliod: — 

" Pertnil me to say, thai I nioogtiize your nutliorily to command mfl 
to all miliury mnllcrs pt-rtaiiiiiig to the military luovenienca of the 
umj. 1 do not look upon this as belonging to that departmenL I 
recogoize do authority on the ^ubjecI uf dolivering up cuulmbaudd nave 
that of the PrtmidcDt of the United States. 

** You are, no duubt, oonverHitnt with that ProcUunation, dated Sept. 
'i'2, 1S62, and the Uw of Congress on the ttubjvct. In ootkclusiou, I 
will uy, that I had nothing to do with their coming into camp, and 
(ball havs uotliing to do with tivadiug ihum uuu" 

The note was despatched to division hoad-quarters. Soon 
after au officer called upon Colonel Utley. 
" You are wanted, bit, at Oeiteral OiUmore's quartere." 
Oolonel Utley made his appearance before Oeueral Qillmore- 




** I wot jou an ordor this OTooing." 

" Yes, sir, und I re[\i8ed to obey it." 

" I intend to ho ohoyod, rir. I ehall .<iottIe this matter tt 
ODOO. I shall repeat tlie order in tho tnoniiug." 

*' General, to save yoii tho trouble and folly of such a oouree, 
let mo say that I Rhall not obey it." 

Tho Oolonol dopartod. Moniing came, but broxight no order 
for tho delivery of tho contrabands to their former owner. 

Afl the regiment passcjd through Georgetown, a largo num- 
ber of slave-s belonging to citizens of that place fled from 
their masters, and found shelter in tho army. Some of the 
officers who had less nerve than Colonel Ulloy gave them up, 
or permitted the owners to come and tuke them. A Michigtta 
regiment marching through the town had its lines entered by 
armed citizens, who forcibly took away their slaves. Colonel 
ntley iulbrmed tho liihnbiUuits that any attempt to take contra^ 
bands Pram his lines would bo resisted. 

*' liCt mo say to you, gentlemen," ho said to a delegation o( 
the citizens, " that my men will march with loaded muskets, 
and if any attempt is made upon my regiment, I shall sweep 
your Btroots with fire, and close tho history of Ooorgotown. If 
you seriously intend any such business, I advise you to romove 
the women and children." 

Tlio regiment marched the neit morning with loaded mus- 
kets. The citizens belicld tlieir negroes sheltered and protoctod 
by a forest of gleaming bayonets, and wisely concluded not to 
attempt tlio recovery of tho iincortjiln property. 

The day after its arrival in Nicholas vi lie, a large, portly 
gentlemau, lying hack in an elegant carriage, rode up to the 
camp, and making his appearance boforo the Colonel, intro- 
duced himself as Judge Robertson, Chief Justice of tbo Stata 
of Kentucky. 

" I am in pursuit of one of my boys, who I understand it in 
this regiment," he said. 

** You moan one of your slaves, I presume ? " 

" Yes, sir. Here is an order from the Oenoral, which yon 
will see directs that I may bo permitted to enter the linos and 
get the boy," said the Judge, with groat dignity. 

** I do not permit any civilian to enter my lines for any snob 
purpose," aaid Uie Colonel. 





The Judge sat down, not ftrcatly ostonishod, for the roput»- 
don of the Twoiity-Kccoiid Wisconsin, as itii atfolition reglmont, 
waa well established. He bogoii to arfi^c the mattor. Ho 
talked of the compromises of Uie Constitution, and proccedod 
tosa^: — 

" I was in Congress, sir, when the Missouri Compromise waa 
Adopted, and votod for it ; hut I am opposed to slarory, and I 
once wrote an ossajr on the suhject, favoring emancipation." 

" Well, sir, all that may ho. If you did it from principle. 
it was commendable; hut your mission here to^ay givos the 
lie to your profbssions. 1 don't permit nogro-hiinters to go 
through my rogimcnt ; but I will sco if I can find tlie hoy, and 
if ho is willing to go I will not hinder hun." 

The Colonel went out and found the nogro Joo, a poor, half- 
atorred, undersized l)oy, nineteen years old. Uo told his storf. 
He belougod to tho Judge, who liad let him to a brutal Irish 
man for $50 a year. He had hecn kicked and cufled, starred 
and whipped, till ho could stand it uo longer. He wont to the 
Judgu and complained, hut hod hoen sent hock only to rcceire 
a w - a thrasliLug for daring to complain. At last ho took to 
ih» hoods, lired ou walnuts, green com, and apples, sleeping 
among the corn-shucks and wheat-stacks till tlio army came. 
There were tears in Joe's oyoa as ho rehearset) his suiTerings. 

Tlie Colonol wont back to the Judge. 

" Have you foiuid him ? " 

** I have found a liltlo yellow boy, who says that he belongi 
to a man in Loxington. Come and boo him." 

" Tim man claims you as bis property, Joe ; ho says that 
you ran away and lod him," said tho Colonol. 

" Yee, sail, I belongs to him," said Joo, who told his story 
agun in a plain, straightforward manner, showing a ueok 
■carrod and cut by the whip. 

" You can talk with Joo, sir, if you wish," said the Colonel 

" Hare not 1 always treated you well ? " the Judge asked. 

" No, massa, you has n't," was tho aquaro, plump reply. 

' How so?" 

" When I came to you and told you I could n't stand * any 
longer, you said, * Go hack, you dog! ' " 

" Did not I toll yon that I would take you away ? " 



TU£ BOYS OF '«1. 


** To«, massa, but joxi neror did it." 

Tho Boldiors oamo tvund and listoQod. Joo saw Uiat the; 
vent IHenda. Tho Judge stood epoechlosa a moment 

" Joo/' said tlie Colonel, " are you williut; to ko borne wltb 
jour master ? ** 

" No, sah, I is n't" 

** Judgo Robertson, I don't think you con get timt boj. If 
you think you can, there ho is, try it. I shall hove notliing 
to do with it," said the Colonel, casting a siguificant glance 
around to the soldiers who had giithcrcd aliout ihom. 

TIio Judgo saw that ho could not lay hatids upun Joe, " I'll 
■BO whotlior Uiere is any virtue in the laws of Kentucky," be 
said, witli great emphasis. 

"rorhaiis, Judgo, it will bo as woU for you to leave the 
oamp. Some of my men are a little ozcitable on tho subject 
of slaTery." 

" You are a set of nigger^toalers," said the Judge, losing 
his temper. 

" Allow me to say. Judge, that it does not become you to 
call us nigger-fitoalors. Tou talk about oiggor-stealiog, — yon 
who lire on tho sweat and blood of such creatures as Joel 
Tour dwellings, your churches, are built from the oaniings of 
alavee, beaten ouE of them by brutal overseers. You lure little 
ohildreu out to brutes, — you clothe Ihom iu rags, — you hunt 
Ibem witli hounds, — you chain them down to toil and suffer- 
ing ! You call us thieves because we have giveu your Joo food 
and protoctiou ! Sir, I would ratlior be iu the place of Joe 
thau in that of bis oppressor I " was tho indignant outburst 
of the Colouel. 

** Well, sir, if that is the way you mou of the North feel, 
the Union uovei can bo savud, — uevor! You must give up 
Dur property." 

*^ Judge, allow me to tell you what sort of UnJouism I hare 
found iu Kentucky. I have not seen a half-dozen who did not 
damn tlio President. You may put all tho pure Unionism in 
Kentucky iu one scaJe, and a ten-pouud nigger baby in Uie 
other, and the Unioniem will kick the beam. Allow me to say, 
further, that if tlie perpetuity or restoration of the Uuiou d» 
pends upon my delivering to you with my own hands that little 





balf-«tarvod dwarf of a slaro, tho Uiiion may bo oast into h«ll 
with all tho nations tliat forf^ct God I " 

'* The Presidoiit's Proclomatioii is uuooastitutional. It has 
no bearing on Kentucky. I sec tliat it is your doUbcrate inteii- 
tiou to sot at naught tho laws," said tho Judge, tiiming away, 
and walkiug to General Gillniorc'shoad-quartcra. 

" You are wanted at the Gcaoral's hcad-quortow,'' uid an 
dd, soou after, to Colonel Uttoy. 

The Colonel obeyed tho summons, and (bund there not only 
Judge Robortsoii, but soveral fine old Kentucky goDtlomon ; also 
Oc^onol Cobuni, the conunandor of the brigade, who agrood 
with General Oillnioro in tlie policy then current. Colonel 
Cobum said : — 

" Tho policy of the commanding generals, as I understand 
h» is Biinply this : that persons who have lost slaves bare a 
right to hunt for them anywhere iu the State. If a slare geta 
inside of the linos of a regiment, the owner has a right to enter 
those lines, just as if no regiment was there, and tako away the 
AigitiTo at his owu pleasure." 

" Precisely so. The Proclamation has no force In this 
Stata," said the Judge. 

" I regret that 1 am under tlio uocoeaity of diflbring in o^dn 
ion &om my commanding olfioore, to whom I am ready at all 
times to render strict mOitary obedience, but (tho Colonel 
raised his voice) Irtverte the Kmtucky poliey ! I hold that the 
regiment stands precisely as tliough there were no slavery In 
Kentucky. We came here as free mou, from a free State, at 
tho call of the Presideut to uphold a frve governmcut. We 
have notliiug to do with slavery. Tlie Twenty-Second Wls- 
cousiu, while I liave tlio honor to command it, will never bo 
a regiment of niggorHuitchers. I will not allow civiliaiks to 
anter my lines at pleasure ; it is unmilitaiy. Wero I to permit 
it, I should bo justly amenable to a court-martial. Were I 
to dp it, spies might enter my lines at all times and depart at 

There was silence. But Judge Bobcrtson was loath to go 
away without his tlesh and blood. lie mado one more effort. 
^ Colonel, I did not come to your Lines as a spy, but with 
an order from your General. Are you willing that I should 
go snd get my boy?" 




I told you before Uiat ] 

The Golonul ruUfclviJ a uiumcut. 

'* Tos, bity iiud I will remain liuro. 
chould iiaro nothing to do with it." 

** Do you think that tlio moii will [>crm)t me to take him 7 " 

" I have no orders to isauo to thorn in tlio matter; tliej will 
do just as thoy please." 

'* Will you Bond the boy into some other regiment ? " 

This was too much for the Golouel. He could no longer re 
strain hii? indiguation. Looking the Judge squarely ixi Uie faoe, 
he vented his anger in ttcatliing words. 

The Judgo departed, and at the uoxt Bessiou of the Court 
Ooloucl Utloy wail indicted for man-«tealiug ; but ho lias not yet 
been brought to trial. Tho case is postjKtned till tho day of 
Judgmout, when a rightooue verdict will be rendered. 

Tho Judge returned to Lexington, called a public meeting, at 
which ho made a speech, deuoimciug the Twouty-Sccoud Wis- 
consin as an abolition regiment, and introducing rosolutions 
declaring that the Union never could bo restored if the laws of 
tho Slato of Koiitncky were titua sot at defiance. Tliix from 
the Judge, while his son was in tho Rebel eerrice, lighting 
agaiust tlio Union. 

But tho matter wait not yet oror. A few days later, tho 
division containing tlio Twenty-Second Wisoonein, commanded 
by Qonoral Baird, tw OUlmoro, was ordered down tlie riTor. 
It wont to Louisvillo, followed by the slavo-huntera, who wore 
determined to have their negroes. 

Orders were issued to tho colonels not to take any oontr«- 
bands on l^oard tho boats, and most of thorn obeyed. Ooloool 
Utloy issued no orders. 

A cidzcn called upon him and said, — 

** Oolouel, you will liavo trouble in going through the cit) 
union you give up tho ncgroos iu your linos." 

Tlic regiment was thou on its march to the wtiarf. 

" Tlioy have taken all tho nogroos from the rank^ of (he other 
regiments, and they intend to take yonra," 

The Oolonel turned to his men and said, quiotiy, ** Fix 

Tlio regiment moved on tlirough tlie streets, and reached the 
Oanlt House, where the slaveholdors had congregated. A half 




dozen approached the re^meiit rathei oautiouslj, hut ono bold- 
er than tlie rest sfffong into tho ranks and seizod & n^ro hj 
the collar. 

A dozen bayonctA came down around him, Bomo not very 
gently. He lot go his hold and sprang back again quite aa 
quickly as ho eutored the lines. 

Then) was a shaking of ftsts and muttered cursoe, but the reg- 
iment passed ou to tho landing, just as if notlilng hod happened. 

Ucnoral Granger, who hud charge of the transportation, had 
issued orders tliat no uegro should be allowed on the boats 
witliout free papers. 

Qeneral Biurd saw the uogroos ou the steamer, and approach- 
ing Colonel Utley, said, — 

" Why, Colouol. how is this ? Have all of those nogroei 
free papers ? " 

" Perhaps not all, but those who have n't, have deetared tKeir 
iHtaUiona ! " sud the Colouol. 

Tho Twonty-i^coond took transportation ou the steamer Com- 
mercial. The captain of the boat was a Kentuckion, who oame 
to Colonel Utlay in great trepidation, saying : " Colonel, I can't 
start till thoso negroes are put on shore. I shall be hold re- 
sponsible. My boat will be seized and libelled under tho Uvb 
of tho State." 

'* I can't help that, sir ; tho boat is under the control and in 
the employ of the goTomment. I am commander on board, 
and you have nothmg to do but to steam up and go where you 
are direoted. Otliorwise I shall be under tlie necessity of ar 
resGng you." 

The captain departed and Iwgau Ins preparations. But now 
came the sheriff of JefTorson Coiuity with a writ. He wanted 
the iKidios of Ooorge, Abraham, John, and Dick, who wore still 
Willi Uio Twonty-Socond. They were tho runaway property of 
a fellow named Hogan, who n few days before had figured in 
a convoution held at Frankfort, Lu which he intrcducod a series 
of Socesaion rosnlutions. 

" I have a writ for your arrest, but I am willing to waire all 
action on condition of your giving up the fugitives which you 
are harboring contrary to the peace and dignity of the State," 
mid th« sheriff. 




" I hftve other faueincss to attend to just notr. I em under 
ordon lYom my suporiors in command to proceed dovn th« 
rifor without any delay, and must get Uie boat under way," 
•aid tlio Colouel, bowiug, politely. 

" But, Culouol, you are aware of the ootisoquenoeB of d»> 
liborately sottiug at detiaiico the laws of a sovereign State," 
said the slierifT. 

'*Ato you all ready there?" said Uie Coloiiol, not to the 
tltoritr, but to the officer of the day who had charge of aflaira. 

" Yes, 6ir." 

•' Then cast off." 

Tito giuno of bluff had been played between the IVonty- 
Hooond Wiscuiiaiu and tlio State of Kentucky, and Wisconsin 
had won. 

Tho sherifT jumped ashore. There wore hoarse puffn from 
the stoam-pipos, the great wheels turned in tho Gtrcom, the 
Oonunorcial ewinig fVom her raoorings, and the Boldien of 
Wisconsin floated down tho broad Ohio witli tlio stars and 
■tripes waving aliovc tJiom, 

By tlieir doTotioit to principle, by tho firmness of thoir oom* 
mandor, they lud given tho cause of Freedom a mighty uplift 
in tho old Stato of Kentucky. 

I recall an ovcaing in tho Louisville Hotel. OfEcers of the 
army, — minors, oaplaius, lieutenants, — were there (rem camp, 
chatting witli the ludios. It was a pleasant company, — an hour 
of comfort and plensuro. Tlio ovoniiig was ctiilly, and a coaj- 
firo in Uio grate sent out its genial warmth. Tlio cut glasa of 
tbochandcli<:trfi e^iarklcd with ruby, purple, and amethyst in the 
cban^ug light. In the autoroonis thero wore chess-]ilayon! 
absorbod in the intellectual gamo, with a knot of silent spec* 

At the dinnor-tablo Mr. Brown was my servant. Ilia com- 
plexion was a shade darker tlion nunc. Ho served mo faith- 
fully, wearing a white cotton jacket and apron. He entered 
tho parlor in the evening, not wearing his hotel uniform, but 
faulttessly dressed as a gentleman. He brought not & lady, 
out a double bass viol. Ho was followed by two follow-«er- 
rantft, one with a violin, tho other wit'i a banjo. Tho on« 
witli th« violin was a short, ihiek-«et. curly-headed African.— 




black AS tho King of Dahomej. The other wiu whiter &aa 
most of the officers in the room. 

They wore tho hotel tahlo-waiters and also a quadrille band. 
The TioliiiiBt did not know B flat from F sharp. Musical notfr 
tioD was Greek to him ; but he had rhjtlim, a quick, tuneful 
ear, aiid an appreciation of the beautirul in music rarclj found 
among the many thousands who take lessons by tho quarter. 
He did not give us Old Tar Rivor, tJnclo Ned, and Sunn- 
nah, but themes fWim Labitsky and Doiitzotti, — mclodlef 
which once heard are long rcmomborod. tlis two comradei 
accompanied him in time and tunc. For tho young ladiei 
and oflicont it was a delightful hour. Mr. Brown was the 
factotum, calling tho changes with as much stoadincsa and pre- 
cision, while liandling the double-bass, as Hall or Oodworth at 
the grand boll to tlio Prince of Wales. So we were serred by 
four thousand dollars' worth of body and soul ! 

The door-way leading into llie hall was a portrait-gall iiry of 
dusky faces, — Dinah, Julia, Sam. and James ; old aunt B^ 
becca, with a yellow turban on her head ; young Sarah, three 
feet high, baro-leggod, boro-armod, in a torn, greasy caUoo 
drees, — her only garment ; young Toney, who had ao much 
India-rubber in liia heels that ho capered irropressibly throngfa 
the ball and oxocutod a doublo^hufHo. Wliilo the grand Btalr- 
w»7, leading to tho halls aboTo was pilod with dark, eager 
fkcGs, reminding one of the crowded auditory looking npoa 
Belshazs&r*B feast in the great picture of AJlston, — fifteen, 
twenty, thirty thousand dollars' worth of bones, blood, and 

The Tioliniet wu in trouble. Tbo screws would not stiok, 
and in spite of his spitting in tlie holes, hia twisting and turn- 
ing, he was obliged to Ktop in tho middle of the dance. He 
made slronuous efforts to keep his instrument in tuuo. A man 
in shoolder-etrape, leading a fair-haired, graceful maiden, his 
partner in tho dance, with a clenched fiet and on oath informed 
the musician that if ho did n't fix tliat quick ho would knock 
his head oflf! It was a little glimpse of tho divine, bonoficoat 
missionary institution ordained of Ood for ttie eleration of tha 
tons of Llam ! 

It was not dilficult to make a transition in tliought to a Soatb 


THE DOTS or '«. 


Okrolba rico-swamp or Louisiaiu sugar-plantatloa or ArkanBu 
ootton-fiold, wlioro a master'o passion was law, aod wbero 
knockiiif; off men's hoadfi vaa not bo rare a performauco. 

Among tlio dusky crowd gazing in upoa tho waltzor» was a 
girl, siitoon or soTontcon yeora old, — a brunette, with cherry 
lips, sparkling black oyes, and cbeoks as fVosb and fair as apri- 
cots. She was a picture of health. She gazed with evident 
delight, and yet tliore was always upon her couutenauce a 
shade of sadness. In foma and feature she was almost wholly 
Ajiglo-SoxoD, and more than Anglo^axon in beauty. 

I mot her in tlio liall during the day haring charge of a 
youug child, aod had marked hor beauty, ease, grace, and In 
telUgonce, and supposed that she was a boarder at the hotel, — 
tho daughter or young wife of some officer, till sooing hor tho 
central figure of the dusky group. Then the thought came 
Baahing, " She is a slave ! " 

She could have joined in the cotillon with as much graoe aa 
any of the ftur d&noers. 

Her father, I teamed, was a high-bom Kentuckion, and her 
grandfather was from ouo of tlio first families of Virginia ; bat 
her great-groat-groatgrandmotlior was bom in AfHca, and that 
waa tho reason why she stood a silent spectator in tho hall, iit 
■lead of whirling with the gay colonel in the dance. 








URrua»aNO to Virgiuia I accompamed the arm; of the Po- 
tomac iu the march from Berlin aud Harper's Ferry to the 
Rappahaunock. Tho roads wore cxccllonl, tho days mild, 
the air clear. Beautiful bejoiid description the landscape, 
viewed ttom tho passes of the Blue Bidge. Westward in tiie 
ralloj of the Rhcnaridoah was Longstroet'a corps, traced hj 
risiug clouds of dust and the smoke of innumeraHe camp- 
Bros. Eastward was the great armj of the Union, winding 
along tho iiumoroua roads, towards the south. Kauy of tho 
■oldiors had thoir pets, — one had two yellow dogs in loading- 
itriugs. A gray-boardod old soldier carried a young puppy 
with ita eyes not yet open, in his arms as tenderly as if it wore 
■ child. A Connecticut boy had a little kitten on his shoul- 
ders, which kept its place contentedly. Occasionally the lad 
oarosHcd it, while kitty laid its face against Uiat of the beard- 
less boy and purred with pleasure. 

Tho march was tediously slow. Qenoral McOlellau was 
averse to making it at all. He had delayed from day to day, 
and from week to week, till ordered by the President to ad- 
Tance. Ho had no well-considcrcd plan of operations. 

Tito President's patience was exliausted, and at Warronton 
lie was deprived of tho command of tlio army. 

General Burnsido, hla successor, took the command reluc- 
tantly; but he was quick in deciding upon a plan. Qeueral 
McClcllan's line of march was towards Gor^ougrille. Burn- 
side decided to moTe upon Fredericksburg. The movement 
was made with great rapidity, and Buruslde only failed of 
leiung llic place because tho pontoons wore not there at the 
time appointed. Lee came and occupied tho town, throw up 
Im earthworks, and planted his Imttcries. Bumside planned 
to hare Franklin cross tlic Rappahannock holow Port Royal, 




Hooker aboro it, while Ruraiicr was to cross opposite the towD ', 
but a heavy Btorm frustratod the moTcment. 

It woa goncrallf supposed that the army would go into wintw 
quarters, and manjoftho corrospondonta accordinglj rcturnod 
to their homes, My Triond and companioa in the Wcat^ Mr. 
Rictiardson, led the army of the Potomac In disgust, and pro- 
ceeded West again in search of adventure. Hi« wishes were 
more than gratified soon after at Vicksburg, whore he fell into 
tlio hands of the Rebels, who hoarded him awhile at the Lihby 
in Richmond, and aflorward at the Salisbury prison in North 
Carolina. Ho ungraciously turned his hack upon his Rebel 
Inends one night, took all his baggage, and lofl without paying 
his bills. 

Ho gained the Union linos in Tcnnosseo aflor months of 
imprisonment, with his desires for adventure in that direction 
ftilly satisfied. 

Nearly one half of the correspondents with the vanoua 
armies either fell Into the hands of the Rebels or were wound- 
ed. Several died of diseases contracted in the malarious 
•wamps. As a class they were daring, oouragoous, Teuturo- 
■omo, always on the alert, making bard rides, day and night, 
on the hattlo-field oflon where the fire was liottost, — writing 
their accounts seated on a stump, spreading their blankets 
where night overtook tliom, or frequently making all-night 
rides afbjr a day of excitement, hardship, and exposure, that 
the public might liave early information of what liad trans- 
pired. Their statomonta wcro often contradictory. Tliose first 
received by tlio public wcro not unfreqnontly full of errors, 
and sometimes were wholly false, for the reason that many 
papers bad a correspondent a few miles in roar of the army, at 
the hose of supplies, who caught up every wild rumor and 
sent it fiyuig over Uio land. 

Gold apeculatonH imj^roved every occasion to gull tlio pubho 
by false news. Tliore is reason to believe that men in high 
official positions wore in collusion witli operators in bullion, to 
tlie mutual advantage of all concerned. 

The press of tlio country, reflecting the feelings of Uie pe<K 
pie, prcuounced Uie campaign at an cud. The friends of Qen* 
eral McCluUan were clamorous for hif return. Congress and 





political advisers m Washitigtou demaudod tliat Bunuide 
thould move eoinowliere. The; knew uotUiug of tlie obsta 
ele> in his path. 

lu a letter writton ou the 9th of Decombor, 1862, the follow 
bg Tiew of the situatiou was preseuted hj the correspoudent 
of the Boston Journal : — 

" It ii a clear, oolJ morning. The sky is witliout a cloud. Stand- 
ing near G«Deral Sumner's quartoiv, I liare a wide Bwoep of TJAiom. 
Tho quartan of the votoran general comraaDding the right grand di- 
▼iaion ara id a S'pacious mansion, aewl^ consinicied* iho property of a 
wealtlijr planter, whoM «ata(e i» sooMwhat sham of ita U-iiuty hy tb« 
raragM of war. The foiees are aD gone, the foro4t-> ar« fut diMp- 
peariug, ibe floo range of cedars which Lined tlie Belleplain road are do 
loDger lo b« toen. All around are the white iciii^ of the command, 
tbe itiDUtaerable camp-firca sending np blue columns of emoke. Tbe 
air a aUm. Ton bear tbo rumbling of diatant baggage-traioii, tbe 
clatter of huridr«d* of axCi ft-IIing tbe foresta for fuel, — Iba bugle-call 
of the cavalryincn, and the rat-a-plno of tbo drummers, and mingling 
with all, tbe ateady, constant flow of the falling wat«ni of tbe wiodiog 

" Looking far ofl* to the aouth«ut, acroM the intorrale of tbe rirer, 
yoQ MM a wbit« dood of ^leiua moviog beoeatb tbe fringe of a forast 
It U a locomottTe fi*ora Richmond, dragging ita train of can with sop* 
pUei for the Reb«I campn. Tbe forests and billfi beyond are alire 
with men- RcAling my gbjM againut tbe side, of the building to keep 
it alaady, I can count tlte men gnmped around Ibe camp-tirRs, taming 
at time* to keep tbemeelTea warm. Othen are bringing in wood. Ad 
O0oer ride* aloog. A train of wagons ii winding down tbe hill to 
ward the town. All along tho range of billa arc carthworkJ with sand- 
bag embrasnres, and artiUcr>' bobUid, — •not quakor guoa, I think, bm 
6e]d artillery, eo ranged fliat a moremeut directly a£rOM tbe rivar 
would be marching into the jawr of death, — aa hanrdoos and deatrao. 
tive as tho charge of tbe Light Uriguiiii at Balaklava. 

" I know that tber« ii« a clamor for an onward raor^ment, a desire 
tod expectation for ao wlTancs ; but I think there are few men in tbe 
ooQOtij who, after takiag a look at Ihe Kebel positicni, woold like to 
lesd in a mOTcmcnt across the slream. 

** Looking into thu town uf FrcdDncktiburg we see bat few smokei 
ftAoandJog from tbe cbimiwys, but f«w people in the itrMti. It is al- 
Buvit wholly daeortcd. Tho women and children bare gone lo Ricb> 
iiODd. or else aro sbirering in camp. Clo«e upon the river-bank on 


TfiG BOYS OP 'til. 


either tide fu» liio pickeU, within tmsj VtJking dlsUuioe of each other. 
There baa heea riu fthootiug of Uta. There u oooBtanl badinage. The 
B«bel picket aaka the Yankoe whea he t» goiog to RichmoBd. The 
Taokee aaks the R«hel if he don't want a pair of boote. I am iorry 
Ut uy that Bucb oonvenation is mixed with profane words. Each 
partv Beema to think that hard words hit hRrd." 

" La«t night the southern sky was red with the blate of ReWel 
RHmp-drea. Far off to the Boolheast I see a hazy cloud, and oolutnna 
of Binoke, indicating the presence of a large army. I do not doubt 
thai if wo Attempt to croBd wo ehall meet with terrible opposition from 
a force nearly if uot quite as Urge as our own, 

** If the PreAidenl or General Halleck inslsl n[>on BurnaldeV mak* 
king the moTemenl, it will be made with whatever power, energy, do- 
tenoinatioo, and brarery the army can exhibit I am as aDzioos aa 
any one can bo lo K^ a great blow given to the RcbellioQ; bat I am 
not at all anxious to »ee the altvmpi made against nuch diaadraotAgoa 
sa ar« apparent to the most casual observer from this positioo.'' * 

It vaa an uaroasonablo demand which the public made apou 
Biimsido. lio had been just ono month in command of Ibo 
arm/. Hia first plan bad foiled through tho remissness of 
uthors ; IiIb second e0urt to move Imd been made abortire 
by tliD storm. He could nut attempt again tho movement with 
any hope of buccuw, for Loo had taken prouautioua against an 
attack upon bi» Uauk. Neillior tho public, tlie pohUcian, nor 
ttio War Dopartmont would con^out to his going into wiutar 
quartora. Ho luul no altomativo other tlian to deviso a new 
plan. These considerations aro to bo kopt in remombnuico in 
reriewing the battle of Frodoncksburg. 

General Bunuide obtained correct information of the po- 
■itiou held by Oeueral Lee. Jackson's corps was soparatod 
from Longstroet's by a radno.but General Lee had couetruotod 
a road through Uio woods and across a ravino, by which troope 
could be r«adily marched to tho right or left, aa they migtit be 
iieoded. Ho was satisfied tliat Lee did not expect him to cross 
at the tomi, but lower down tlic river. Ho decided, therefore, 
to cross the Bappaliauuock, and make a desporato push to ob- 
tain poasessiou of tlie road, which would dirido L«e'8 army. 

* Letur 10 B««toa JaurmiJ, I>uc«inb«r >, IMl. 




The plan waa aocoptod by a council of ofScera on the lOtfa 
of Dooembor. FrcparatiouB wore made tliat night for the 
passage of the riror in throo places. Tho artillery was dniwn 
in podtioa along the bauk, — about one hiindred and fiHj 
pieces, some of whioh were Uiirty-pomidorB. Orders were 
issued to the troops to be ready at a moment's waniiug. Geti- 
eral Woodbury, witli a brigudo of engiuoors, was ordered down 
to the river. 

8oou after dark on the night of the 10th, the brigade, with 
ite long train of boaia on wheels, camo down (h>m the Staflbrd 
hills. Boats sufficiont for tlio coustructioo of two bridges 
halted near the railroad ; enough for two more went a third of 
a mile down stroam, opposite tho lower end of the town, while 
tlie remainder went a mile and a half farther down, almost to 
Mr. Bernard's hou^. Sumner and Hooker were to use those 
opposite the town, and Franklin those at Uornard's. A brigade 
of troops was ordered to protect tho ouginoere in tlieir work. 
The gunners stood beside their guns, ready to open fire if the 
Rebels opposed them. The engineers took the boatH from the 
wagons, pushed tliem out otcp tho thin ice, anchored thorn 
in Uie stream, and commenced laying the timbers and plonks. 
A dense fog hung OTcr tho river, which concealed their opera* 
Lions, and before daybreak the bridges were nearly completed. 
The SoTOuteenth and Eighteenth Mississipfu rugtmeuta of 
Barksdalo's brigade, and the Eighth Florida, of I'erry's brig- 
ade, were on picket along tliu river, while the Tbirieouth and 
Tweuty-f^rst Mississippi and Third Georgia wore in reserve in 
the town. 

Lee was wary. He expected on adrauce of the CTaion 
army, llis scouts wero alert. All tho commanders were or- 
dered to be rigilant. So keeping a sharp look-out, the Houtinela 
walked the bank through tho long wiuter night, poeriug into 
the darkness, and listening to catch tlio moaning of the ood- 
fused hum which floated to them across tho stroam. 


BOYi or 'BI. 




Ax tiTe o'clock ou tho morning of tho lltli of Dooembei 

tiro Bignai-gunB were fired on tiie lioighta of Frodoricksburg, 
Deep aud heavy Uioir roar, rolling along the viUloy, ochoiug 
Irom hill to hill, and rousuig the eleopors of botli armies. W« 
who lifltODOd upOD Uio Falmouth hills knew that tho croBsiog 
was not ft surprise, but that the Bebols were reader for battle. 
And now as the day dawuod there came a rattling or mus- 
ketry along the river. Tlio Robol pickets opotiod the firo. The 
guiuiom at tho batteries wore quick to roEpond, aud sent grape 
and canister across the stream. The Rebel pickets at the lower 
bridges soon retired, and the ong^uoera conijtlutod tiicir work. 
But iu the town the Mississippians took blicllor in Uie build- 
ings, and pourod a deadly firo upon the bndge-buildors. At 
most orery soldier who attom])tod to carry out a plank fell. 
For a wliile the attempt was rolinquishod. 

*'Tlio bridge must bo completed," said Qoueral Burnsido. 

Onco more tho braro engineers attempted it. Tho fog still 
hung over tlie river. Those wlio stood on tho northern bank 
could only 600 tho flashes of tho rifles on tho otlior shore. Tho 
gunners were obliged to fire at random, but so energetic thoir 
firo tho engineers were able to carry the bridge witliin eighty 
or ninety foot of the shore, and thon so deadly iu turn was 
the firo of tlio Rebels that it was murder to send men out 
with a plank. 

General Burnsido stood on tho piazza of tho Phillips Ilouse, 
a mile from tho pontoons. General Sumner and General 
Hookor wore there. Aids aud couriers came and went with 
messagofl and orders. 

" My bridge ts completed, and I am ready to OKWS," wai 
Frankhirb message at half past nine. 

*' You must wait till the upper bridge is completed/* was tlis 
reply to Franklin. 




Two hours passed. A balf-dozoQ attompta wero made to 
Dompleto tlto uppor bridge vtUiout succoea. BraTQ mon not 
beloaging to the ougmoers camo down to the btnk, Eunrejrod 
the ecoiio, aud tLou roluutoeriug tlioLr sorviooe, seucd plouka 
tud boards, rau out upou tlio bridge, but onXj to fall before 
the sliarpGliooters coucoalod In the oellara of the housoa not 
ton rods distant. Captaiu Brainard of the FiiUotb Nov York, 
with eloveu mou, voluutoorod to huish the uoarly completed 
work. Thej wout out upou Uie run. Fvte fell at one ToUej, 
aad the rest returned. Captain Perkins of the same regimont 
led another party. IIo foil with a ghastly wound iu lus ueck. 
Half of luB mou arc killed or wouuded. These were smtv 
ficee of life with nothing gained. It was soul-msplriug to wit- 
0668 such l^QToic dovotioD, but heart^ckening to stand on the 
bank and soe them slaughtered, — their blood turning to 
orimsou the turbid waters of tlio Rappahannock. 

Okmeral Burueido had no dosiro to injure the town, but 
under the usages of war ho had a right to bombard it ; for the 
Bebols had concoaled tUemsolves in the houses, making use of 
them to slaughter his men. 

** Bring all your guns to boar upon the ci^ and batter it 
down," was the order issued to General Hunt, chief of artiUory. 
Oolonel Hays had eight batteries on the right ; Colonel Tomp- 
kina had eleren batteries ou the right centre, opposite the upper 
pontoons, — some of them in the yard of Mr. Lacoy's house, 
near the river ; Colonel Tyler had seven batteries a little farther 
down on the left centre ; while Captain De Russey had seven 
batteries opposite tho lower pontoons. There wore in all thirty- 
fire batterie*, with a total of one hundred and Bevouty-nine 
guns, all Iwaring upon the town. The artillerymen received the 
orders to prepare for action with a hurrah. They had chafed 
all the morning, and longed for an opportunity to avenge the 
death of their gallant comrades. 

The hour had come. They sprang to their [uoces. The fire 
ran from tho right to tho loft, — from the heavy twouty-four- 
pouudors on the heights of Falmouth to the smaller {uooos on 
the hills where Washington passed his boyhood. The air l)ocame 
thick with tho murky clouds. Tho earth shook beneath the 
terrific explosious of Uie shells, wlucli went howling over tht 


THE BOYS or •«!. 


riTOT, crsBhing into tho Iiousoa, liattcring down wfllls, sptintor 
ing doors, ripping up floorit. Rixtj soliil shot and sholU a 
minute wero tlirown, and tho bombaniiucnt trm kopt up til] 
nine thousand wore 6rod. No hot shot wcro usod, but the 
explosions sot firo to u hlock of huildiugs, which oddod torri 
hlo grandeur to the scene. 

Tlio Rohcl army stood upon tho lioights l«yoiid tho town 
and watchod t)io operations, [ico's Rchol artillery was silent, 
and tlio MiKsifiKippiaits concoalod in the houson wore alone par 
ticipnutA in tlio contest. 

Tlio fog Hdod at lust and rovoolod tlio town. Tlio stroett 
wore deserted, hut tho houses, tho church-stoeplos, tho storea 
wore riddled with tthot ; yot no impression had boon mado on 
tho Mi.s3is5ippiaiis. 

Bumsido's oriillorymen could not depress their guns auffi 
aently to shell them out. A. working party went out upon the 
bridge, but one after anothor was killed or wounded. 

The time had como for a luld movement. It was plain that 
the Mississippi an B must Iw driven out Iwfore tho bridge could 
bo completed, and that a party must go over in boata, charge 
op the lilll, and rout thoni (Vom their hiding-places. Who 
would go? Who attempt tho hazardous enlorpriso? There 
were hraro mun standing on the bank by tho l^acoy House, who 
had watchod the proceedings during tho long hours. Thej 
wore accuBtoracd to hard lighting : Elall's hrigudi!, conifiosod of 
tho SoTonth Michigan, Nineteenth and Twonliolh MassachuEOtta, 
and Forty-Second New York. They had fought at Fair Oaka, 
SaT^o Huitiun, Olendulu, Sfalvcrn, and AiiLiulam. Tlio Twen- 
tieth had been in all ihu&o Irattlos, and alsu at HaU's Bluff. 

"Wo will go over and clean out tlio Rebels/' was tho cry of 
this brigade. 

'* You Bliall have tho pririloge of doing so," said Qouorai 

Tlioro wore not boats enough for all, — not enough for on« 
regiment oven. A portion of tlio Seventh Michigan was ueloct- 
ed to go first, while tlio other regiments stood as a supporting 

Tho men run down the winding patli to tho water's edge, 
iump into the bout£, and puah out into the Btroam. It in a 





momoDt of iutoose aiizioty. Nu ouo knows how largo tho force 
opposing thorn. TIio Robol iiliarpshootora are vatchuig the 
moi^oaiout from their liiduig-placos. Tbcj have a fair riowaod 
can pick their moa. Tlio men iu the boats know it, jet the; 
move b'teadilj ouward, steering straight across tho stream, with- 
out a thought of turuiug back, though their comrades are fall- 
ing, — some headlong into the riTor, others dropping into tlio 
boats. Tlie oars^oien pull with rapid strokes. When oue falls 
another takes his place. Two thirds tlie distance orer, — the 
hoat« ground in ehoal water. Tlio soldiers wait for no word of 
command, but with a common impulse, with an ardor which 
stops not to count tho cost, the; leap into tho water, wade to 
the shore, and charge up the batik. Some fall to rise no more, 
but their surriving comrades rush up the slipper; slope. A 
loud htinah rings out from the soldiers who watch them from 
the Falmouth shore. Up, up the; go, facing death, firing not, 
intent onl; to got at the foe and win victor; with the ba;onct ! 
Tho; smash tho windows, batter down doors, driving or cap* 
turing tho foe. 

Loud and heart; tho cheers of the rogimenta upon the other 
shore. The men of the Nineteenth and Twcndetb Haesaohu- 
setts would giro anj^hing to be there. All tlio while the can- 
non are roaring, hurling solid shot and shell into the doomod 

" Tbcy Wped in tho rocking aballopK. 
Ten otrerefl where one coald go; 
And tli« bnH'ie was rUvo with laughtet 
Till tho boatoH'O tx^ao to row. 

** Tlieti the »bon', where the Bebela haiborad. 
Was fringe'] with & ^uah of llune, 
Aad baztin^, like bec«, o'«r the wtter 
Tho ewftnna &r their buUels cunft. 

*'Not a whitpvrl Each man wu co m cioM 
He stood in the sight of death; 
So he bowed to tho awfnl pmenoe, 
And treasured his living breatlk 

** And many a brsTe, stout fellow, 

Who sprang in th« boata with mutb, 
Era tfaejr made that fatal croMiing, 
Wm a load of lifeleta rarlh. 


sATTLi or nsDoiGitsBima 


** Bat jet iIm) Imua moTBd ODWftnl ; 

Through 6ra uid \e*d thej ilrovti, , 

With tiie ilArk, etlll mMi vithin thflm. 
And the floating atArt abov*. 

" Che«r alter cbe«r we Mat tbun, 
A* ouJy ATuiiei am, — 
Cltcun fur ulJ ManachuMUa, 
Cheen (or young Michlgsn I 

"Tboy ibnned in line of baulai 
Not & nuin wu out of plua. 
Then mth leTcUt-d ateol ihf^j hnrlod tbaa 
Straight in the K«l>da' fkce. 

** ' O help cne, help me, cooinuJe I 
For texn atj ejelids droim, 
A* I wo their aturj bauaen 
Stn«m up the nuokiog town.' " * 

When the bridge-builders saw the soldiers charge up the hlU, 
Ihej too caught the enthusiasm of the moment, and finuthod 
their work. The othor regiments of the brigade, before Ibe last 
plauks were laid, nuiiod down the bank, ra:i out upon the 
bridgOt dashed up tlie bank, joined their cumradea, aud drove 
the Rebels from tlie stroots nearost tbe river. 

History ftimishes bet (bw records of more daring oxplolcs 
thau this action of tlio SoveuUi Michigan. Their work was 
thorough and coiuplote. lu fifteen minutes they cleared tb« 
houses in front of them, aud took mora prisonera than their 
own party numbered . 

It waa now half poat four in the aflomoon, one of the ahortedt 
days of winter. Tbe sun was going down. The Relwls had de- 
byed the crossing through tbe entire day. Oouoral Buruuide 
waa sevoroty censured by some Nortbora aa well aa Southeru 
papers for bombarding the towu ; ho had uo desire to do injury 
to the citizens in person or property, but the etubbom resist- 
ance of the Rebels made it necessary thus to use his artillery. 
When General Sumner arrived at Falmouth, three weeks before, 
he demanded the surrender of the place ; but the citizens and 
the women begged the officer iu coomiaud not to give it up. 

" We would rather have the towu burned than given up to 
the Tankeee," f aaid they. 

• Boher*! " Craaaliiir at Pmterickibvx." 

* RicbJDond EKamioN, Dwnmbv 13, 'Mt 


m BOTS OP '<1. 


But DOW the Tankoofl were thoro, marchiiig tlirough the 
itreet«. Tbe liousos were battered, torn, and rent. Somo were 
in flames, aud a battle was raging tliroiigli the town. 

As eooD as the bridge vu completed, tlic other brigades of 
OAneral Howard'ti diririon moTftd across the river. Tlio Rebel 
*Atteries, which till now bad kept inlenco, opened furioiinlj with 
•olid shot and ehoU, but tho troops moTcd steadily oTor, aod 
look shelter along tlio rircr bank. TIio Rehcln were falling 
bftck from street to street, and tho men Ax)m Michigan and 
Maasachnsetts wore pressing on. 

I itood upon tlio tiaiik of the river and watched tlio scono In 
the deepening twilight. Far up the streets tlicro were bright 
flashes from Uie mutketa of ttie Reliola, who rirorJ from collan, 
ehaml>er windows, and from sheltered places. Nearer were 
dark masses of men in bhic^ who gave quick Tolloys as thej 
moTed steadily on, domnlisliing doors, crustilng in windows, 
ttnd searching orcry hiding-place. Gannon were flaming on all 
the hills, and tlio whole country was aglow with tlio camp 
firos of tlie two great armiee. Tlko Slaflord hills were alive 
witli men, — regiments, brigades, and divisions moving in ool- 
umri from tlioir onciLmpmonts to cross the river. Tlio sky was 
without a cloud. The town was lighted by lurid flames. Th( 
air waa ftill of hissings, — tlie sharp cutting soiuids of tbe leaden 
rein. Tbe great twenty-pounder giins on tite heights of Fal- 
mouth were roaring the while. Tliere were shouts, hurralts, 
yells, and groans from tlio streets. So tlie fight went on tili 
tho Rebels were driven wliolly from tlie town to Uieir intranch- 
monta beyond. 

The Seventeenth Mississippi was the most actively engaged 
of tho Rebel regiments. Its commander, Lieutcnont^olonel 
Rser, in his report, says ; — 

"Tbe Yankeof made nine desperate attempta to Qiath their bridgn, 
bat «r«re repuUed nl evary attempt They umh) Ihetr artiUerf inoes- 
■antly, with a heavy detaclimonl of abarpahoolvrs, fur twolve boars, we 
holding oar poeitioo finnly tbe whole lime, unlil about lialf pnst four, P 
M.. whon tb«y increued tliHr artillery and infftntry, and ibeir batteriet 
becoming ao numerous and ooDoealiatcd, we could not qk oar rifles. 
Being dvprired of all protection, we were cDntpeUed to fall back to Oa^ 
•one Strmt and from thnv were ordered frrm town. T^fl ouualljoi 




of lite regiment during the en^^emeol w«re one boodred and aineea 
wounded, killed, wid misBing." * 

Whoii tlio soldiora of the Seventh Hichigau leaped iuto the 
boats, a drummer-boy jouied thaoi, — Robert Hoiuy Honder- 
ahot. Ho was ouly twelve jcars old, but tits dark ejes flafliod j 
brighUf under the oxcitomont of tho momout. Hia drum woa 
upon his uock. 

" Oot out, you can't go," scud an officer. 

" I want to go," said Robert. 

" No, you will get shot. Out with you." 

Rul;ert jumped into the water, but iustead of going anlioni, 
remained to push otT the tioat ; and then, iiititaxd of lotLiug go 
bis hold, cluug to tho guuwalo, aud was taken a^'-ross. 

As tho boat grounded upon tho other slioro, a piece of shell 
tore through his drum. Ho Uirow it away, seizod tlio gun of a 
fhllon soldier, rushed up tho hill, and camo upon a Rebel bo1> 
dier, Bliglitly wounded. " Surrender ! " said Robert, pointing 
his gun at him. The Rebel gave up his guu, and Robert 
marched him to the rear. When he returued to the other *tde 
of tlio river, General Uunisido tsaw him, and said, — 

" Boy, I glory in, your spunk ! If you keep on in tlua way a 
fyw more years, you will be in my place." 

His regiment, after tlie battle, van sent West, aud Robert 
was in tho battles of Lebanon, Murfrcosboro, Chattanooga, aud 
McMiuiiiville, where ho fought gallantly. 

As tho Rebels liad used the houses for a defence, tho soldiers, 
new tliat tlioy were in possession of tlio town, appropriatod to 
their own uso wliatOTor suited tlieir fancy. Their great desire 
was to obtain tobacco, and tho tobacco shops wore first broken 
open. A largo quantity bad been thrown into the river by the 
Rebel authorities to prevent its tailing iuto the hands of the 
Tankees ; but the soldiers soon fished it up, dried it by their 
bivouac fires, aud througli the loug night, while keeping watch, 
«i\|oyed their pipes at the exponso of tho enemy. Soldiers who 
4Ud not care for tobacco holjiod themselves to flour, meat, po- 
nloes, sugar, aud molasses. They bad a merry night cooking 

* Lientoikat-OoloMt Puer*! B«f»n. 




bacon and egf^ ftying pork, makiof; 1)ot cakoa in tho kltcheni. 
Tlie houfioa were raiiaackcd ; hods, blankctfl, carpub), sofaa. 
rocking-cliairB, seUoos, and lounges were carried into tlie 
etmota. Romo dressed thcmKclvcM in old-fa.<tiioned and anti- 
quated cloUios which the^ found in tlie c)iaml>ors. 

It waa ft camival nigltt. Ouo fellow appropriatod a beai7 
Tolumo of Congrossionol documents, which ho carried about 
several days. Another found a stufTod monkey in one of th« 
housott, which ho tihoutdorcd and bore awaj. One ooldier had 
a doEon cu8tard-cup«< on a string around liia nock. Ajiotlior, 
finding a nioo beavor hat, throw aside his old cap and took hit 
(dace agMu in tho ranks, tlio sport of all his comrades, for being 
eo nice a gentleman. It waa not, howoTor, an indiscriminate pil- 
lage of the whole town. A grcftt many dwellings were not en- 
tered at all, and tlio owners, after the evacuation of the dtj, 
found their premises but little injured. In tho houses nearest 
the riTor tho soldiers folt that they were ontitled to whatoTer 
they could lay their hands on. But those who had taken mat- 
tresses and bedding were obliged to ^vo them up. Tho surgeons 
in charge of the hospitals seized tho articles for the benefit of 
the wounded. 

" Rev. Arthur R. Fuller in killed," said an acquaintance, &tl 
stood upon tJie bank of tlie river. " His body is lying in tfai 

IIo had been chaplain of the Afassachusotts Sixteenth through 
all the Peninsula campaign, working hard day and night in the 
hospital, till his hoalili had frireii out, and ho had l)Con honor 
ably diRchargcd. Uo had preached his taxt sermon on tlie 
Sunday before ; but although no longer in the serrice, know- 
ing that there was to be a great battle, so intonse was his pa- 
triotinn that he could not go away, but remained to do what 
he could. He took a musket, became a Tolunteer, and went 
over with the regiments. 

" I must do something for my country. What shall I do t " 
he asked of Captain Dunn in the streets of Fredericksburg on 
that fatal evenuig. 

" Now is a good time for yon, — fall in on the left," said the 
captain, who taw that ho was cool and collectod, although the 
bullets woro falling tliick and fast around them. He stood to 





front of a grocerT' store, loaded liis musket and Bred, and thoo 
cooUj loaded again. He vas taking aim ouc4 more when h« 
was shot by s sbarpehootor. Tho Rebels adrancod, aud Cap- 
tain Dunn waf oMi^d to fall back. Ho laj where he foil tUI 
tho eneraj were drivoii from tho town, wlion his bodj waa re- 
ooTored. The Rebels bad picked his pockets. They stabbed 
a wounded man who was Ijiug by hia side. 7%o soldiers of 
his regimout who liad listened to his teachings iu life came in 
groups to gaze with siloot sorrow upon the marble brow of 
him wlio had boon a ftuthftil toachor, and who garo his life 
froolj for his country. 

At his funeral obsequies ia Boston, Rot. E. 0. ElaTon said 
of him: — 

** Could be whose manglod body now li«a bvlora you, from which tlv 
deadly ballot hu expelled the noble Christian's sool, rise again aod 
•peak ont as hs was wont to rlo in rinj^ing words, they would not b« 
«pologetic but words of exultation. Were it possible for hiin to be al 
oooe bJltrn in battlfi anJ yet alive with as. I know thst bo would flU 
oar Houls vriiL HIa ottq holy ontliusiasm. I kaow tUst lie would make 
OS undentand and feel the magnitude of hiA itiou|;ht and the love ot 
fiu heart, when he oil^red to his country, in what he thought bcr bit- 
Kresl trial, tho sight of his eye and the streugth of bis arm, aud above 
an the moral example of his character, won by many yean' devottoo 
to the good of bis fcllow-meo. Ho offered all ibia to hi* oountry. ao>l 
he did right. It wm an ororflowing love. H« gare bis life for liberty 
to all men, inHtCMil of slavery for negroes, vassalage for tli« gr«at m^ 
jorily of tlie wliitefi, and a despotism, — greatest curse of all, — fer a 
few. Be oQered his life to inspire the army with noble purpose, aod 
If need be, to Inspire the nation. lie know that bis life might be 
taken, and is not now surprised; but there comes a roieo from hii 
spirit to u« saying, Waste not your lyrapathies in inaclivo sorrow, bat 
oooaect the strong tide of your emotion into Tigoroua thought and pow- 
erfol action. Weep not for me, but weep for youiselvea and your ohil> 
dren, — or see to It tfaal they are so protected as not to need your 

Rot. James Freeman Clarko waa his playmato In boyhood, 
and his friend tltrough life, and Btandiug by his ooflin, looking 
for the last timo upon his face, said : — 

" Arthur Fuller waa like tho most of us, a lorer of peaoe ; bat he 
■aw, M we have bad to *e», that MUnetlmes true peace can >nly oome 




thrcm^ WRT. In ih'u loot utruRK'" ■>< Frcderii^sbiirg b« took a •oldier'l 
wMpaa, snd went oa willi tbe little forloni bope, wbo were leediog tbe 
■dniD^ througb the Mr««U. 11« liAd uot b^en in Ijittle mach beAjni 
but mora tRioag tbe tick io ho«|ritAU. Perhaps be tbougfal it right to 
•bow the wlilien that in an bow of eoicrf^iicj h« wai ready to Maiid 
bf tlietr aido. So Iw wmit with a courmgn ami ilftTOtinn wliicb all 
niu( aJ/oin.', and foil, adding bis blood also to tbe preciaiui bloo<l whirb 
bu beon ■bet] ■• ao atoaemeol for tbe sine of tbe tialion. &laj that 
blood not be sliwl In Tain. Atajr || b« acoeptod by God as a ooatlj- ite> 
riflce. aDiI ma^ we la a people, when our noceisary trials and puoIiU* 
moiUM am ■ufllaieiitlj emliiml, li«noitiA tlint n({ht«oiM nnd luippy iiali -ik 
Ood meant ua to be i aeltiug an uzample to maukiad of a Chiiatiaa 
rapablio In which there is no master and no slare, no tyrant aod na 
fiotim, — Dot a mere rabble lonunbliDf; for gain, but brother*, 0(H)pi^ 
■ting In building up a grand oommon wealth of true hberty, jastkM^ ^1 
bomaDicjr. Lei our Menda go or stay, let ns lire or die^— 

' So wake w« to hijiboT atnu, 
or a land that b« loat Tor a litUa ber low of gold, 
And km of peaoe ; that wu Ibll oT wroogi, sbaraw, 
HarribU, kalAfbl, aKnutroas, not to be told. 
And bail oooe uore the banaer of battle tnirolled I 
TSoogb manj an eye iball darken, and many ■ball weep, 
Tet many a darknM* into light >baU leap.' 

*. * . . To die thuii, flill of devotion to a noble cause, ii not to 
#^^lt Ii to livo. U is rising into a bifshiT tifo. It h panning ny 
lllc tbe oompany of the true and nohio, of iho bravo aud generous, — 
U in going lu join horoea auil martyn of all ages, who have not ooanted 
Ufa d<«r wbun givoti to ii guiHl cause. Such devoted offerings by tho 
young and bravo uurrvudtinug up thoir livos ralao na all above the 
Isar of deatb. What matters it wbeti we die, so that wo lire holjrF — 

* They sre the dwi, t1ie buried, 

TbL-jr wliu do itill (urvlrD, 
Xb dii nitd toim interrvd ; — 
Tlic dpsdl — tlicy are ulivc!*" 

Foothold havini; bt'cn Bixnin^d on thu aoiitlicrn bank of tlie 
RB|)i>aliuiiii()vk, Mic urtuY bc^^uii to cross. A third pontoon 
bridgo wan conHtructu'U at thu lower ond uf iho tovn. A thick 
(og h\in\z over the rivrr tm tlio inoniiiij; of tlie 12th. The ait* 
wu calm, and 1 could distinctly hear the confused hum of 
propanttioD for tlie great battle. Barnside's troops were mor- 



big into position, and so woro IjCo'b ; bat oU cho moTemants 
of both armies wcro conccaicd by tlio fc^. 

Tho Robcl pickets blill clung to tlie outskirts of tho tovn 
At noon tlie fog disappeared, drilling up Uie Rappaliannook. 
Huddouly tho Robol batteries ou tbo bills alwve tlie towu be^^ 
to tlirow sbolls upon tbo .Second Corps, which had crossed the 
upper bndgo and was forming in tho Btroots. Colouel T^Ior, 
who commanded tlio heavy guns ou tbo Falmouth hills, was 
quick to reply. The batteries in Uie centre opened, also those 
on tho lell. The distance from the most remote battery on the 
right to the Ikrthest ou tlie left was five miles. The Second 
and Nintli Corps woro iu the town, the front line was in the 
streets and the rear lino along the bank of the riTor. Artillery 
trains and wagons loaded witli ammunition were going over. 
Solid shot ttom tlte Rebel batteries tossed up the water in the 
river. Shells were bursting in tlie town. 

The First and Sixth Corps, under Franklin, had crossed it 
the lower bridge by the house of Mr. Bernard, and wore mov- 
mg over tho wide plain. Tbo Bernard House, whore Franklii; 
had established his head-quarters, was a fino old mansion sor- 
roonded by trees. Beyond tlio house there wb3 a smooth inte> 
vale, with here and there a hoUow, where the troops oould find 
shelter from the artillery-fire of tho enemy. 

Qeneral Stoneman was moving down from the Falmouth hills 
with Bimey's and Sicklcs's divisions. Opposite Falmouth, on 
the Robel loft, was Ijongstroct's corps, with Anderson's division 
on Stanisbury Hill, — his pickets stationed along tho canal, 
.rhich winds around its base. Xoxt to Aaderson was Ransom's 
division, on Maryeo's Hill, directly in rear of the town. Two 
roads run up the hill, leading west, — tlie Gordonsville plank- 
road and the Oraugo turnpike. Mr. Maryoe's house ttands 
between them. It is a fine brick dwelling, witli a stately por^ 
tlco before it, with a beautiful lawn sloping towards tho city, 
shaded by oaks and adorned with flowering shrubs. From 
tho roof of tlio man.sioii (rencral Longstroot con obtain a (ail 
view of wliat is going on in tho Union linos. He can see the 
tnopa gathoring in tho streets and behold the dark massee 
under i'Vanklin moving out post tho Boniord House. 

At the base of tho hill ho can see some of liis own soldien, 


TH£ BOTS OP '«1. 


aheltered behind a fiton&-wAll aiong tlio Old Tolognipli road, 
which IB dug liko a c&iial into Uio oido oftlio liill. It is a shel- 
tered pottition, and thoir riflc» and mu^kotfi vill sweep the level 
field in front towards the town. Bis heaviest cannon and hie 
largest liowilrcrs arc in position around Muryeo's house, behind 
eartliworlts. Tlio Washington Artillery, wliich was in the first 
liattlo of Manassas, and vliici) fought throtigli all tiattica of the 
PeninFula, at Grovelon and Antictam, is there. 

Ransom'a division extends to Hazel Run, — a stream whicb 
comes down through a deep ravine from iho west, gurgling over 
a rocky bed, and turning Uio great wheel of n grisMnill, just 
hid fVom sight as you look up tlie river from tlio town. An 
tuifinisliod railroad cmhankment is tlirown up in the run, — the 
Uordonarille road, — wliiuh was in coiit^tnictiuii when tlie wu 
broke out. There is a hollow in the smooth field in front of 
the tolegmph road, — a place to bo kept in rcmorabrnnce. 
Tbero is a higher elevation beyond Maryco's house, which ovor- 
[ooks tbo town, and ail the plain below, colled Loe's Ilill, whor« 
Lee hu plAOod his guns of longe<?t range. 

Aoraas the r&viue is McLuw'h divisiuti, bohlud on embaukmont 
which oxtonda up the hill and into tlie woods along the Tel 
ograph road. Beyond McLaw's is Pickett's diviKion; then 
Hood's dinsiou. which TormH Uio right of Longstreet's com 
mand, and roaches to Deep Hun. Lougstrcet's head-quarton 
are in roar of Hood. 

Across Deep Bun are the hoad-quartors of Loo, who can Btaud 
by bis tent and look down upon the battle-lield. He can see wliat 
Oouoh and Wilcox are doing in Uie town. He is directly in front 
of Bernard's manaioo, and con also behold all the movements 
of the Union troops on the plain. A. P. Hill's division of Jack- 
son's corps is in front of him, — Hill's left resting on Deep 
Run, and his right reaching to Captain Hamilton's houso, whore 
the railroad crosses the old Richmond rood. Hill's troops are 
partially concealed in the woods. Behind Hill aro the divisions 
of Early and Talifcrro, — TaUferro being on tite right, near 
Hamilton's house. Farther in the rear, on tlie hill, is D. H. 
Hill's division, wliich is held in reserve. There are fourteou 
guns — fh)m I*(^ram*B, Mcintosh's, Crenshaw's, Latham's, and 
Johnson's batteries — on the hill near Hamilton's. 


TBI DOTS or 'n. 


Ur. Bem&rd haa been a \BTgo elavoholder. His estate li 
knowu lu tbe county round by tlio name of Mansfiold. Hit 
nagroM lire in humble liomos, — in cabiiis noar Uio railroad, 
out towardii Hamillou'B. Hiore, around Uio cabins, Jackson 
ba» placed twenty-one guns from DavidKou's, Rainos'e, Caskie's. 
and Rraxton's batteries. To Uio right of Uieso, and between 
Bomard'i and the railroad, are twolvo guns, — Wooding*B and 
Carjwnter'n batteries. 

Tbe road from Frodorickaburg to Tort Royal runs parallel to 
tfae rivor, about hair a mile distant Trom the stream. 

General Btnart, with two brigades of cavalry and Ins batteriee 
of light artiUory, hold tlio road. Tlio Louisiana Guards are 
•ent down to aid him. EJis lino runs nearly at right angle* 
with Jackson's infantry lino, and oitonds (Vom the railroad to 
the riTor. His battorlos will havo a cross-firo upon the F^rst 
and Hixth Corps, wbenoTer they attempt to move out from Ber- 
nard's to gain possession of the railroad at Ilamtlton's. 

Such is the field, — a smooth plain, a mile wide and two 
mOoB long, around Bornard's, reaching up to the town. Ber- 
nard's farm is cut across by the Port Boyal road, the old rood 
to Richmond, and by tho railroad. The Port Royal road is 
bordered by cedars, thick-AOt hedges, and a deep ditch. There 
are fences dividing tho intervale into fields. Deep Run is 
fringed with alders. Maryee'a Uill ts ciuite stoop. 'The Rebel 
cannon sweep all the plain, tho Hold at tho I)a60 of Maryr>e'B, 
and tlie town itself. Tho Rebel troops have the protoi'tion of 
the sunken road, of tho riflo-pits along the crests of tho hills 
They are sholtorod by woods, by raviuos, by tho hodgos and 
(bncoB, hut Burnaido has no oovor (br his troops. Thoy must 
march out upon Uio plain, oliargo up Uie hilUidcs, and roceivt 
tho fire of a sheltered foe. 

To win a victory, oven with a superior force, under sucli oir 
QumslancoB, there must be not only gi-o&t courage and Kolf-poe- 
sossiou, but a well-laid plan aud bormouious action of all subor 
dinato oomuionders. 

Bnrnside's plan was to make a vigorous movemont with a 
large [Kirtion of his army to gain the railroad at Uiimilton'i 
bouse, and at tho same timo rout Longslreet from bis posiUou 
on Uaryoe'a Uill. If bo suooeoried at Uamiltoii'e, even if he 




biled at Marjee'e, Lee would be compelled to evacaato the 
town, because Burusido would hold the railroad over which Lee 
rMoived his supplies. 

In the council of officers, hold on tho Digbt of tho 11th, Oeu 
eral Fr&iikliu, wlio had about sixty thousand meu, ui^^ such 
a movemout ou tlio left. Thore was delay in iiisuiiig the orders, 
which garo Loe ample time to etreugthen bia position. The 
plan adopted was substantially that which Franklia had urged. 
These woro Bumeido's directions to Franklin : — 

* Oen«ral HardM will carry this deapateh to yon, and kib^ will: 
you tbrougb the day. Xliu geocml oommBiidiiig directs that you keep 
your wliol« command id ^ poettion ' for ft rapid movement down the old 
Richmond road ; aiul you will send out at onoe a dirisioo at least, to 
pass below SmithQeld, to Beiz«, if powible, tbe beighta near Oaptaio 
Hamilton's, on llua sid« of Ui'O Mataaponax, taking care to keep it weD 
SD|^HHied and ita Unu of retreat opuo. Hu baa ordtired another oolumn 
of a diTusion or more to be mov«d from Guueral Suouter'B command, up 
the Plank-road to ita inteTVection with the Telegraph road, whor« they 
will divide, with a view of seizing the heights od both ihew roada. Hold 
iog the*e height^ with the heights near Csplain Hamilton's, will, be 
hopes, compel the enemy to evacoate the whole ridge between thea* 

Li a letter to General Hallcck, written on the ISth, a week 
after tho battle, Geuoral Bumsido explains his plan more 

" Tbe enemy," be sayii, *' had cut a road io rnar of the line of heights 
where we made our alladi, by meana of which they oonnecied ibe two 
win^ of their army and avoided a long detour around through a bad 
ooontry. I obtained from a colored man information in regard to this 
road, which proved to be oorrocu I wanted to obtain pottsussion of this 
road, and that wsa my reason for making my attack on Uie extreme 
left. I did not intend to make an atlarck on the right till that positioa 
was taken, which I soppo^ed would stagger the enemy, cutdng their 
line in two ; and then I proposed to make a direct attack in front and 
drive thum out of thoir workd." 

Tho daj (tho 12ch) passed, and night camo on befbro the 
army was m poddon to moke tho attack. At fftuiROt the 
batteriee along tho lines opened 6ro, but tho shells for tho most 
part burst harmlessljr^ and tho soldierB, aocustomed to danger. 


tOE BOYS or 


cooked their coflee hj the gliinmcring bivoukc firos, flpread their 
bluiket« on the grouud, and lay down to elcop, girmg ao hoed 
to the caonoD's roar or the constAut firing along the [dcket 


The morning of tlio 13th davned. A thick fbg bong orer 
the rirer, so dooso that it waa liardly poesibLe to distinguish ob 
jeoti a hundred jrarda distant. Ooneral Sumner's head-quar 
ten were bj the Louse of Mr. niilLips, uortli of the river. Gen- 
eral Buraeide rode down from his own hoad-quarters, and met 
General Sumner and General Hooker, and oUier officers. Ho 
wore an auxioue look, and justly, for it was the most respou- 
lible hour of his life. Up to that time all of his woll-laid plant 
bftd failed. Be had hoped to cross tlie river and surprlso the 
BebeU, but two days had paseed eioce the beginning of the 
moremeut, giring Lee time to strcngtlien his defences. Now 
the fog hung OTor the riror, and ho was af^id of collision b^^ 
tween difforont diTisions of his troops. But a password was 
whimpered along the LinoH, and ordora were issued to go for 

While the troops were waiting for tho adronce the mails 
arriTod. How eagerly wore tho letters and papers grasped bj 
the soldiers! It whs affecting to see tliem, aB they road the 
words of lovo from homo, dash the tears from Uioir eyes. 
Homo was dear to them just then. 

The fog began to drifl along the ralley. It was like the 
drawing aside of a curtain. Tlio entire battlo-fidd was in view. 
Two signal-guns wore firod in quick succession by the Rebels 
far down on llio lofl in front of Franklin. Tliero was a quick 
mountiuK of horses at Bumsido's licad -quarters. The officers 
had received their final orders, and dashed away to carry them 
into exocutitm. 

Tho moin attack was to he led by FnuikUn. Ho had bin own 
two oorpa, numlioring forty ilioiisand ; Stoncmon was moving 
to his support with twenty IhouBand, and Buttorfield, with the 
Rfth Coqifl, could bo called to aid him if needed. 

Standing where General Tyler had plantod his guns, I had a 
Ur riew of Uie entire battlo-Held. Ttie position was below the 




town, n«w dbo Icnror brid;^, on tho Wanhington farm. RoMl 
officers werft riding to and fro around Maryoo's house. Ttic 
gunners of tho Washington Artillory were Ipanin^ upon their 
[H«ces, watching the movomonts in tho town. The Second Corps 
hod moved out from tho streets past the oM burying-groxmd, 
and was near the gas-works. The right of the lino extended 
north of the Plank-road to tho monument erected to the mem- 
ory of Washington's mother. 

General French's division of the Second Corps was on the 
right ; General Hancock's was next in tho lino, with FToward'i 
diTiaion, as reserve, in tho roar. Tlio Second Corps hattoriw 
wore standing in the streets of tho town, tlio ofTiooni vainly seek- 
ing positions where they could Bre upon tho Rebel batteriea 
which looked down upon ttiem from Maryeo's Hill. 

The Ninth Corpe under Wilcoi was joined to the Second Corps, 
and occupied the lower end of tho town. General Storgis's 
diviiuon was in front, with Wliipple's, forming tho second line. 
Bums'fl division was in reserve, near Deep Run. Tlie Rebel 
ammunition trains were in sight far up Hazel Run, and on the 
distant hill there was a group of Rebel oflicors around Long- 
stroet's head-quarters. Timps and teams were passing to and 
fro between Hood's and Pickett's divisiouB. Wilcoi's troops 
wore taking position, marching and countermarching, closing 
in solid mass under the shelter of the banks of Hazel Run. 
Tlie right of tlio Sixth Corps, under General Smitli, rested on 
Deep Run, Brooks's division joining Bums's west of the run, 
almost up to the railroad. Howe's divif>ion was next in line, 
whore Uio Rebel ballories tiad full swoop of the broad intervale. 
The ground is a dead level oast of tho niu, oxtondiug fh>m 
the rivor to the wmxled hill, where Loo had ostahlishod hts 
bead-quarters. Howq'e troops were lying along the old Rich- 
mcmd road, where, beneath the cedars and sodded fences, the 
wldiers found shelter from the sheila of the enemy. General 
Kewton's division was on tlie left of Howe's, also lying under 

Q«Deral Gibbon's divisioD of Reynolds's corps, the First, 
was next in line. Meade sVxvi next, directly in frxjnt of tha 
railroad-crossing at Hamiluia'a, — tho vital point, whioh, if seized 
and hoM. would force Leo ont of hut {ofcrenohmen:.s Moade 


THB BOYS or '01 


bad cruascd llic old Rictimoud road, and was factng ^outh ; 
Doublcday's divisiuti was ou ttic oxtromo lefl, exlonding from 
Uoado's loft to ilio rivor, facing east, aud etaudiug nearlf at 
right angles with Moado'a dinsiou. 

Tbe battlo was bcguu b; Ocucral Moadd, bia diTisions hav- 
ing b90u Boloctod to load Uio adranco towards the railroad- 
crosaiiig. The Bucktails, who had bccD in nearly all tlie en 
gagomouta ou tiio l\'iiinsula, who first oxhibitod their valor 
at DrauuriUe, who woro under Ilookor at Autielam, were 
first ougagod. Thoy moved ovor the open field beyond Ber- 
nard's, and drove tho onemy'a skirmishers. Tlie R«l>c1 bat- 
teries — Latham's, Johusou's, Mcintosh's, Pogram's, and 
Crenshaw's — opened a henry Hro. Jackson knew tho impor- 
tance of holding tho position at Hamilton's, and had massed 
theeo battorios, which gave a coiiiccntratod firo upon tho ed- 
TUkcing force. Rcynoldn's batteries galloped in'o position and 
raplied ; and so for an hour tho pounding of tho batteries went 
on along the lefl. 

Moado's division was composed of three brigades. Tho Firal 
was commanded by Colonel Sinclair, aud was composed of the 
First Rifios (Bucktails), tho First, Second, and Sixth regi- 
ments of tho PeunsyWania Rosorvos. Tho Second Brigade 
was commanded by Colonel Mugilton, and consisted of tlio 
Third, Fourth, Soventh, and Eighth regiments of the Pennsyl- 
vania Reserves, and tho One Hundred and Forty-Second Penn- 
sylvania Voluuicors. Tho Tliird Brigade was commanded by 
General 0. F. Jackson, and was composed of tho Fifth, Ninth, 
Tenth, Eleventh, and TwclfUi rcgimouls of tlie Reserves. 
Attached to tliis division woro four battorios of four guns each, 
Captain Ransom's Third United States artillery, Licutoaant 
Simpson's, Captain Amsdun's, and Captain Cooper's of tlie 
iVsi Pennsylvania regiment of artillery. Captain Ransom 
aud lieutenant Simpson hod twolvo-pounders, the others were 
tliree-incli rifled guns. 

Sinclair's brigade was in tho front lino, and Hagilton'a three 
hundred paces in rear of it. Jackson's was in roar of ttie lef\ 
of tho two linos, witli his men in column of regiments, about 
one hundred paces in rear uf Magilton's line. Those threfl 
brigades numbered about idx thousand men. 





It was just uino o'clock wlieu Meade moved from hU pontioD 
ae&r the Hcrnard IIou»o. 

A rariuo comes down from the liilU and Tonus tbo diriding 
line between the fiomard aud Smithfiold estates. As sooa 
ts Meade crossed tbo raviuo, ho turned the head of his oolumn 
tc the south, aiid moved to the Bowliiig Green or old Rich- 
mond road, where he was obliged to stop «luIo the pJonoora 
could cut ava; the hedges, level tlio so<l fences, and bridge 
ths ditches, in ordor that lils artiltorjr could pass. While 
JO was doing tliis, Stuart's batteries opened firo. They were 
on Meade's loft flank and onniadod his lines, throwing shollB 
directljT up the road. Meade apprehended an inunediato attook 
on his left flank^ a:td swung his second brigade towards Stuart, 
fkcing cost, while his first brigade was still facing soutli towards 
Hamilton's c^os(^iDg. His lino thus made two sldoe of a square. 
There was a little knoll on tUo led of the first brigade. 

*' lliat is the place for you," Baid Meade to Cooper and Ran 
■om. The battcrioE wore quicEdy wheeled into the position 
Indicated. The gunners had a fair view of tlio Rebel batterioa 
over the level plain. Sim]}son brought his battery up and 
placed it in front of the Third lirigado, and replied to Pegram 
Such was tlie opening of the battle. 

Meanwhile, Doubleday was pusliing down by ttie river. 
When tlio Rebel batteries opened Hre, bo brought bis own 
hito position and gave a cross-fire, which was so severe that 
6tuart*s Rockbridge battery was quickly silenced and tlie guns 
« udrawu. Whilo this was going on, a body uf Rebel sharp- 
ahooters crept up by the hedges and commenced hrlng ; but 
two companies of marksmen were sent out by Quuoral Jackson's 
brigade, which drove them back. 

An hour passed before Meade was ready to move again. 
Doubleday bad advanced towards Stuart, but Gibbon was not 
jret upon Meade's right. 

Stonewall Jackson, seoing that Doubleday was moving down 

the river, thought ttmt it was Franklin's intention to turn his 

right flank. D. 11. Dill's divii^ion, which was close by Hamil* 

ton's house, was sent upon the doublo-quick to help Stuart hold 





bis lino * This weakonod lils contro. It vas at this auspidoui 
moment tliat Moade's division advanced alono to pierco tlie 
Bcl>ol lino. 

Il was tvolro o'clock, and Fraiikltu's forco was in tlie follow- 
ing position : Doubloday on tlio lofl, wuU down towards Stuart^ 
his Inttorlos in full plaj ; Moade tliirty or forty rods bofond tlio 
Bowling Grcon road, in tlio opon Gold ; Giltbon and Nowton 
JuBt oror tlio road ; Howo np to it ; Ilinio; and Sickles filing 
out (torn tbo bridges, a milo in rear of Mo^o. 

All of Fnuikliu's batteries wliicli were in position, ono Uod- 
drod and eixtcou guns, commenced a rapid firo upon tbo woodi 
beyond tbo railroad, to protect Mcado in bis adrauco. Do 
Btusoy opened witli bis sixty piocos from tbo bills north of tho 
Bappoliaunock, throwing uIioLU over tlie beads of tbo advancing 

Jackson's batteries woro equally actiro. There were twenty- 
ono guns by llio ucgro cabins in front of Howe, twclvo in Crout 
of Nowtou, foiirtoeu in front of Meado, while otbor einglo bat- 
torioa under Stuart wore playing on tbo left. Mora tlian two 
hundred and (idy piocos wcro roaring as Meade adranced. 

It was n magntficout 8j>octaclo ; but it was a moment of 
ojtxioty to Burnsido, who could only judge of the progress ol 
the battlo by the following despatches, received from time to 

" DaAb^oAariM, FuifiLtgr'i fltAvo Oituicw, 
U«ooiuber IS, TAO A. H. 

** Qeooral Mtsailc's division t« lo male llio movomont frvin oar left i 
but il it ju»t rcporUMl (tint tho unemy's Hkirmialjer) aro sdvuncing, lodi* 
caling an atladc upon our poaition on ibe lofl." 

•■ 9 o'clock A M. 

** Qcnenl Maide JuBt mored oat. Donblcdxysapporu liirn. Mude'i 
•kinnishorB engBged, bowovor, at onc» nilb 00001/8 Bkimiisli<-rs. Bat- 
tery opening, on Me«de probably, from [kmiUoq on old Richmond road.*' 

"II o'clock AH. 
" Mi-ade ulvancod luUf a mite, sod holdB on. lofantry of enemy lo 
woods ID Trout of extreniQ left, ftbo in front of Flowe. No Iobb, bo fu 
«r p«al importaocc. Goocnd Vinton bftdly, but not dangeroosly 

• laBkBoa'i R«pan. 




" I^ter. — Reynoid* ktu hmn forced to devtiop hit tohoU it'iw. 

** ADSttadcorBomeforcrtorenrm/^ troops on mir left menu probftbla, 
ii far «a ato now be judged. Stonenuin hat been dirtcted to eroti oiu 
diintton to lupport our Uj'L Report of cavalry pickeU from the other 
■ids of the riTei-, ibjit eoom/a troops woro moritig down the riTOr oa 
this side during the kUlor port of the night Uowo'ii pickota 'vifiartod 
BiOTemei)t« iu (hftir frodt, Hune directioo. 6tiU ihej ImrrJI^&trong 
orce well posted, with batlcries, there." r 

- I^'clock M. 

" Bimey'e diriuon it ooir getting iolo poBiltoci. That done, lUynoIdi 
will ot^er Meade to adranoo. Batteries over the river are to shell tbr 
BDOOQ^'b poeitioQ in the woods in front of Reynolds b left. lie thinks 
tlie elfocl will be to protacl Meade's adranoo. A ooluma of the eoemj's 
Infiuilr; is poasiag aloog the cr««t of tlio hlUs Inun right to left, ai we 
look at it" 

- MA P. M. 

" <3«Qeral Meade's !!□« is adTandog in the direetioD jou preacribn] 

" t o'docsk P. U. 
" Enanj opened a batterj on Rejuoldi, endladiug Meade. B«jDoldt 
hw opened all his batteries on it ; do report yet Reynolda boUy <>■&- 
yiged at this moment Will report in a few tsonumts a^n." 

" Heavy engagetneDts of tQ&mtry, Enemy in force where batl«ry is. 
Meade is aasaultiog tbe bill Will report in a few minutea again." 

■• 1.35 o'clock P. M. 

"Meade Is in tbe woods in hia front; aeema to be able to hold on. 
Baynolds will push Qibboo In, if necesaary. The battery and woods 
rafamd to roiut be n^ar Ilamtltt^n'i hoiiM. Ttie infaiilry firing is pro- 
longed and quite hoavy. Things look well enough. Men in fine 

" 1.40 o'doek P.M. 

'Ueadc having carried a portion of the enemy's poeitiou in tbo wooda, 
we have thny) handrorl prisoner*. Rocmy'n haitory on extreme left 
retired. Toagh work ; mun Aght well. Gibbon has advanced to 
Meado's right ; men light well, driving the enemy. Meade has Bofleivd 
Mvatvly. Doableday to Meade's left, — not engaged. " 

"SJo'dMkP. M. 
* Gibbon and Meado driven back from tb« woods, Newton gone fnr^ 
and. Jackaon'i oirps of tbe enemy attacks on the leit Ganrra] 


ras BOTS or '«i. 


Gibbon vligbllj wounded. Oooend Bajird mortftlly wounded by ■ 
eheU. Things do not look u well on BejnoldB's front j uill, we 11 
likTe new troope In loon." 


* Detpeteb reoeired. Fr«nUij) will do bii bo»t. New troop* gone 
in Wpl report hmd ■gun." 

^^ " 3 o'doek P. IL 

" ReyRilds aoomB to bo holding hie own. Things took belter, somt^ 

"J^ o'clock P.M. 

■* Gibbon's tnd Meade's dinsions tire badly tuwd up, and I fear tinother 
odraiice on tlie enemy on oar left cannot be made this aAomooik 
Doubleda/e dirision will replace Meade'p, as soon as it oaa be ooUected 
and, if it be done in time, of coarse another attack will be made. 

" Tbo enemy are In force in the wood) on our lufL, (awanj? Ilamiltoa'a, 
and are tlireatening the safely of that portion of out line. Tbey wem 
to haTB detached a portion of their force to oar fVonlf where Howe and 
Brooks are now engaged. Brooke baa some prisoaere, and is down to 
the railroad. JuiL a^ soon as tbe lel^ is ufe, our forc^w here will be 
prepared for a front attack, but it may bo too late ibis aftumoon. Id- 
deed, we are engaged in front anyhow. Motwithi^tanding tlie uupletsaDl 
Items I relate, the moraU generally of the troops is good" 

" 4| o'clDdt P. M. 
"Tlw enemy is still to force oo our left and IVtmt. An uttuck on our 
battttries in front has been repnked. A new nttack han junt opt^ncd on 
OUT left, but the left ts safe, thongh it is too Into to advance either to the 
laft or front." 

Such was tbe luteUigeuce wlucb roaolied OcneraL Btiruside at 
tho operations on Uio loft. It was not voiy eucoitragiug. He 
expected tliat Fratikllii, with sixty thousand inou at his dis- 
posal, would swoop Jack»ou fh)m his position by Qainilton'B, and 
lluu gain tho roar of Loo's left flank, which would make it 
flttsy for 5^utuiior with tho right wing to brook tlirgugh the Una 
in rear of tho town. Instead of ttirowiiig forty tbousoud mea 
upon Jackson, as ho could hare done, dealing a blow which 
might have brokon tho Rebel linos, Moadu's division alono was 
sent forward. Tho firo of tho batteries was torrific as ho ad' 
Tanced, and so sovoro was tho conoouade that tbe Itcbol bub- 
teriofl wliich had been adronced from Uie main line were 





foirood to retire, vitli two caissons blown up and sovcr&I guns 

As tlio troops moTod on tlicj came to a hollow before reach- 
ing tlic railroad. Thoy lialtod q moment on tlie edge of the 
depression and corrected their lines. It was a clear field to the 
railroad cmbaukmont, behind which Hiof conld see the gloam- 
ing of the ennlif^ht on the Irajonots of A. P. Hill's divi^JBii. 

Meado*B throe brigades were now in lino, Uic first on the 
right, with tlio Biztli regiment of tlie Rescrres tlirown out as 
ikirmifttiors ; ttio Second tn the centre, and tlie Tliird on the 

The direction of Moodo's odranco brouglit hun egunft 
Lane's and Archer's brigades. Lane's brigade was compoHod 
of five Nortli Carolina regiments, — the Sevontli, Eighteenth, 
Twentf-Eigbtli, Thirty-Tliird, and Thirty-Sevonth. Aiuhcr'a 
was composed of tlio First, Seventh, and Fourteenth TennesscOj 
and Niucteonth Qcoi^ia regiments, and Fiflli Alabama battalion. 
"Hiey were on the railroad aitd in the woods. There was a gap 
botwooii tlio brigadn<), and thoro Meade drove the entering 
wedge- It was a fierce and bloody contest along the rail- 
road, in the woods, upon the hillside, in the ravine, on the 
open plain, and on the croRt of tho ridgo. Tho fourteen guns 
on tho hill poured a murderous tiro into Meade's toil flank. 
Tho guns by Deep Run, in front of Pender's brigade, enfi- 
laded tho lino from tho riglit, while in reserve wore two ftill 
brigades, — Thomas's and Gregg's, — to fill tho gap. But not- 
withstanding this, Meado, unsupported, charged down tho slnpo, 
through tlie hollow, up to tlie railroad, aud over it, routing the 
FoorbecuLli Toiiuossoo and Xiiiotoenth Qoorgia, of Archer's, and 
the whole of Lano's brigade. With a cheer tlio Fennsylvanians 
wont up tho hill, crawling through tho thick tmdcrbrush, to the 
crest, doubling up Arclior and knocking liono completely out cf 
tho lino. It was as if a Ilcrculean dostroyor had crumbled, 
with a elcdgo-hammcr stroke, the key-etone of an arch, leaving 
tho whole structure in danger of immodiato and irratriovable 

&rchor shifted tho FifUi Alabama from his right to his loft, 

* Loc'tTteport 


THE BOYS 0? ■«!. 


but was uot ablo to stop the advancing faukoos. He had 
alroady sent to Orogg for tiolp, and that oDiccr was putting lib 
troopa in motion. Ho hod 8ont to Ewoll, who was by Hamil- 
ton's, and Trimblo aud Lawton voro getting ready to move 
liOne was still running, and tlio gap was widening botwoen 
A-rchur and Pondor. 

Oibbou ought to havo boon following Moado, driving up tlia 
hill through tbo gap, but ho halted at tho railroad ; bis men 
were loatli to move, for Pender's batteries were cutting across 
hi* flank. Howo aud Nowton and Brooke were by the Bowling 
Qreon road, ehowing no signs of advancing. Sickles and Bir- 
ney wero almost back to Boniai'd'a mansion. Doublcday was 
holding Uio llauk against Stuart, and Moado was struggling 

Tho latter officer thus spoaks of bis position at tbis moment : — 

** The flrat brigade to the right advaiiced eoveml htiiidrud ynrds ov«r 
el«ftred ground, driving llie cnomy'ii akirmtaliors before llitttn till ttt«y 
nacbed tho woods in front of tbo niIroac)» which thoy entered, driving 
tb« enemy o*i1 orHiem to thu rnilnHid, wliere Ihey wore found itrongly 
poited in ditches and behind IflmpnrHry defencea. The brignde (Firat) 
drOTe them Aon there and up ihe heights in their front Owing to • 
boATy fire being received on lln^ir n|;lit flRnk, tLev obliqued over to that 
ilde, bat oontinaed forcing the enemy back till they bad crowned the 
crest f^ th» hill, craeeod a main road which rune aloDg the crost, and 
re«che<l open ground on the other side, whore ihcy wen MMiled by a 
T«iy MTore fire from a targor fbrt^e in their fVont. aud at the same tboa 
tbe eoem^ upoocd a baltory wliich coiupluiely ouiUaded them from the 
right flauk. After holdiiij; their ground for some lime, no aupi^rt ar> 
riving, thoy were compi^'lled to fall hack to the railroad." * 

Gibbon, tbo uoarost support to Moadc.was nearly half a milo 
distant. t That ofiicor wan wounded while tho fight was ho^ 
tMt, but of tho part which ho was performing ho says : ^ 

** Ai aooD aa the enemy's guus slackened fire, I uiw General Meade's 
troops moving forward iuto actioe, and I at ouoe sent orders to my lead* 
big brigade to advance and engage tbe enemy. Shortly afterwards I 
ordered tip another brigade to support the flrsU Tho flra was very 

■ 0«iMnd MMdci'i Twilmon;, Condoci of Um Wu. P«n I. p. «M. 
1 6m nup Mccuui|NUijinH Oonend FtAoklio'* r«|>l/ U> Bcport of CommiUM oa 
Ondact of Uie War. 





h«ftT7 froiQ the enemy's iafaQlry, aod I ordered up the Third Brigade 
and fonoed U in columu on iho right of my Ibe, and directed them CD 
Uk« (be position with th« bayoaet, having preriousl/ given that ord'Or 
to the leAiling brigndo. But ihe general comm&adiiig tliat brigade told 
me that the Doise sod confustoo whs such that it was impOHsiblo (o get 
the men to ch&rge, or to g«t them to henr aoj order to chiirge. The 
Third Brigade — my l«st brigade — wetit in and took the position witb 
iLe bayooet, and captured u cousldurahlu numlier tif prieotiera. During 
the fif>htiDj; of the inrantrr I was e8t«bli»hiiig the b»ttvri«fl which b»< 
longed to my diri«ion iu posltioa to assist in the assault. I had jnst 
received the report of the euocesa of tbia Tbird Brigade, wheo shortly 
after I saw a rogimoot of Rebel infantry come out on the leH of mj 
line between mjBolf and Gcncrul Maude. I rode up towanla a batteiy 
that was on their led, anil direclj^d them bo open Gre upon that regi- 
Btent. I was riding back towards the right of my line, when I was 
woonded, and left the field about half past two o'clock to the aflornooo, 
I think."* 

It will bo Bcon by FrimkliD's despatches that Meftde had 
broken the lino beforo Gibbon was engaged. At 1.15 P. 11. 
he tolograpbed to Bumside, " Meade is assaulting the hill." 
Ten minutes later, at 1.25 P. M., " Reynolds teiU puth Gihhon 
tn }f necaaajy." At 1.40 P. M., "Meade boa carried a po> 
lion of llie enemy's position in tlie woods. We liaTO throe 
hiukdrod prisoiiors. Gibbon has advanced to Meado's right." 

It was in tliis advance to the railroad, wlion Gibbon came 
in collision with Pender's and Thomas'S brigades, that Gibbon 
was wounded. 

While this was going on in front, the Second and Third 
Brigades of Meade wore enveloping Gregg's brigade of South 
Carolinians, which had l)ceu hurriod up to rotrioTo the disaster 
to the lino. There was a-short but bloody contest. Tliroo hiin- 
ilred South Carolinians foil in tliat struggle, muluding tlieir 
commuudor, General Gregg, who was mortally wounded. 

It was a critical moment with Stonewall Jackson. Tho whole 
of Ewell's division, tinder tho coomiand of General Early, was 
brought up to regain tho ground. Lawton's brigade come 
first upon tlio Pennsylvanians, followed by Hayes's, Trimble's, 
and Field's brigades, with Barly's own, commanded by Colou» 

• TmtiiaOBj, Ooodnct o( Hm W>r, Put J. p. 7I&. 


THE BOYS 07 "fll 


Had Nowioti, Eovo, Brooks, Sicklos, and Birney been near 
at hand, or had Oihboii bcon piishod promptly aud ofTectirely 
to Meadows support, the record of that bloody day would have 
boon Hu* different from what it is. But Uicy wore not thoro. 
Tlioy had uut evuji bean ordered to ad\'anco! 

Uiiablo to withKtoud the onset of tlio whole of Jocksoa'i 
force (with Uio exception of a portion of Toliforro's robcn'os), 
Meade was obliged to fall back, and give up the t'^'tiitiou won 
by fiucb horoiu valor. As liin troops went (o tlio r tliey met 
Ward'fi brigade of Birney's division advancing. o RolwU 

were in Aill pursuit. Biriiey wheeled his battorioa into position, 
and opciiod with canister, and the Ucbels fled to the shelter of 
the woods. 

The divisions of Howe and Nowtou and Sickles wore slightly 
engaged later in the day, but only in repulaiiig a oeoond 
adrauce of tlio Robels. Tlio attack which Moado had opcnod so 
gallantly, aud which was attended with buch good success, had 
fkiled. Less titan ten thousand men bad brokon the enemy's 
line, and opened the way to victory. Of the sixty thousand 
men at Franklin^s disposal not more than sixteen or oigbteen 
thousand were engaged during the day,* and of those not mor« 
than eight tliotUsind at any one time. 

General Franklin, in vindicating himself fVom censure for 
not attacking with a larger force and more vigorously* &lla 
back on the clause in Bumside's order, " to attack with one 
division at least, and to k»?--p it well supported." It would 
have been better if Bumsido had given explicit instructions. 
Thore must bo ?omo latitude allowed to Eubordinatcs, but there 
are vory few men who, witliout particular inptructions, can 
cuter fully into tlio plans and intentions of the commandor- 
tn-chiof. Franklin was constitutionally sluggish in bis move- 
ments. Tlie attack on the left required boldness, energy, and 
perseverance. Humner was the man for the place. Bumsida 
was poculiarly unfortunate in the sclociton of commanders to 
carry out the particular Ibaturcs of his plan ; but Sumner hav- 
ing boon first to arrive at Palmonll), and having taken position, 
it was not easy to mako the change* 

While the battle was raging on the loft I rode over the plain. 

* Totdmonf of llMd* and oihtr Qflkctm, Conduct of Um Wtr 

1862. J 



Tlie cuToby under Geuorol Uajrard vas druvm up iu roar of 
the grove surrouiiditig tim fiiiti old Hcmard muasiou. Gcueral 
Bayard was sitting at the foot of u truo, waiting for orders, aud 
watching the advanciug cotunuiH of Moudu und Gibbou. There 
was a group uf oHiuors aruuud General Franklin. Howe's 
aud Newtun'ts divisions woi'u lying down to avuid tlio Bobel 
shells* hurled from the heights beyond the railroad. All 
of Finuklin's guns were iu play. The earth bhook with tlie 
deep coiicusiiiou. Suddenly tlio Rebel batteries opeDod with 
redoubled fury. A ehot went ovor my head, a Bocond fell in 
fltiut of my liorse, ojid ploughed a furrow in the ground ; a 
third ozplodod at my right, a fourth wont singing along ihe 
Uue of a regiment lying prostrate on tlie oartli. McCartney's, 
Willistoirs, Ilcxamor's, Amsdcn's, Coo|)or's, Ransom's, aud a 
dozen otlier l>attories were replying. Mcado was driving up 
the hill. Wounded men wore creeping, crawling, aud hobblmg 
towards tlio hospital. Some, slightly wounded, wore uttering 
foarful groans, while others, made of stonier stulT, though torn 
and mangled, boro tJioir pains without a murmur. 

A soldier, with his arms around tho nocks of two of his com 
rades, was being brought in. '*0 dear! O Ix>rd! my foot fai 
toru all to pieces ! '* ho ciiod. 

There was a hole in the too of his hoot where tho ball had 

" It has gone clear through to tho heel, and smashed all tlie 
bones. Odcar! dear! I shall have to hare it cut oflT! " 
be cried, moaning pitoously as his comrades laid him upoa the 
ground to rest. 

** Bettor cut off your boot before your foot swolla." 

"Yes. — do so." 

I slipped my knife through tho Icatlier, and took tlie boot fWmi 
his foot. Tho ball had passed through his Blocking. Tlioro 
was but a drop or two of blood ^nBihle. 1 cut off tho stocking, 
and the bullet was lying lietween his toes, havmg barely broken 
the skin. 

" I rcckou I sha'n't help lug you any farther," said one of 
the men who had homo him. 

" Wal, if I had known that it was n't any worse than that I 
would n't have had my hoot cut off," said tlio tjoldier. 




Eotuniiiig to tho Bernard niaiisiou, I saw u oouunotion 
umoDg tlio cavalry, aud Icaniod timt their commaudor wa« 
mortally wouadod. Ho liod boon struck by a lyoUd sliot vhila 
littiiig by tliu tree ; aiid thoy won booriiig liim to the liospitaL 
Ho TTUB a brave and gttllaut ofBoor. 


But while this was traiispiriiig on the lell there was a terri- 
ble BAcrifioo of life at tho foot oi' Maryoe's liili. Soou after 
uoou Froucb'B aud Haucock's ditisioiis or tlie Socoud CorpSf 
with Sturgis*fi dinsioii of the Nintli, advaitcod over the opeu 
field iu rear of tlio towu to attack tlio hoigbta. OHioers walked 
along tliB liuos giniig tho last words. " Advoiico aud drive 
Uieiu out with the layouot ! " were tho orders. 

Tho fiftocu tliousaud ia a compact body moTo to Uio edge 
uf tho platoau. The hills arc ailame. All of Longstroot's guiu 
are thutideriug. Uliolla burst iu tbe rouke. The Rebel skir- 
mishers, couceulud m tho housoB aud behind feuces, fire a volley 
and fall back to tlio main liue. 

Ouward move Uie dirifiious. We who behold them from the 
rear, although we know that death stands ready to reap aa 
abundant harvest, feel tbe blood rushing with quickened flow 
through our veins, when wo see how gallauUy thoy move 
forward, firing uo shot in return. 

Now a eheet of flatno bursts from tbo auukou road, and 
auotlier from half-way up the slopo, and yet auoLbor from tho top 
of tJie hill. Hundi-ods fall; but still on, nearer to the hill 
rolls tlie waro. Still, still it flows on ; but wo can see that il ia 
losing its power, and, though advoncuig, it will be broken. It 
begins to break. It is uo longer a wave, but scattered rom- 
iiaiite, thrown back like rifts of foam. A [wrlion of t^turgis'r 
division reaches tlie hollow iu frout of tho hill aud settlet 
into it. 

The EloreuUi Now llampsbiro, commanded by Oolouet 
Harriman, is in tho front liue. Thoy ore now troops, aud tliii 
is their first battle; but tliey fight eo gallantly that thoy wib 
the admiration of their general. 

" See ! " said Sturgis U> an old ro^^eat which quailed before 
the fire. " See tho Elevoulh Now Hampshiro! a new regiment, 
atanding like (Kists driven iuto Uio fjraund." 




Hanoook uid French, uuable to Had an; shelter, are driven 
back upon tho town. Tho attack and ropuUo hare not occupied 
fifYeou minutes. 

It is a sad sight, that Bold tliicklj strown irith dying aad 
dead men. But ta battlo tliero is no time for tho wringing of 
hands oror disaster. T)io bloody work must go ou. 

Sturgis is in tlie hollow, so uoar tlio hill that tho Rebel 
batteries on tho crost canuot bo depressed sufficiently to drive 
liim out. Ho is within close muskotrshot of Cobb's brigade, 
lying behind tho etono-wall at tho base of the lull. Sturgis's 
mon lie down, load and firo doliboratoly, watching thoir oppor 
tuuity to pick oflT the gunners ou tho hill. In vain are all the 
eQbrts of Lougstroot to dislodge them. Solid shot, shoUs, can- 
ister, and slirapiiol aro tlirown towards tlie hollow, but without 
avail. A solitary oak-troe near is lorn and broken by tho artil- 
lory fire, and pitted with muskot-bcUIs, and llio ground is ftir- 
rowod with tho deadly missiles ; but Uio mou keop their position 
Uiroogh tho woary hours. Tho division is composed of two 
brigades, — Naglos's, containing tho Sixth and Ninth Now Hami>- 
F;)iire, Sovonlli Rhode Island, Forty-Eightli l^oiuisylvaoia, and 
docond Maryland ; and Forroro's, containing the Twenty-Fint 
and Thirty-Fiilh Massachusetts, Elevuuth Now Hampshire, 
Fifty-Fii-st Ponueylvama, and Fifly-Firbt Now York. 

A second attempt is made upon tho hill. Humphrey's divi»> 
ioo, oomposod of Tyler's and Briggs's brigade of i^ounsylran 
ians, nearly all now troops, leads the advanco, followed closely 
by Morrell's division of veterans. The lines move steadily 
over the field, under cover of the batteries which have boen 
brought up and planted in tho streets. Sturgis pours a con 
slant stream of firo upon the sunken road. Thus aided, they 
reach the base of tho hill in fVont of Maryoo's, deliver a few 
volleys, and then with tbimicd ranks retire once more to the 
shelter of the ridge. 

Tho day is waning. Franklin has failod. Ho te1egra{^s 
tliat it is too late to make another attack on tlio led. Not so 
docs Sumner think on tho right- He is a bravo old man, foar> 
loss in battlo. counting human life of little value if victory can 
bo won by its sacrifice. Ho walks to and fro by tho Loccy 
Houso like a chained lion. Burnside will not let him nro$<fl 



the riror. Timo haa pluugliud duop rurruwa oa his face. Hii 
hair is wlute oa llie drircti siiuw. Ho is grim and ^ruS; hii 
voice is deep, oud ho has rough words for tlioso who fuller in 
dut; ; hut ho hiu a louder heart. Uo dotos upou liis sou, oud 
c&Us Uim ** Sammy " Ihmiliarlf . Uo cuiuot hear to have him 
gone loag &om his side, but yet is ready to seud him into tho 
thickest of the fight. Ho cauuot sco tho day lost vithout 
4uot]ior struggle, aud orders a lliird attack. 

Humphrey, Morroll, Ootty, Sykos, and Howard, or portious 
of their dinsions.are brought up. Tlio troops havo been under 
arms from early daylight. Tlicy hare had no food. All day 
tliey have been exposed to tJie fire of tho Rebel batteries, and 
liaro lost heavily. Rrookft's diviision of tlio Hixth Corps movos 
up Beep Bun to ougago in tho lost attack. All tho haLtorios 
on boUt eidos of tlio river oro once moro bmuglit iuto octioo. 
Getty tuovcs up Hazel Run to toko the Rebels iu flunk, wlu 
arc protected by tlio suukon road at tJie l>ase of the hill. 


It is sunset. Tho troops move out onco moro upon tho optm 
plain, aud cross tho field with a cheer. Tho ground bfr 
ueall) them is already crimHon willi tho blood of their fallen 
coiuradoB. They roach tlio huso of llio hill. Longbtroot bring! 
down all his rosonres. Tho hillside, Iho plain, tho crcet of 
the ridge, tlie groves and Uiickels, tho second raugo of hiUs 
beyond Maryco's, Uie hollow, the sunken road, are bright 
flashes. Two hundred camiou strike out fierce dofiauce, — 
forty thousand muskets and riHos flame ! 

Tho Rebels ore driven Aom tho slono-walls, and tho suukeu 
rood, and tho riH^pit midway tlie tiilt. Tho blue wavo mouuU 
all but to the top of tho crcet. It threatens to overwhelm the 
Bel)cl batteries. But wo who watch it behold iu power do> 
creasing. Men begin to oomo down tho hill singly and in 
N\uadH, and at length in masses. The third and lust attempt 
haa failed. The divisions rcium, leaving the phun and tlie 
hillside stTown with thousands of bravo men who have fallen 
in tlio iuefibctual struggle. 

There was no fighling on Sunday, the 14tlit hut General 
Biirrisido vfoa preparing to maka anuUier attack. He had otgh 




teeu of hu old regiments in the Ninth Corps, who would go 

wliorover he seat thorn. He thought that ther would caitj 
Uie heights. 

" I hope," said Oeneral Sumner, " that jou will desist from 
%a ailack . 1 do uot know of auy general offic(^^ who approvM 
it} imd I think it wilt prove disaetroiu to the anu^." 

Tlie advice was foUowod, and it wao Ukoii decided to withdraw 
the ormj. 

Tho wind on Tuo&day night blow a galo from tho Bouthweet 
Uaj and straw wero laid upon the bridges to deaden the sound 
of tlie artillery wheels. It began to raiu before morning ; and 
the Rebels, little dreaming of what was taking place, remained 
in their quarters. 

Before daylight the whole army had recrossod the river, and 
the bridge wore takou up. Great were tlieir amazemout and 
wonder when the Rebels Looked dowu from the heights and 
saw the Union army once more ou the northern bank, beyond 
the reach of their guns. 

General Buru^ide lost about ton thousand men, while the loea 
of Uie Rebels was al>out five thousand. Tho defeat was di»- 
bcartoiiiiig to tho army. But tbougli repulsed, the soldiers felt 
that thoy were not boaton ; ihoy had failed iiocause Goueral 
Buriisido's plans had not boon heartily entered into by somo oC 
the oEBcers- But tho patriotic flame burned as brightly ta 
ever^ and thej had no thought of giving up the oontart. 

^' ■^' 




TI1£ UOYS Qf «. 




j^rrim tho baulo of Fredericksburg, hotli armies prepared for 
the winter. Two fp-eat cities of log-huts xpraitg up in tlie denw 
forests OD botti sides of the Rappaliaiiiiock, peopled bj more 
tlian two hundred tliousoiid men. It was Rurpribing to see 
how quicklj tlio soldiers made themselves comforlable in huts 
chiuked witli mud tuid roofed with split sbinglos. Tlioso rude 
dwolliugs had a fireplace at one end, doors hung on leathern 
binges, and bunks oue above anothor, like berths in a steam- 

Tliore tlio men told stories, played checkers and cards, read 
tho nowHfmpurs, wrote letters to their friends Ihr away, and 
kept clo&o watch all the while upon tho Rebels. 

But there wore dark days and dreary nights. It cried Uieir 
eodurance and patriotism to Rtaiid all niglit upon picket, with 
the north-wind howling around thorn and tlio snow wldrling 
into drifts. Thore wore rainy days, and weeks of mud, when 
there was no drilling, and wIibji there was nothing to do. Tlien 
chaplains, witli books uud papers under tJioir arms, were wel- 
comed everywhere. Qouoral Howard lhu3 bora testimony to 
the lalwrs of one who was not a ohaphiin, but an agent of the 
American Tract Society from IJoston, — Rev. Mr. Alvordr — 

"There iaa grvat and good man, — gnai b«caa«e lin ii good and 
hecanse he i§ practical. — who Iiab follnwed the Army of ihe Potomac 
from (he bopnning. He lakes Im papen, and goes bimsolf nnd drru- 
lalM tbem an far as be is able, and, by the af^iicy of otbers, gets them 
into nearly every re^'n'^til ■" the army. And you shoiilil Me the 
soldiers cluster around him I Wlien his wagon drives up in front of a 
regimvnt, iha suldien pour out with life, circle round him, and beg for 
books and tracts, — for auythinf; h« baa. Some of them want (lapen to 
read for tbonnoWea. and others to atilect pieces out of them to seod 
boon. I could hardly believe it, that th«re was such «ag«mM8 "n the 




put of Boldicn for lach reading unlil I uw U with my own e^rea- 
* Gtra me a paper,* ' Give me a paper/ ■ Gire me a tiact,* ' Gire me a 
book,' ii tbe impatient crj. Very frequeutly ladiee have Mot tTBcta 
and books to my tent, and on the S&bbaih-<lRy I have taken them mjafllf 
ta ditthbute, and 1 hare Karcely ever bad to ask a aoldier to reoeiTe 
one of them. Indeed, if yoa gire to od« or two, tbe otban will fe«) 
jealoo* if Degleetod." * 

Said ft chaplain : — 

" 1 am bctiit^ed by those who want lomething good to read. In ray 
foiuids I am followed at my elbow. * Please, sir, can you ipare me 
ooe?' Thoy hail me from a dinlance : 'Are yoa coming down thi* 
way, chaplun ?' It t« a pleasant thing to pauae in tliese traveU through 
tbe parish and look back open tbe white waves that rifte in the wake of 
one'a oourte. Sporu arc bushed, swearing Is charmnl away, all are 
reading, — Sabbath hat come." 

In some regiiuouU, where the officers ciMiperated with chap 
Uiiu to elevate the morale of men, few oaths were heard. 

'>ite day Qeueral Howard started out witli a haudful of 
leatleta on Bwearing, with Uie intentioa of giving one to every 
man whom he heard using profauo language. Ho voui ttnva 
rogimeut to regiment and from brigade to brigade of his divisiou, 
and rotumod to his tent without hearing on oath. 

**I have boon all through my division to-day," he aald, 
" Tlntiiig the hospitals, and I have n't heard a single man 
swear. Isn't it strange?" 

One of th« dtizens of Falmouth came to Qeuenl Howard for 
t guard. 

'* You fiTor«d secflssion, I suppose," said the Geuoral. 

" I stuck for the Union till Virginia went out of the Union 
I had to go with her." 

'* Tou have a son in the Rebel army." 

"Yes, sir; but ho enlisted of his own accord." 

** The soldiers steal your chickens, you say ? '* 

" Yos, thoy take cTorTthtng tlioy can lay their hands upou, 
uid I want a guard to protect my property." 

**If yon and all your neighbors had voted against Mooif 
rion, you would not need a guard. No, sir, you oan*t have 


ifs or '«i. 


one. Wbou you liavo given us much to four couDtr7 u I 
hBTO I will give jrou ono, but uut till thoii," said tUe Qen 
oral, pointing to liis einptj' sloevo. Qo lost Uis right arm at 
Pair Oaka. 

li wiuf a gloomy winter, but the Sanitary and Christian 
CuiUiiiiKiiioiis gavQ tlioir povorfuL old towards uiaiutaining 
tlio health aud morals and epirits of tbo army. The Chmliaii 
Comuiseiou o|H!ncd six Ftattoita, from which lliey dispcnwd 
Bupplios of hooks and pajicns and food for the sick, not regu- 
larly funiishud l-y iltu mvdical depurUuutit. Rc-ltgious meet' 
tugs wore liuld tiightty, conducted by tlio soldiore, marked hj 
d«op solemnity. Veterans who had passed through all the 
trials and temptJitions of a soldier's life gave testimony of the 
peace and joy they had in helioving in Jesus. Others asked 
what they should do to ohtain the same comfort. Many who 
bad faced death unflinchingly at Williamshurg, Fair Oaks, 
If&lTorn, and Antiotam, who had beon over uidifferent to the 
claim of religion, become like little children as they listened 
to tlieir comrades singing, 

" Bock oT Ag«t, cl«ft for ma. 
Let toe hide mjM^lf in tbee.' 

It was not sentimontalism. A soldier who has boeu ihruugb 
a half-dozen battles is llie last person in the world to indulge 
in seutimeut. Ho ahove all men underatands reality. Thus led 
by the sweet music and the fervent prayers of their oomradee, 
they rejoiced m llic hope tliat choy had fotmd forgiveness of 
Bios through tlio blood of the Son of God. 

At Falmouth, an old tobacco- warohouso on the battk of the 
river, within bail of the Rebel pickets, was cleared of rubbish, 
the broken ceiling and windows covered with canvas, a rude 
pulpit erected, wboro on Sabbatb aflernoons and every ovoalng 
meetings wero hoid, a Habbatii school was organiEcd, also a 
day Bclioot. Ono of the suldierb established a Bcbool for the 
instruction of the children of the village. Often in the calm twi- 
light of the mild wLiitur days the Rebel picket pacing his beat 
upon the opposite bank stopped, aiid leaning upon his gun, 
listened to the hymns of devotion wafted on the evening air. 

He could have sent a bullet whittling through tbA building, 


tHX WUrtU AT fktMt 


but tliore was a mutual \iadorsUuidiug among the pickets nol 
to fire, Bud so tho mootings wore undisturbed. 

In the Fort7-Fourth New York Regimout, kuown u the 
Ellsworth ATcugcrs, wore two youug soldiers whose heuU- 
wore wciroti togotlior with Christian zeal. Tboy had uo chap- 
lain ; hut thej cstAblishcd a prayer-moctiiig, holding it beside 
a stump, in a retired place. Tlioj obtained permissiou of the 
colonel to build a log chapel. Tliej had to draw the logs a 
milo, but thojr had faith and energy, and laid out a building 
Biiteon by thirty-two feet square. Rot. Mr. Akord, the agent 
of a Tract Society, gives tho following account of their labors. 

"Tbs first logs were lieAvy, nnd hArtlly any on» to help. Tlieir ptan 
At &r«t wua not very deflaiui. Tbay would lay down h log and tlian look 
Ri>d plan by lb« eye. Aaotfaer lo^; ww w«arily drawn Rod put od Tbc 
erewd cmme round to quix and Joke. ' Aru you to have it dniahed be- 
bre tbe world endi ? ' ' Fixing up to leare ? ' * How doca your «alooD 
get On ? ' The more it«rioiia, in pity, tried to diaouurago. Thare waa 
* already an order out to more ; what 'a the ase ?' * Who wanta m«et> 
iogi ? ' But iheae two Cbriaciaa boya (S. and L.) toiled on tike Ndah, 
Hmidat the Acoffa of lh« maltitudv. The edifice ilowly row; fnluoteefs 
lent a hand. The Christian men of the regimeRt became int^rented. 
(Tbare were forty or fifty in all, eighteeo or twenty of wboni at leogtb 
uded in the work.) A aufflcient height waa reached, and fiiat a roof 
•f brvsb, and afUrwards of patrhed ponrfaoe, wa« put on, and meottnga 
bogaa, — or raiticr tbrj ifgan when it wm--< only au open peo. In a 
few daya Bamside's advance came, and i\\« regiment letl for the Aeld. 
In ibeir absence, plauderere >irippt:d the cabhi. and carried off a por> 
tion of iu* Qiaterial j bat on the retom of oar troops tbe aame busy 
hands and b^^arta of faith were again at work. A itutlcr gave them 
(be old canvas aovt^r of his large tont, wliicb be was about to out ap 
lo abalter hi* honses n-ith, and Id, it ^tdwelj/ JUud tin roof of the ineei- 
bg-house, — not an incti to spare I 

" Well, there it standa, to his gkiry and the credit of their persever- 
ance. (It took about one huodred lo^ [o build it.) You Hhould liaTi- 
■sen their eyes shine, as, h«re m my tent for tiacXA, they were one day 
giving me ita tnotory, aud you should have beeo with as last eTening. 
The little pulpit made of empty box boards, two chandi^Uera auapended 
Onsn the ridge-pole of cruae-HtickiK wreathed with ivy, and in tlie 50ck- 
•ted end« four adamant caiidW, each burning brtUiaotly. Festoons 
of iry and ' dtwd men'a fin^^rs ' (a spedea of woodbine called by this 
itKme), looped gracefully along the side* of the room, and in the oantn 


TUB BOYS OF 'ffl. 


(torn cbaodelier to cbandelier, — their deep greta, with the fine brows 
bark of the pine logs, and ivbiU) canraA nhovc. atrijX'd with iU raflcra, 
■wretljr oontnutiDg. Helaw, a peribei pack t>f aoldion, in tho 'Arang- 
or"" uDifonn, equatteO low ui>o)i th« pule eeatti, l>cii>-ath which was ■ 
carpet of evergreoi) spi^js, — all silent, ancOTBred. hcspt'clful i aa th« 
Mrrioe opened, you could hare beard a {)iii fall. Tliere wba nolbiog 
li«r« to make a noiM. Pew-doorv, psalm-books. luciltng silka, or 
poimed arches raverbeniting tho slightest sound of band or foot&U, 
then were ooiio. Only tho click of that wooden laloh. and a gliding 
dxare, like a. stealthjr vidcttv, squceKiog iu among the commOD mass, 
indicated the late comer. The •<ong went up t'rorn the deep ToioM of 
Qien, — do jou know the effect ? — and before our service cloaed, lean 
rolled down from the /aeei of men. To be nhort, evefy evening of 
the week tliia bouse i» aow filled with some S6nrici<, four of wbicii are 
religtooa. When thejr can have no preaching, tbtw; noldien meet for 

** I stole In one eveDing. lately, when thoj were at ibese derolioai 
prayf^r after prayer ouocossively <Tai> offered, in oamc-st, liumblest tonea, 
before rining from tbetr knees ; the impenitent Innking on solemnlj. 
Officers were preseut and took part, and seldom have I seen sacli ntani- 
feat tokens that Ood is about to appear in power. Opposjlion there b 
none. The whole regiment lnok>t upon the as ■ matter at 

ide, — encourage all the meetiaga. li is atlractiTe to visitors, aod, 
(Then oot used for religious pnrpoaeA, is occnpied by lyccam dcbatea,- 
dnging clube, Ac.. Ac. How thorn two Christian boys do eigoy it 1 
t>aid one of them to mn, ' We have bees paid for all our labor a tboo** 
Mud limes over.' " 

TliuB, fighting, marching, singing, praying, toachlng the igno- 
rant, trusting in God, iiuvor jravertng in tlioir failli of th« utti 
mato tritintpli of right, ilioy pat;sed the woaty wititor. 


^'f ^' 








UcNEBAi. Bdbnhidb h&ving accoptcd the oomm&iid of tho ann; 
with raluutauco, was rcUevcd at Iub own roquoet, and G&uorftl 
{looker was appointed his succossor. Ho mado a thorough 
reorganizatign. The systom of graad divisions was abolishod, 
and Uio corps organization adopted. The First Corps wm com- 
manded l>y Quiiurul .Sickle!), tlio FifUi by General Maado, tlie 
Sixth bf General .Sedgwick, the EleTuiiUi hy Goiioral Howard. 
and the TVclfth by General Slocura. Tlie cavalry was coiisoli 
dated tnU) a hiuglc corps, under GciionU Stonomaii. Qouoral 
Hooker iulondod to use tlie cavalry as it had not boon UHod 
up to tliat timfl. 

The vigor maiiirestod by Gonoral Hooker in the reoff^iza 
tioiiT and the coiifidoiioo of Uie soldiers in him as a comiQuiidor, 
gave new ho[>o to tho array. lie reduced tlie number of wag 
ons in tho trains, and iiifonned tho officers that they would bo 
allowed only a Umitod amount of ba^ago. Ho isfiuod ordorx 
that the IroopH i^hould liavo rations of (rush bread, cabbages, 
and onions, in almndance. Mivit was commended. Offioora 
and men wlio had proved Uiemselves efljcient wero allowed 
loavo of alwe^ce, l>ofore tho oponiog of tho bpr-iiig campaign. 
BegimentB which had shown uicapacity and loose discipline 
wen allowed no favors. Only oloveu rcgimonts in the whole 
army wore highly commended. Some woro bOTorely ccusiirod 
u wanting thoso qualities which make a got^d rcgimont. This 
adminifitraUon of aOairs soon produced a perceptible change \u 
the Bpirittj of the men. 

Tlioro were .frequent rains, which prevented any movemeu' • 
during the winter ; but General Uookcr was not Idle, lie wai 
obtaiuing iuformation, frum scouts and spiea, of Lee's [vsition 
and the number of his troopB. Qo kept his desigus so well to 
himself that even liis most trusted officers were not aware of 


TBB BOVB or "91. 


tbcui. But liiH plan embraced three foaturcs : a cavalry moT^ 
lucut Tuidur SUtuuiuuii tuwardt RicUiuuixJ, fi-oiu the Upjwr Rap- 
|iabaunuuk, tij dbtftrnv LcuV comuiuiiiculiuns, burning' bridges 
and tiit{i|ilies ; tlic duploy of a pgHiuii of the army down tho 
rivvrtu nttrucl Lee'ti att^'ntioM; and, lastly, a euddou niureli uf 
Uic maiu IkkIv up the river, to gain a{ioKltiou n»ar ClmnccUui-s- 
ville, Buuthni'Mt of Fredericksburg, which would comi»el Lee 
to coniu (lilt and figlit, or evacuate the {tlacc If he gtiincd the 
poaittan, he couUl htaud on the dcfensire aud irait Lee's more* 
uiciita. He decided that Lee should be the attacking party. 

f..eQ linil i^cut two divisions of LongHtrcet's corps under tliat 
olTiecr to N'orth Carolina, and Ilampton's cavaliy vas recruiting 
south tii the James River. It was a favorable op|>ortuuity to 
stiikQ a heavy blow. 

On the 27th of Ajiril the Eleventh Corps, under Uoward, and 
the Xwnlftli, under i^locum, at half past fivo in the morning 
started for Kelley's Ford by the Unrtwood Church road. 

The Third, under Sickles, and th« Fiftli, under Meade, movod 
at the fiuiuc time, by a ruad noai'er the rivur, iu thii saaw diroo- 
tion. 'llie Sfsjond, under Couoli, went towards United States 
Ford, which is only three miles from ChanccUorsvillo. A donao 
log hung over the river, cuncealiug the ujov«m*iut. The Mev- 
LMilh, Twelfth, and Fifth Corps marched fonrtoun miles during 
the day, and bivouacked at four o'clock in the aft^irnoon a mile 
we*jt of Hnrlw-ood Church. To Lee, who looked nci-oss the 
river freiu FrBdcricksbupg^ Mmre was no chanj^' la the ap|}ear- 
anceuf things on the f'tofford hills. Thu camps of Hrc Yankees 
were still there, dottini; tlio landscape, teams wurc moving to 
nnd fru, suldicrs were iit drill, and the SHiok^ of oamp>liruB was 
curling throi))fh IIk5 air. 

Daring the evcninu of the 27th the pontoons belonging 
to t-Iio Hixfch Corjjs were taken from the wflgon«, earriefi by 
thq soldiers down to the riwr, and put iiit« thai vatcr so noiso- 
lossly tliat the R^^licl pickets stationed on the hank near Bor- 
nord'a house liad no sujupicion of what was going on. Tlie 
boatti were matinod by Riiwtoll's brigade. At a given signal 
they were pushei^ rapidly across the stream, and, before the 
Rebel pickct« were aware of tlic moTctmciit, they found them- 
«elvc« prtsoncm. The First Corps wont a. Kilo farther dowK, to 




Bout]ificld. It was daj tiglit before tho engineers of this corp* 
could got their boiLts into llio wator. The Robcl sharpabooten 
who wore \yiug in rifie-pits along the bank oonunenced a 
deadly fira. To silouoo thorn, Colouol Warner placed forty pieces 
of artillury on tho high bank overlooking tho river, under cover 
of whidi tho boat« crossed, and tho soldiers, leaping ashor« 
charged up the bank and captiu-ed one liuudred and fifty Rei^ 
els. Tho ougineers in a short time had both bridges complet- 
ed. Qeneral Wadawortli's division of the First Corps was the 
first to cross the lower bridge. General Wadsworth 'ad b» 
come impatieut, and, instead of waiting for the compleuon of the 
ttructura, swam bis horse across the Btream. Ooueral Brooks, 
of the Sixth Corpe, woa tho first to cross the bridge at Bemanl'f. 

It was now five o'clock in tho morning. There was great 
OommotioD in Fredericksburg. A oourier dashed into town oo 
horseback, shouting, *' Tho Yankees aro crossing down tbe 
rirer.*' • The cburch-bcUs wore rung. Tlio people who had 
refeomed to tbe town after tbe battle of the 13th of December 
sprang fW)m tlieir beds. Tliey went out and stood upon Mar 
yee's iiill, luokod tanxu the river, and aaw tbe country alira 
with troopa. 

*' Ail tlirough the day," wrote the correspondent of tbe 
iUcbmoud Hcaminer^ " the Yankee balloons were in tbe air at 
■ great height, and tho opposite side of the river, atp far ai tlM 
eye could reach, wan blue witli their crowded columns.** f 

^0 drummers beat the long-roll. " Fall in ! %U iu 1 " wa« 
the cry, and the whole army was quickly under arms. Tbe 
movement was a eurprieo to Ocnerol Loo. 

Tbo croEsing of Uie fVst and Sixth Corps was blow and de- 
liberate. " They continued to cross," says tbo kuuc writer, 
"until two o'clock P. M., — infantry, artillery, and wagons. 
They swarmed UTOgularly over tbe fields and bluffs, of which 
they had taken possession, seeming not to bare fallen into 
ranks. About five P. M. a light ram commenced, wbeu tUey 
pitched their teuts^ and seemed to make iLenuelves ut home." 

In order to deceive General Loe, only Wadsworth's and 
Brooks's divisioDS wore sent over in the forenoon ; but portioos 

■ LMter to RidmuHtd £xaiiMiw. 

t RicbmonU fxanuw, Htj laL IM.'* 




of tho other dMsioaa, which tiad been concealed behiud a belt 
of woods, wore put in motion, and marched along tlie crest of 
tho ridgo, Uirough an open field, in sight of the RetMle, as 
though on thoir way dowi> the river; but, instead of crossiug, 
wore marched up through a gully around the kill to tlieir start- 
ing-point, and were again moved over the same ground, — a 
circu»-march, calculated to deceive the Rebels into thinking 
tliat tho whole army was moWug in that diroction. A part 
6f Jackson's corps had been lying at Shinkor's Xeck, several 
DUles below Frodcricksburg, which Leo ordered to Bamiltou'» 
crowing, occfipying tho samo position that it held in the first 

It wofl night before tlio remainder of the Siith Corps crosseu 
tho Btroom, while tho other two dirisionc of tho First Corps 
8til] remained on tho northorn bank. Loo could not compre- 
hend this now atato of affairs. Tho night of tho 28th paswd, 
and no advajico was made by the Sixth Corps. The morning of 
the 29th saw them in tho some position, evidently in no haste 
to mako uu attack. 

Meauwhilo tlio main body of the army was making a rapid 
march up the river. Tho Eleventh Gorpe reached Kelley's Ford, 
twenty-fiight miles above Falmouth, at half past four in the 
aflemoon. Tlio pontoons arrived at nix o'clock. Four hurt 
dred men went over in the boats, and seized tho Rebel rifle-pits, 
capturing a few prittononi, who woro stationed thoro to guard 
tho Ford. As soon as the bridgo was completed, tho troop-^ 
began to cross. Tho Seventeenth Pennsylvania cavalry preced- 
ed tlie infantry, pushed out on the rood lending to Culpepper, 
and encountorod a detocliment of Stuart's cavalry. 
' On the morning of tho 29th, the Twoldli Corpu, followed by 
the Eleventh, made a rapid march to Gormanna Ford, on the 
Rapidau, while tho FiH-h CorjHi took tho road leading to RIy'^ 
Ford. When the Twclflh Corps arrived at Germanna Ford ai 
tliree o'clock in tlie afternoon, tlie Rebela were discovered build- 
ing a bridge. About one hundred of them were taken pris- 
oners. Instead of waiting for the pontoons to be laid, the 
Twelfth forded Uio stream, which was deep and swift; but the 
men held their cartridge-boxes over their heads, and thus kept 
their powder dry. 




It was Qot till tho aftenioou of tlie 29Ui tlial Lee imdentood 
Hooker's moTemout. At sunset SttitLrt raporttid tliut a hear; 
c^umu of Yankees was crosauig the Oermajuia Ford, tbat tliore 
was another at Ely's, aud still auotlier ut Unttud .States Ford. 
Lee saw chat Uie routes, after croessliig tho Rapidau, couvergud 
oear GhauceUorsriUo, (h)m whouce ttovoral roads lod to Uie rear 
of hid position at Fredericksburg. 

On the momiug of tho 30th, Hooker's army was ia the fol 
lowing positiou : The Elorojith and Twelllh Corps at Germaaua 
ford, moTing southeast ; tho FifUi Corps at Ely's Ford, moring 
south; the Second Corps, followed by the Third, at United 
States Ford, marching southwest ; the First Corps passing up 
the river from its position below Fredericksburg, making ■ 
rapid march to joiu the Secoud Corps at Uuited .States Ford ; 
the Sixth Corps, meaiiwhile, lying iuaciire on tlie plain by Ber- 
uard'e houBo. 

The movemeut was admirably made, each corps coming iutu 
positiou at the appointed place and time, showiug that the plan 
had been well matured in tho miud of tlie conimaudor-in-chioC 

Early on the moruiug of the 30Ui the Eleveuth Corpv, fol< 
lowed by the Twelfth, moved Ixum Gormanua Ford down the 
Sterensburg plank-road to the Old Wilderuess Tavern, which is 
about a mile aud a half west of ChancellorsTille. The latter 
place, at the time of tho battle, couaisted of one brick house. 
The country around ChancellorsTille is called " the Wilder- 
nen." Years ago a considerable portion of the land was 
cleared, but the system of cultivation carried ou by the Vir- 
ginians Quickly exhausted the soil, and the fields were left to 
grow up again to bushes. A short distance beyond the old 
tavern is Dowd&t's Taveru, at&r the Junction of the Stevensburg 
plank-rood, and the Orange turnpike, leadiug to Oordonsvillc 
Hunting Ruji has its bead-waters uear the i^tevonsburg plank- 
road, aud llows north to the Rapidau. There is an old saw-mill 
on tho creek, which was used as a hospital by the Twelfth 
Corps during the battle. Near Dowdal's tavern is an old 
church, aud on the right-hand side of the road, as we go to 
ward CliancellorsTille from Dowdal's, there is a cleared held 
on elevated laud, which was the centre of Hooker's lino at the 
beginning of the battle. Several roads diverge fW>m Clumcel- 


TBK son or 'at. 


lorsrille, — Uie Orange aod TredAriekeburg plank-rood and th« 
GordoiiBTiI]e liirnpiko, l>ot)) loading to FroJurickBimrg ; also 
roads to United States and KI^'b Fords ; atso one loadiof; sonth 
across Scott's Run, 

At DOOD of the SOtli the EtcrontJi Corps ro&ched its assigned 
position, botvooo tiiQ Gormanna road and Dowdal's tarom, 
forming ibo right flank of Hooker's Hue. The Third Corps, 
which hod crossed at Kly's Ford, camo down tlirough tho woods 
across Huuting Run, and formud ou tho left of tho EloToath, 
l>7 ttie taTorn. Tlie Twoinii Corps filed past tho Eloveuth, 
along tho StovouHburg rood, and iho Tliird Corps passud Chan- 
eoUorsrillo, and moved almost to Tabernaclo Church, on tlie 
Orange and Fredericksburg plaiik-road. Tlio Second Corps, 
having crossed at Cnitod States Ford^ camo into [Msition a mile 
or more in rear of tho Elovonth and Ttiird, while tho Fifth 
moTod up and fbrmod a Una facing eouthuoft, reaching Tnm 
ObanceUorsriUo to Hcatt's Dam ou tho Rappahannock, a milo 
and a half north of CliancollorBvillo. 

Stuart, commanding tho Rebel caralrj, had skirmishod with 
the EleTouth Corps ou its marcti, but when tlio Third, which 
CTDSBed at Ely's, roaohod ChauceUorsTillo, Stuart found that be 
was cut off from direct communication with Leo, and was obliged 
to more to Todd's Tavern and Spottsylrania CourtrQousu, to 
put himself in connection witli the infantry of tbo Rubul army. 
Lee was t^till undecided what to do, but finally dotormincd to 
loavc Early's division of Jackson's ooriw, aud Barksdalo's 
brigade ef McLaw's dlrision, and a part of tho rosorvo artil- 
lery tmdor Pendleton, to hold Frodoricksburg, and more with 
the rest of the army to ChancellorsTillo aid Qght Hooker. He 
had already sent Anderson's division to watcli the movement. 
Slocum's skirmishors met Anderson's at ChanceUorsville and 
drovo them back to Tabernaclo Chiux:h. Anderson, finding 
that Slxum was advancing, formed across the roads, and was 
in this position at dark oc the uigbt of tho SOtli. 

On the morning of tho 1st of May the whole Rebel army, 
except what was left to watch Sedgwick, was put iu motion, 
with the intention of making a direct attack. Anderson ad- 
vanced upon Slocum, who fell back under instructions to Chan- 
oellorsville, and filled the gap between the Third aud Fifth 



joe followed, intending to give battle, but be found Hooker to 
4 position of suck strength that be hesitated. Lee says : — 

"The enemy luul aMumed a poeitioo of great oatunJ eirengtb, sor- 
roonded od all sidca by a dflnie forest, lUled with tangled undergrowtli, 
in tbe midait of which breaBtworita of logs bad been constructed, with 
trvM fsUed in fttnt to as to form an impenetrable abatis. His artillerj 
■wept the taw mnow raads bj which hie [MMition could b« approached 
from the fivnUand comtnanded the adjacent woods, llie leA of his 
lioe exiended Irom ChanceLlomville towards the BappahaoiKK^ oore^ 
ing tha Bai^-Mill Ford, where ho commooirated with the north back 
of th« rivar by a pontoO'D bridge. IIIk right stretobed weitward aJoog 
the Germanna roAd more than two miles. 

** DuknvbS WHS upproacblDg before the extent aod strength of his 
Hoes oouM be awertained, and, as the nature of the country rend«,red it 
haiardouR to attack by night, our troops were baltod, and formed in 
hoe of battle in front of Cbancellorsnlle, at right BBglee to the plank- 
road. .... It was eviddnt that a direct attack upon tho cn«my would 
be attended with great difficulty and los^ in view of the strength of hii 
Docitios and hii superiority in numbers. It was therefore resolved to 
endeavor to turn his right Bank, and gain hia r«ar, leaving a force in 
front lo hold him in cheeky and conceal the movement The execulioD 
of this plan was tntrasted to Liealeoant-GeDeral Jackson* with his 
three diridionit.'* 

This movement of Loo's was very bold and hazardous. It 
divided lus army into tluree parts, — one part watching the 
Sixth Corps at Frodoricksburf;, another botwoou Chtmcollors- 
villo and FrodorickEburg, and tJio forco under Jackson, accom- 
panied bj Stuart's cavalry, moving to get in the rear of Hooker. 
Jaokflou vas obliged to niako a long circuit by Todd's Tarorn 
and the Furnace Road, moving fir^t southwest toward Sputteyl- 
Taaia, then west toward Orange Courtrllouse, then north 
toward the Rapidan, then east toward tho old saw-mill od 
Hunting Run. Rodes's divisiou reached tbo Old WildemOM 
Tavem about four o'clock in the aAemoon. As the different 
divisions arrived they wore formed across the Stevensburg plank- 
road, Rodes in fVoiit, Trimble's divi&ioa under Oeneral Cols- 
ton in the second, and A. P. Hill in the third line. 

Q«iMral Hooker, having decided to fight a defensive battle, 
ordend the construction of rifle-pits, and while Jackson wa? 
making this detour the position was strongly fortified againi'- 




mn attack Trom the direction of rroderickelnirg. Early in iba 
day it was roportod that Leo was rttroatiug rapidly toirard Cixl- 
pepper Oourt-nouso. From the cloarod field occupied by 
fiickles tbo Rebel column could be seen rnoring Mutliweat, — 
artillery, baggogc-train, and infantry. It vas gcnoraUy bolJoTOd 
in Hooker'a army ttiat L^e, finding Iho position too impreguabl«, 
vas retiruig. Sickle!) and Howard thought diObrently. 

'* Leo has dividod his army, and now is tho time to strike," 
taid General Sickles to Ilookor- 

Goneral Hooker hesitated. (lis plan -wob to etani] wholly 
on the defensiTe. Still tlio column 6lcd by. 

** The enemy it oo my flank/' was the meesago (Vom 
Howard. "We can hoar tho sound of tboir axes in the 
woods." • 

"Now is the time to doublo up Leo," sud Sickloe, again 
urging an attack .f 

** Tou may go out and feel the enemy, but don't go too fast, 
tor loo (hT," said Ilooker, at last yielding. 

It is nearly two miles Boutliwest ft-om Chan cello rsTille to 
Wollford's iron IViruauo, which is situated on the Ny River, tho 
north branch of tho Mattapony. Tlie road which passes the 
fVirnace, and along which Jackson was hastening, is a byroad 
from the plank-road oast of Cliaiicollorsville, to tlio Brock Rood, 
which nms from Todd's Tavern northwest to tlie Old Wilder- 
ness Tavom. Archer's and Thomas's brigades of A. P. Hill's 
division wore at the furnaco when Kicklos recoivod permission to 
move out. Thoy were tim rear brigades of Jackson's column. 
Sickles lost oo time in putting his divisions in motion. Bor- 
dan's sharpshooters were thrown out in advance as skirmishora, 
and the infantry with artillery followed ; but the artillery was 
compelled to halt till a bridge could bo conatructod across a 
small crook. It was about four o'clock when tho head of the 
column reached tho road over which Jookson had marched. 
Archer was nearly a milo west of tho furnace when tho sliarp- 
shootoTB reached tho road, whore thoy suddenly fell upon the 
Twon^-Third Georgia. Ttiis regiment had boon dctactiod from 
Colquitt's brigade of D. H. HiU'a diTision, and was peeled on 

* BowArd'i Rcpon 

t Ovwrtl BicklM** auiunani. 




ihe nottli side of the road, as a flaukiag party, to cxner tlie 
march of Uio troo|>.s. 

Tkoro vas a suddou commotioa in Archer's and Thomas's 
brigades. Brown's battery was wheeled into position, and, with 
tho Twoutjr-Third Gooi^a and Fourteeuth Tcuuessoo, opcued 
fire upon SicUes. Tho teamsters of tho Rebel baggage-trains 
fled into tlic woods. 

A courier dashed up the rood to inform Archer what had 
happened, but before tho news roachod him llio Twoiity-Tliird 
OcKVgia was in the hands of Ricklos- Archor faced about, 
and formed liis linos. 

Andormu all tho while was skinmshing witli Slocum, to 
attract Hooker's attention, while Jackson was getting into 
position, but he waa now obliged to send Wright, Toscy, and Ma- 
hau to the assistance of Archer and Thomas. The/ attacked 
Sickles's loll flank, while Archor and Thomas attacked his 
right. The content waxed wurm. 

** Don't go too fast," was Hooker's i^juuctioa again to Sickles. 

"I want a brigade to fill llie gap botwoeu myself and How- 
ard," was Sickles'^ reply, and B&rlow's brigade was sent. It 
was the best of the Eleveuth Corps. Howard had placed it lo 
reserve just where he could use it to advantage, oa eithor flank, 
in front, or centre. 

The Eleventh Corps was formed in the following order: 
Qcneral Derens's division on the right, between tho Slcvonsburg 
road and the old siiw-mill, facing northwest ; OenenU Schure'e 
dirision south of the plank-road, facing southwest ; General 
Scliimmelfenaig'B brigade of Steiuwehr's dtyision also south of 
tliu road, reaching to Dowdal'd Tavern ; Barlow'b brigade uortb 
of the road, in rear of the centre. 

There was no want of precaution on tho part of General 
Howard. Oonoral Hooker rode along the line with Howard on 
Saturday forenoon. Howard says:^ 

" At one point a reKimeal was not deployed and at another a gap in 
tbo wocmIr wu not filled. The correctioiui were made and tb« po«itior 
strengthened. The front was rover«d by a f^ood line of flkirmiflliern. 1 
should have stated that just at evening of lbs Ist the eoemy made i 
reoooooiisaDoe on our front with a ^mall force of artillf^ry and infsntry 
Qeneiml Schimmelfeonig rooved oat with a batlaliao and drove him 


THE B0V6 OF '«1. 


5 tJ 




bftck. During Saturday, the 2d, the same gcooral made Aroqaentreooo* 

uoiH*aiioes. lufaiiLry scouts and cavRlry (JuiroU were consiuiiUy piLihed 
utu u» eviiry ri>uii. T!ie unvarying report w.i», ' The enemy \s cnwsiug 
the plnok-roHil nm] moving lowunU Cnlpopper.* At 4 P. M. I weu 
direccvij to wild a brigtidti to thu support of Gener&t Sickles. I im- 
mtdniteiy took Barlow's brigade by a short route to Geaeral Stckles's 
right, Bomc two autl a half milca from ttic plank-road to the fmnt" • 

It was six o'clock. There was a gap from Dowdal's Tuveru 
almast to ChancoUorsviilc, fmm wliicli Sickles had luuved. 
Slociuu had advanced beyoud Chancellors ville southeast. The 
sending out of Sickles and Barlow, the advance of Slocum, and 
the pcsitiou of the Second Corps, bo for away to the rear, loft 
Howard without any siipportfi. 

Jackson came tlirouglt the woods upon Howard^s skirmisherB, 
who fired and fell back. Tlio firing attracted tlic attention of 
the men along the lines, who were cooking their Btipper*. Occa- 
aional shots had heeu fired during thfi aftenioou, aud there waa 
no alarm till tlio skirmishers came ont of the woods upon tho 
run, followed by tho RcheU. Tho men seized thoir arms ; but, 
before Devcns could get his regiments hitu poi^itlon, the Rtjbels 
were approaching his right Hank,firingqiiick volleys aud yelling 
like savages. Some of DevenR's command fled, throwing awaj 
their guns and equipment*. Others fought bravely. Devena, 
while 'endeavoring to rally his men, was wounded ; several of 
his officers fell ; yet ho held his ground till the Rebels gained 
bi8 rear and Iwfcan firing into the backs of tlie men who stood 
behind the breastwork. Then tho lino gave way, abimdoning 
fix'ft guns. 

Howard was nt his head-quartera, by Dowdal's. Schurx also 
was there when the attack commenced. He says : — 

** I BOnt my chief of stafF to the front when firing vrsu beHrd. Gen- 
eral Schurz. who WAS with me, left nc odco to take oommand of his line. 
It was not tbix-u miiiutea before I followed. When I reached General 
Schurz'* coinmnnfl, I »<iw that the enemy had enveloped my right, and 
that the first division [Dcveiis's] was giving way. I first tried to 
ehoQge front with the deployed re^immt.^. I uext directed tbo artillery 
Whsre to go ; then formed n line, by deploying aume of tbn re<t*?rve r^>- 
Imanta, near the church. By this time the whole front, on (he north of 

* Howard's Report. 




tb9 pluik-road. tuu3 given way. Colonel BursbbedcV bri^d« wu foocd 
ftbout, ftnd, lying od the other sids of the ritle-pit emhftnkmenu lield on 
will] praiseworthy firmncisd. A pan of General SchinnneironnJ^a wad 
R put of Colouel KrzyzHDOUflki'e brigades moved gradually back Co tbe 
Qonh of Ihe p1ank-ro«d, and knpt up their (Sn;. At the cntre, and oev 
the plank-row], then* wor a blind pHiitc and great confusio'n. lij tin 
aMi^lA■tce of my iUBff and eomt; otber olllccrs, onu of wrliom was Colonel 
Dickinoon, of G^ncrat Ilookcr'a staff, the rout was conaiderably checked, 
and all the artillery except eigbt piecea withdrawn. Some of tbe artil- 
lery was well «MrTcd, and lold ofTt-rCivcty on the advanrjng enemy. 
Chpiain Dilger kept up a contiDuoua lire, till we nuudied Qenerml 
Bimey'a poBitioti." • 

Tho'Roliol troops wliich first made thoir appearanco, ftnd 
wbioli oiivoloiwd Howard's right, woro commanded by Ouiioiml 
Doles, who says : — 


"* At fite o'clock P. M. the order wait given to advance against (he 
enemy. The brigade moved as rapidly M poe,<ible through n very thick 
wood, and ftkimttshcrs were iiameflialely engaged by those of the au- 
my. Our forom man'rhing rapidly forward auiiled in driving in the 
enemy'd sbBrpNlinolcrn, when we wore subjitctod to a heavy musket flre, 
and grape, caninter, and •holl. The command was orderi^d to attack tbe 
enemy in his intrcnclht^d position, drivu him from il. and lakes hU bat- 
teries. The order waa promptly obeyed ; lh« Kourtb and Kony-Fourth 
Qeorgia a»-'«aulled his position in front ; tbe Twenty-Kint Georgia wm 
ordered to flank him bo a.* in onlllaidn bin intrcnehmflnts ; the TwelfUl 
Georgia wm ordered forward, and to the right, lo attack a fores of tba 
enemy on ihe right. Afier a rrsiatance of about ten minalee we drors 
him from his position on the tefl, and carried his bnttery of two guna, eaia- 
lonfi, and hnnwn. Tlie movement of the Twolllh Georgia on tbo rigfat 
was suec^Kaful. The order to forward wa.« givon, when the oommand 
mo^'od forward at ilio 'duubCc-fiuink' to asHault the eni'my who had 
taken up a strong fxisilion on the crest of a lull in the open ilelii, [le 
was Boon driven from this position, the commnnd pnrsning bim. He 
made a riwMom rttittanct from Mind a tcattlinff fenet. oti a hill thick- 
ly covered with pino. The whole command movo.1 gallHully ngninAt 
this iH)#liion. the Fourth and Forty Fourth Georgia in front, and ili« 
Twenty-Firiit and Twelfth on his lelt Hank and rear. Here we cu»- 
tured Gfio gon, — a rifled piece. We pursued his retreating forcM about 
tlirve faoDdred yards over an open field, rcKelviog a aevtiro 6re fimi 

* neirsn]'* Itevon 




ORKlHtrj and m b«tt«rj of fi>ur pieces on tb« crwt of tb* hill thut root- 
nuutded tfae fleM below ; hU infiiatry waa in Urge force, fttul well pro- 
tected hy riSe-pitfl uid intr6Dcbment.i. The oommand wu ordered to 
bkke the intrcncbmeoLs aod ibo lattery, irAicA wcu dont ajttr a rttiM- 
mmc9 o/ahmU lutntj/ minittet. Tli« enemy fled ia uiter oonfufton, leav- 
iDK bio tmlUir)- of four piHcoa, bis wouudod. aud iiiaujr prisooers. Tba 
Twelfth Oeuri^a aud tfio larger portion of ibd otii«r regiments was 
fornied in good order, and pursued him through the pine foreat, mov- 
ing Bomo five hundred yarda to the froot, and holdiag cliat poaitioo 
BQtlt after dftrk. Fresh troops having been plflc>:-d in thAt poaition aftar 
i!ark, I orderod tfao coininaiid to retire for ibe purpose of reploniiUuag 
ammunitions, the own bttitt^ eiitiretj' ouL I>urin|t thin engagement, 
wbiob lasted from about fi^ to 9 P. M., the command captured eij;ht 
pieoet of artillery aod many priAoner?,"' 

It is manifost.'that while a portion of tUe EloveDtk Corpa i» 
came paiiic-stricltoii, a largo tiiimbor of Howard^B troops fought 
with great bravery. The corps uiimherud alwut thirleen thou- 
■attd fivo htuidred ou tho niumiiig of May Ist. 

Tho force under Howard at tho timo uf tho attack did not ex 
jeed cloToii tlioiLsaiid, mainly raw (Jermati troops. Howard's 
total loes ill Itilled, wounded, aud prisonors was two thouBuid 
five hiuidrod and twonty-eight. Twotity-fiva offioors and ont 
bnndrod and firty-threo iiion wore killed, Rovont^-oight officer* 
ud eight hundred and forty-two wounded, — a total loss of 
ODO thousand and ninoty-cight killed and woondod, which abbwe 
the severity f>f this brief conflict. 

The Eleventh Corpa has boon severely oeustired for pusiiUn- 
imoua conduct in this battle ; but when all of the facta are 
taken intocousideration, — that Howard liad no etipporte to- call 
upon ; thai tlio Third Corps was two tuilos and a half from Its 
poaition in ttie lino ; that Barlow's Drigado had boon Bont away ; 
that Uie attack was a surptiso ; that Jacksoii'ti force exceeded 
thirty Uiousaiid ; that, uotwitlistauding tliese di)^advautagea, a 
** stubborn rosiirtauce " was ofTered, — praise instead of oeneure 
ia dde to thoso of Uio Elevcntli who thus held tlieir ground, 
till one fourtli of their number wore lulled, wouudod, or token 

Almost at the beginning of tho attack Devena vu wounded. 

*. OcBcnl Dolw'i Rcpon, p. U- 


nm BOYS or 6l 


In Uio ooiifUsion ntid panic, tiioro wm no onti to take his pUoe 
till Uoward arriTcd. Ilookor vas at otico la his baddle. 

" The oaomjr havo attacked Uoward and driven him 'm" ma 
hif Tord to Sickles. 

" Thut cairi bti," iiaid Sicktee, incredulous. 

" Returu at once," was the order from Qookor, bj a socoud 

The hoavy firiag, coiutoutly growing aeorer, gave (brce to 
iio iustruction. 

It was now quite dark. Sickles set out to return with all 
possible haate, but soon found that he bad got to fight his way 
bock. Jackson's left wing hftd swept round, till it rost^d upoo 
the road, over which ho had marched on h)« way out (o the 
Puniace. Berry's dirision camo Hret upon the enemy. A se- 
rere contest ensued, lasting till nine o'clock, when he euo- 
coeded in re-estAblishing his connection with Iloward, who 
had thus far fought the battle almost atone. Loo, with Ander- 
son's command, all the while was making a domonetratioD 
against the Tweldh and Fifth Corps oast of OliaucoUorsrille, 
and tho Second was too far in rear to be of any sonrice to 
Howard before tho return of Sickles and Barlow. 

Jackson gained no advantage after hia &rst attack, but on the 
other hand camo near oxperioucing a panic in his own lines. 
General Colston says : — 

'W« continued to drive the enemy onti) darkncM preveDlcd ooi 
brthor advmica. The flrin;; now cpaerd, owing to the difllruU Kod 
tiinf;l«d ntiiare of tha gruuiid over wliicli the troops hud sdrancvd, mai 
thfl mingling of my Ant Hnd sec»ud lines of battle. The fonnslion of 
ifae troops became very much ooofuseil, and diilbreot regimenta, brigades, 
uid diviBionft were mixod np to((flth«r. . . . The troops wero hardly r» 
Jbriuod uiid ptHiM^ iu position wliun iho onemy opotiud, nbuul ten o'olocii, 
A Itirioui tiro of shot, «bcll, and (*iuii»t«r, sweeping down (he pUnk-rotd 
And Uie wooda on each eide. A number of artillery horses, »ome of 
tfaem without drivers, imd a grest many infantry AoldierB, belonging (o 
othtir commands, rushed down th« rood in wild disorder ; bat, slthougb 
maoy casualtita oocurrvd at ibis lime in my diviAion, tho trooim oocofned 
ibetr potitioo with the utmuMl steadiness. It waa st this time that 
General Kicfaots, of the Louisiana Brigade (Fotutb), a gallant and 
asoompUshfd offloer, hsd his k'g torn off by a shell, and was earned off 
the flald. It was also about the asms tima thai oar great, sod good 




snd erer to be Iftmented oorpa comnaader Tell ander the Hre at aomt tit 
tb* men of O«oerat L«n«'s brifptda." * 

Under coTor of the &re of the artillery, Berry's diTision of 
Iho Tliird Corps attacked Jackson. The Robol commander had 
just placed A. P. UilVn diFision ia the frout lino, and was con 
tomplatiog ail attack upon Sickles, whoa BerT7 udraiiced. Hii 
biographer eays : — 

" Such wM liis Krdor at tins crilicftl tmnsent, and bis aoxiety to pan- 
.flCrace tbe morenKiDtB of tbe enemy, doubly screened u t)iey were by 
tbe detiae forest aod g«tbering darkoees, that be rode nbead of the ekir* 
mbben, and expoaed binuolf to a chsn and dangerous lire from tb* 
eDBmy's abarpehooters, posted in Uie timber. So gnu was tbe danger 
which be ran, that one of his st»ff said, ' Genera], don't you think this 
Is tbe wrong place for you ?' He replied, quickly, 'Tbe danger is ail 
over; tbe enemy h routed. Go hack and tell A. P. Htll (o press right 
oo!' Soon after giving thin order, Qeiiei-Hl JnckiKin turned, and. 
aeootapanied hy his staff* and escort, rode hack at a trot on his well- 
koowD *01d SofPsl' toward his own men. Uohappily, in the dark- 
neat, — it was now nine or ten o'clock at night, — ihe little body of 
boneneo was mistaken for Federal cavalry <-barging, and the regiments 
OQ tbe right and loft of thtt road fired a fuddun volley into them with 
the most lamentable resnlts. Cnptain Ro»well, of Jadcson's staff, was 
killed, and borne mto oar lines by his horse. Colonel Crutchfield. diief 
of artillery, wai wounded, and two courien killed. General Jackaon 
received one hall in his left arm, two in<-hes below the shoulder-joint, 
shattering the bone and severiDg ibe chief anery; a seoond passed 
throogb tbe same arm, between tbe vlbow and wrist, making its exit 
through the palm of Uie hand; a third entered the palm of his right 
haad, about the middle, and, pa<^Ri[ig throu^^it, broke two of the banea 

" Ho fell from his horse, and was caught by Captain Wormly, to 
whom he said, ' All my wounds are by my own men.' 

"1^ firing was refpondM to by the eneni)-, who made a sadden 
advance, and, tJu OonfederfUtt faUing hack, their foei actuaUy eAarytd 
ovrr Jaciton'i body. He was not discovered, however, and the Federals 
bein^ drivcD ill turn, be was rescued. Ready handR placed him upon a 
litlaTt and he was bomo to tbe rear under a heavy fire from the enemy. 
One of the Utter-beareni wai shot down ; the General fell bom tbe 
tbootders of the men, roauviog a severe contosion. adding to the ii^mj 
of the arm and bjoriog the side sererely. Tbe eoemy'a fire of artiUei^ 

* Colnon'i Report, p. 4A 





WiUianu now croasod his own uitreDchments, aad formed is 
the field, faciDg westward. 

*' Stand st«adj, old Tliird Brigade. Stand «teadj, old Second 
Hanftchueetcs," was die address of the Brigadier. 

So stood the line, while Bo6t poured in bis tromendous trtQ- 
lery fire, and while Itercy pushed the Rebels back into tfao 

Jackson and A. P. Hill baring been wounded, the oonunand 
devoWed ou Qeueral Stuart, who arrived at cuduigfat and made 
a recouuoissauco of tlio liiios. 

East of CliaucoUorsvillo Slocum aud Meade were baring a •»• 
rere fight with the Rebels under Leo, who eajs in his report: — 

" Am 900D aa the sound of cannoo giiT« uoticA of Jwdkaoo'g attack on 
the eDomj'e rig^t, our troops in front of CliancellonTille wore ortl«rad 
to jireaa him Btronglj od the left, to praveot reinroro«meota bowg wnt 
to the poiut asnilod. Tb«j were directed uot to attack io fonxh unl«a« 
a faTorable opportunitj ahould preaent itself, and trbile oontisaiag to 
oover the roads Icftdlng from their resp«ctiTe poaitions, toward Chan- 
CfiUortTiUe, to indine to the IcA go as to coamxt with Jackson's right as 
he doeed m u|>ou the oeotre. TtieHC onlen were well executed, oar 
troops advaDcing up to the enemj'B mtrenchmeats, while sfiveral bai* 
teries p1a;«d with good effect opon his lines, notU preveoted bj in- 
craaetQg darkoeefi." * 

Anderson's divieiou advanced rapidly up the Fredericksburg 
road, charging upon Kane's brigade of Qoaiy's division, oom- 
poBod of new troops, wliich, after a short resistance, retreated 
in couftisiou. An wd iiom Slooum came down to Hooker for 
reinforcemouta. " No," said Hooker, " he must hold his own. 
Let Geary ti division, however, be tlirowu to Uie right of the 
road, that the artillery maj be able to sweep the enemy ou the 
left." This was done, aud the heavy fire that was given by 
Knapp's and other batteries checked Anderson's advance. A 
constant demonstration was kept up by Anderson to dooeira 
flooker as to Lee's inteutioas. Thus the night passed. 


Both armies wore busy through the night, preparing tor the 
great struggle, — Lee to attack aud Hooker to defend. The 

■ Lw'«B^»rL 


rHE BOYS OF '81. 


vouudod wcro »cut to ilie rear, also the baggago trains, aiid 
tho caralr/, aiid eTcrytking wliich could impoUe oporatiuas 
Hookor's Uuo vas in llio form of tho letter V. TIio Second 
Corps, wLicli had follovrod Borry up tho night boforo, oc- 
cupied tlio right or tho lino, reachiug uoarly down to Uie 
river. joLuiiig Uio loUt flank u|>ou Berry's dirision of the 
Third Corps, wliicli citcudcU to llio plaiik-rood, west of Oiaii- 
oellursvillo. Wliipplo's and Birucy's dirisions of tho Third, 
and Goary'B division of the Tw<;irt]i, formod the point of Uie 
letter V, wlijch enclosed Chanccllorsvillo. Tho other divisions 
of the TvB^lLh Corps and the Finii Corps forming the other 
side of tho letter, uxtonded from Clianccllorsrillo to tho Rap- 
pahannock. The Eleventh Corps was placed in i)Osition to 
sup[K>rt the Fiflli on llio extreme left of the line. During the 
dar the First Corfis under llcynnlda came up the rivor, crossed 
at Unitoi] Slates Kurd, and vhoclud into position on the right 
of the Second Corps, thus forming tliu oztrome right of tlie 
line. Tbo troo{>s liad been busy through the night erecting 
breastworks, while a lar^'o number of guns wore placed in 
petition to swocjf alt tlio roaJb. Stuart renewed tho fight at 
daylight, with OiU in the front lino, Colston in Uio t^ocoud, and 
Bodofl In the third. He advanced with the intention of break 
iug tho line near Chancellorsrille. llit» troops were ezasper 
ated by the loss of their leader, and were animated by revenge. 
They came through the woods almost in solid mass. Colston's 
and Bodes's men, pressing eagerly forward, and closing up the 
spaces between the Imes. lliey received, without flinching, 
the terrible firo which flamed from Berry's and Bimey's and 
Whipple's lines. Tliey charged upon Sicklos's outer works, and 
carried them. 

Tliey advanced upon tlio second line, but were cut up by 
Best's artillery. Couipanios and regiments melted away. 
Berry and Birocy advance to meet them. The Uriog waves 
rolled against each other like the billows of a stormy sea. Tlw 
Bebels, as if maddened by tlto obstinacy of those who hold tho 
position, rushed up to Uie muzzles of the cannon. Sickles 
pent for reinforcements. Ilooker ordered French and Ilaucook 
df Uie 'Second Corps to advance and attack Stuart in flank. 

Il wai) seven o'clock In the morning. The batUe bad beeo 



raging aiiioe dfl/liglit. The two divisions of the Second Oorps 
nruiig out from the mala Line, faced aouthweat, and movod 
npou ^r hi art. 

Soutli of ChanoellorsTillo there is aii olevation higher than 
tlmt occupied by Boat's artillorj. When the fog which had 
hung oTor the hattle-ficld all the morning Uitod, Stuart sent hli 
artiUeiT to occupy the position. Thirty pieces were planted 
iJiere, which enfiladed both of Hooker's lines. A heavy artil- 
lery duel was kept up, but, notwiUistaudiiig the soTerity of the 
tire, the Union troope held ttie position. Stuart, iiistoad nf 
broakii^ through Sickles, found tlie Second Corps turning liii 
own left flank. He says : — 

"Tbfl enemy was pre«iag our left with infantry, and all the raib 
foroemeQta 1 ooald obtain were sent Ai«re. Colquitt'i brigade d 
Trimble'* dtruion, onicr«d first to the right, was dirACted to tbe left to 
rapport Pender. Ivenoti't brigwie of tbe aocood line wa« aluo engaged 
tbore, and tbe three line* were more or ]«ss mergod into one line of 
battle, and reported bard prM»e<l. Ui^ot requesu were aeitt for rein- 
forc^ment^, and rioticea that tbe troops were out of hmiuunitioa. 1 
ordered tliat ibn ground mtut be bold at all bacards, if ncceesary with 
tbe bayoneL" • 

All of tlie efforts of Stuart to hreak the line by a direct in 
fantry attack failed. But his I>attene9 massed Ou the hill 
were doing great damage. The shells swept down Binoy'a 
and Wliipple's and Berry's ranks on the one hand, and Geary's 
tud Williams's on the other. Hooker saw that the position 
could not be hold without g~«at loss of life. Preparatinac 
were accordingly raado to fall hack to a stronger position, 
where his army would be more concentrated, the lines shone? 
and thicker, in the form of a semi-circle. Meanwhile Le< 
flwnng Anderson round and joined Stuart, making a simulta 
DGOus advance of both wings of his army, under ixiver of i 
heavy fire from all his available artillery, — pouring a stora 
of shells upon Chaticellursville, firing the buildings, flooke 
had begtm to retire >>efore Lee advanced, withdrawing his artil 
lerj, removing his wounded, losing no prisoners. 

Every aiinck of Anderson upon Slocum had been repulBO- 
with great loss. A South Carolina regiment come against tb 



TBI BOYS or 'ei. 


Sooond MassactiuBOtta. Tliiroo timoB tUo men from tba Pal- 
metto state charged upou tlie mou of MusKuchusotCs. Three 
timea Uiu flag from tlio Old Baj State chuugod liaudB. But, 
befhre tbe RoboU could carry it from tlio tiuld, it woo roKucd^ 
and at the close of lliu figUt wtus eliU iu Uio bauds of tho regi- 
ment. Wlioii Slocutu's troops bud exhausted tlieir ammuni- 
tiou tbof emptied tlio cart ridge- boxes of tlio Mlou. Whou 
that was gone tbof held tbe ground b; the bajronot till ordered 
to retire.* 
Oeneral Leo sayt : — 

** Bj ten A. M. we wera in TqU poaMHJOD of tbe Qeld. The uxiop^ 
bAviDft bMom« aomewbjit scAtMred, bj tbe difflcultiM of the ground, 
aod tbe snlor of tbe ouiiUsl, wvro itmui-dutely ntl'onoed, pn!i«raU>rj 
to rcuewitig tbe att«ck. Tbe euemj bwl rvtired to « *Lrting [wnitioit 
near the HappAbannock, wbicb he hod prerioiulf fortified. His nipe- 
rioriij of Dumber*, tbe unfavorable nature of tbe ground, wbicb wu 
d«niiely wooded, aud the conditiou of our troO[>ii, atter tbe kixIuuu* and 
san^inary conflict in which they Imd bi^fti engBj^rd, rendered gr»at 
cautiuu titfousMiry. Our prepamtloaa were just ootn^Med, wliuu furthor 
operaliona were iuapended by intelligence received ftvm Prederick^ 

The uew Hue tokoii by Hooker wus ouo of groat streugth. 
So assault, with the ititeutioa of carrying it, was loade by Lee. 
Sews of disaster from Frodericksburg, where Sedgwick was 
dririiig all before him, made it necessary for him to oond reiu- 
foroemoutB iu that diroclJou. 


An important part of Ooiioral IIookor*» plan was 5^gviok*a 
oaoTemoiit on Fredoricltslmrg, tmt tbe battle fought ihoru on 
Sunday, tho 3d of May, was wholly distinct from Chaiicpllor* 
rille. ?»rif on the morning of tho 2d, Professor Lowe wont 
up in his balloon (torn tho Falmouth hills, and looked down 
upon tho dty. 

Ho reported the Rebels moviug towards ChauccUorsrille. 
Looking closoly into the introncbments behind I'Vodorickfiburg 
he discororod chat the Rebius iutondod to hold them. Th« 

" Tnm \b» Pomam id tbe Hapfakn,'' bj Qalnt. 




WasLiDgton AitUleij was Iteluud tbo bronstworks bj Muyee't 

** Ten tbousantl of the Qnemj, I sbould judge, t>till there,** 
wsa his report to Ouneral ButteHield, Hooker's dueP of huff. 
who reroaiuud with Sedgwick. 

During the day Royuulds withdrew and moTcd np ttie Fal 
tnoiitli eitlo to United Stales Ford. Tlio Rebels 6«w the more 
cuent, and thought that tlie Taiikeoa did uot dara lo make a 
eecond attempt to drive them from their iutreachnieata. 

" Now IB ttio time for Sedgwick to attack thorn," wa» Hook- 
er's despatch from Chtmcellorbnile, Saturday aftamoou, to 
Qoaeral Butterfield. 

As Boon as uiglit came ou, Sedgwick begau his preparations. 
The engineers weru directod to take up the lower pontooaB and 
lay a oew bridge opposite the Lacy House, at tlie point where 
tlie .Seventh Micliigau and N'iuotcoiith aud Tweutietli Uaaaa- 
chiisotta won for tliomselreH great houor ou the 11th of Dft 

** Kindle no firee ; let there be no loud taHdng," were Sedg- 
wick's orders to his troops ou tlie plain oy fieruard's bouse, 
Dolow Deep Run. The men ate their suppers of hard-taok and 
cold moat in silence, threw thomsoWes upon the ground, aud 
slept Eoundly in the calm moonlight. At midnight an aide 
rode along the liuee, saying to each officer, " Get your men 
iu readiness at once." The men sprang to their feet, folded 
their blankets, aud were ready. 

It was half past twelve Sunday morning before the forward 
movement l>egaii. Tlio United Staton diaisseurv were in ad- 
vajico an ekirmishers, deployed on botii uidos of tlie BowUhk 
Orocn road. Shalor's brigade followed, then Wheaton'i aud 
Brown's brigades. Thoy crossed Deep Rim. where the akir- 
mi^ito^s bad a few shots with the Rebel pickets, and moved into 
the town. 

The engineers soon had the bridge completed, and Oibbou*i 
division of tliti Second Oorps, which bad been waiting by the 
[•acy House, cnxtsed the stream. 

Early staUoned Bark&dale, wiU) sevea companies of the 
Tweuty-I-Hrsl MuwiiMtippL, between Maryee's bouse aud the 
plank-rottd, with the Seveuteeuth and Thirteenth Mississippi 




on die hflls bj tho Eovison house, and tlic Biglitoonth and the 
remaindor of tho Twoiity-Firet bohiiid the Btoiio-wall at the haw 
of tho hill. Hayes's brigade, consisting of the Fifth, Sixth, 
Serontl), Eighth, and NiuUi Louisianiaiis, was on tho hiU near 
tho inOQumeiit, villi Wilcox's lirigado in its roar, guarding 
Banks's Ford. Early himself was by Hazel Run. with Gordon's, 
[Toke'a, and Smith's brigades. 

Sedgwick's diTisious wore fonnod in tho following order: 
Gibbon aboro tho town in (Voiit of the monument, Newton in 
front of Maryeo'B Hill, Howe at tho lower end of tho town, and 
Brooks on tbo plain below. 

The murniug dawned. The fug prureutod the Rebels ftxjm 
seeing tho movements of Sedgwick, though BarkKdalc's pickota 
reported the town (\ill of Yanltoos. From Chancellorsville 
came tlio roar of battle, tlie constant thunder of tho cannonade. 
It waa half past five when Shalor's brigade of Newton 'k division 
movod OTOr tlie field where so majiy thousands fell on the 13th 
of December. It was a reconuotssatico to ascertain the positioD 
and numtxir of the forcu holding tho place. Tho men marched 
oo gallantly, but were forced tu retire before tlie MiHsissippitua 
and tiio artillery on the hill. 

Sedgwick brought Hoaru's, Martin's, Adams's, and Hazard't 
batlorioti, and Battery D of tlio Second United Statetj regi- 
ment of artillery, into position iu tlio town and above it, while 
Hezamer's, the First Maryland, and McCartney's First Massa- 
ohusotts occupied tlio ground below Hazel Run. McOart- 
ney was on tho same spot which ho occupied in the Arst 

It was a day of peace ovorywhcro oicopt at Frodericksburg 
and ChauceUorsvillo. Tho air was laden with tho fragrance of 
dowers blooming in the gordous of the town. Tliousaiids of 
ipootatoiT stood upon the Fatmoutli bills watching tbo contest. 
All llio batteries wore at work, — the hoai'y guns at Falmouth, 
at Uio Lacy House, and farther down, throwing shells and solid 
shot over tbo town into the RuIhjI lines. 

Qibboa, instead of advancing directly up tlie hill towards the 
nonument, whore Hayes was lying belnnd the intrenchmonts. 
moved up the river nxid, intending lo loru Hayes's right Qank.. 
Hayee moved his men farther up, and sent a courier to Wil- 




eox with the mes&oge, ** Tlio YaiikcM aro commg up tlio rivor 

Wilcox left fiiVf mou to guanl the ford, and went upon the 
nm toward? th« town. It was an anxious momeut (o the 
Rebols. Barksdale and Ilajroa and Wilcox all mot at Staiiia- 
berry's house, aud coasulted as to what should bo douo. Early 
their commander, was dowu on tlie Tolegrapli road, looking 
afler matters in tltat direction. 

" Tho Yonkoos aro in futi force bolow the town." said 
Barksdalcf That was tho first infbnuatiou Wilcox had re- 
ceived of tho startling fact. They had boon outgouoralled 
Thej supposed that tho movement below tlto town was a feint 
They had seen Rornotds withdraw and march up stroAm to- 
wards Chancollorsrillo, hut had not seen Gibbon cross the 
ttream. Yet he was there, moving to tho attack. 

" Put your batteries into position and play u[K)n tliom," said 
Barksdale.} Hugor's battery f^loped up, chose a fine posiUon 
on die hill near Dr. Taylor's house, and began to fire upon 
tho MassochuBotts Twentieth, which was in tho road, compol- 
lisg it to aook shelter under the hill. So effectual was the fir« 
that Oibbon's advance was cheeked. 

Brooks and Howo moved against tho Rebels below tho town, 
but found them strongly posted. 

Twice Newton advanced upon Maryee's Hill, and was driveu 
back. Tlie foronoon wan waning. But though hafTlod, .'^dg- 
wick was not disposed to give up tho attempt. Ho watched 
the oouteet closely, reconnoitring all tho positions of the Rebels, 
and determined to make an attack with his whole force at 

But while Sedgwick was making preparations, Early ondcav- 
orod to drive Brooks and Howe int« tlio river. Ho advanced 
from tho position occupied by Pender and Hood in ttio firal 
battle, emerged from tlie woods and crossed the opoa field. 

It is about ton o'clock. McOartiicy'» lialtery, the First Ma<isa- 
ohusotts, is on a hillock, whore it has full Hwecp of all the plain, 
right and left, and in front. Tliorc are five batteries of the 
Rebel reserve artillery, under Pendleton, Ln fVont, which have 

• Wiloon'i R«i"ort, p, »S. 

) WIlcoK'i Reran- 




rriod iu vain to driro McCartuoy (Vom tlio spot. A Botid sliol 
kills two bonus end a mau ; McCorUio^ is struck by a fVag 
meiit of shell ; yot tlio battery maiutaius its position north o( 
the Bowling Orcon road, in Bernard's 6cld. A. i-cgimout whidi 
never before has boon under fire is lying iu front of the ba^ 
tery, sboltOTod by the hedgea along U» road, — Boldiors that 
havo enlisted for nine months. They are wanting in pluck, 
and as tho Bobols advauco, run straight up the hill towaMs the 

" Got out of tho way, or 1 11 6ro through you," shouts Lieu* 
tenant Green, who impatiently holds his artillerists iu check 
till tho fugitives arc past Inm. 

He cuts at thorn right and loft with bis sword, indignant ui 
their cowardly conduct, anxious to havo tho coast clear, th&t 
he may pour a torrent of canister into the advancing foe, now 
close at hand. 

The whole battery — six pieces — opens by a volley, sending 
streams of canister down the slope ! But the Rebels are in 
earnest. Still thoy advance. 

** Give them douhlcv^hottod canister," shouts Green to liis 
funnors, and thoy nun borne tho charges with a will. The 
guns leap from the ground with tlie recoil ! 

Nearer, — across the road, — up the hill, — they come. 

" Oivo it to tliem ! Give it to them ! Quick ! " are the enoi- 
getic shouts of Green, and the cnnistor tears through tho ranks. 
Ko tronps can face such a destructive fire. Tlio Rebels flee 
down ilio hill, across tho road, over tho field, to the shelter of 
tlio woods. 

" Tho rcpulso of tho enemy on the extreme left was "fTected 
almost entirely by UcGartaej's battery," said General Brooks.* 

General Sedgwick determined to carry Maryee's Hill at the 
point of the bayonet, i^mc uf tho ofEcors thought it an Im- 
possibility. It had been tried three times in tlie first battle and 
twioe during that moniitig, and all attempts had failed. But 
Sedgwick couvergod his forces upon one yioint Ho formed 
his columns in three lines, with the intention of moving his 
wholp force at onco. — thus preventing Early ftom sending any 
roinforcemonts from other parts of tlie lines. 

• Broob*! R<ton. 




Tlie troops soloctcd for the atuick upon Moryee's Hill were 
the Sixty-First Poiiiisylvania aiid Forty-TIiird New York iu the 
front lino, north of the plank-road, and die First Long Islaud 
and Kt^hty-Sccnnd PonnsylTatiin in the socorid line, uitdor Gon* 
eml Hhalcr. South of tho plank-road wore tho Sixth Mahio and 
riurty-First Now York in tho front line, witli tlio Fifth Wis- 
cousin acting as skirmishers. Next in lino woro tlic Scronlh 
Massachusetts and Tliirty-Siitli New York, Second New York 
and Twciity-Siith Now Jersey, of Noil's brigade. Still further 
dowii. ifv lliizul Run, wjis tlie Vermont hrigado. 

Gibbon movod against Uayos and Wilcox, wliilo Bruuka still 
bold tlio ground, and made a domou»tnitiou against Early. 

It is past olovon o'clock boforo all tho dis]K)sitionB are made 

** Go upon tho doublo-quick. Don't firo a shot. Gire them 
the bayonet. Carry the nHo-pits, charge up tho hiU, and cap- 
ture tho giiUB/' are tlie instructions. 

The men tluxtw aside everything whioli will liinder them, fix 
their bayonets, and prepare for tho work. Their blood ii up. 
Tlioy know tliat it in to be a dospenito istrugglo. But it ia not 
dftttli that they are thiukuig of, but victory ! 

The Sixty-FirBt Penosylrauia and Forty-Tliird New York 
move over tlio bridge across tlio caiial. Their adranco is the 
signal for all the linos. The men rise (mm tlio ground wtioro 
they have been lying sholtored from tho Rebel shells. The 
Rebel batteries above them are in a blaze. The stone-wall at 
tlie baso of tho hill is aflamo. Barksdalu boos tho threatening 
asfioct. " I am hard proBsed," is his message to Wilcox. " Send 
mo reinforcements." But Gibbon is moving on Wilcox, and 
tho latter cannot ro8[>oud. 

Oool and steady the advance. The hills rain canister. "Die 
■unkon road is a shoot of Qame. But onward into the storm, 
with a cheer, hoard above tho roar of battle upon the distant 
FalmouUi hills, thoy leap into the sunken road and Capture th« 
Rebels defending it. Tliey climb the hill. Steep the ascent. 
They feel tho hot breath of the cannon in their faoe«. Some 
roll to the bottom of the hill, the lamp of life extinguished for* 
erer ; but Uioir surriTiag comrades do not filter. They reach 
thr erest, leap over the breastworks, and aeixe tlie guns ! Maine, 
MaBoauhosetts, Vermont, Now York, and Wisconsin meet in 
tbfi intreuchmenta and rend tlio air with Tictorious cheers! 




Barksdale puu spun to his horso aud ridee to tb« rMr, le&r- 
tug half of his brigade and eight guus m Uie bauda of Uw 

Barksdale aafs : — 

"l^ disbuKM from towD to tha poiobi auaUed ww to flbort, tb« 
attack so ftudd«iil;r made, and th« difficulty of rcrnoving troop* from ooa 
pan of the Ibe to another was so great, that it waA utteHj impwAiUa 
for atber Q«ti«rfil Wilcox or Gaoend Hayee to reaoii tbv fc«D« of 
•etioD in tim« to afford any anaistaaoe wbaleTer." * 

There was constarnatioa in the Bebel liues. Early fled down 
the Telegr&pli road. Hayos also ran. Wilcox, who was not 
aware of the disaster, remained in poeitioii on Taylor's £011, 
wonderiog wiiat had happened. Hod Setlgwick kaowu hii 
pOBitiou, the whole of Wilcox'e brigade might have been cap- 
tured ; but it required time to reform the lines, and Wilooi 
made his escape. 

Long and loud and jojoua ware the shouts of the rioton. 
The stronghold had been wrested from the Rebels at last. 

It was Sunday noon. Hooker had just lalleu back from 
ObanoeUorsyille, aud the Rebels were rejoicing over their suo- 
oesB, when a musseuger reached Lee with the tidings of disaster. 
Predohckfiburg was lost, ailer ail. It must be recovered, or 
the victory ut GhauceUorsviUe would be ouly a disastrous 

Sedgwick telegraphed his success to Hooker. 

** HoTo and attack Leo in rear," wa£ Hooker's order. 

Lee seut McLaws to hold Sedgwick in check. The tuoe 
bad come when Hooker should have assumed the ofiensire. 
The First Corps had arrived, but had taken no part in the 
battle. The Third Corps, Meade's, was in good condition ; so 
was the Second, Hancock's, although it had fought during the 
foreuoou. Barlow's brigade of the fileventli was fnsk ; the 
Twelfth had fought bravely, had lost hearily, but was not d»* 
monllMd. The Third Corpe had Buffered most of all, yet it 
ooold be relied upon for another contest. The withdrawal of 
McIaws led Lee's line thin towards Fredericksburg, the plac« 
to break through, And open communication with Sedgwick. 




The hour bad oomo when tie ought uot to stand longer od tb« 
deHinsiTe, but gatboring his tbrcoe iu mass OTcrwhelm Ijoo bv a 
ffuddou and tniglity oueot. It was au auspicious momont, — a 
golden opportunity, such a;^ do«K not often come to military 
OOnuntnders. liut liariug formod his plan of fighting a dofon- 
rive battle, be did uot depart from it, aud lost tbo victory which 
lay witliiu his grasp. 

3cdg\«-ick having c&rriod the heights of Fredericksburg, 
instead of (bUowiog Garly down tho Telegraph road, made prep- 
tratioDB to move towards Cliaticcllorsville, and join Ilooker. 

WUoox, meftiiwliilo, brought two of Ilugor's rifle-gims iolo 
position near Dr. Taylor's house, and opened fire. He also threw 
out bis skirmishcn), made a displny of bis force, and looked 
round to see what could bo dono to oscapo from his perilous 
position. Sodgwtok brought up a battery, and moved for- 
ward his linos. WUoox fled, aud succeeded, by rapid marching 
irnder the shelter of a pine thicket, in gaiuiug ilie plaiik-road, 
near Salem Church, where be was joined by General UoLaws, 
and where also Barksdale rallied Ills troops. 

Tlio cburcb is a brick building, witliout any steeple, stand 
ing on the south side of the road, about four miles out from 
Prodorickeburg, and aliout a mile and a half soniii of tlio Rap- 
paliannock at Banks's Ford. Thoro was an oak grove near 
tho church, and in front of it an open field, but west of it 
there wore thick wooda« wluoh onbctuatly concoolod tlio RcMs. 
It was about five o'dook in tlio aftoruoou when Sodgwick ad- 
raoood up the pbuik-roaU, with Brooks's division in tbu road, 
Newton north of it, and Howe on tlie south side. Sedgwick's 
skirmishers sent back word that tlie Rebels were iu strong 
force in tbo woods. At tlie same moment tlio Rebel batteriot 
opened fire. One of their first shells killed a mounted orderly 
and Ins horse, and wounded Captain Rood, of Qooerol Brooks's 

Sedgwick brought up his artillery and commenced a fire 
upon tlio church, and the woods beyond It. Wilcox had 
formod his lino across the plank-road. His sharpshootera were 
in the ohurob. He bad four pieces of artiUory iu the rood 
and on each side of it. He also threw a company of sharp- 
ihooten mto a scliool-house near ttie ohuroh. Eersbaw'a uid 



Wofford's brigades wore on the right of tbo road ; 8ouuDOi'i 
and Maliono'8 oa tlic other side. Sedgwick's batteries voro in 
positiou near the toll-gato, and so accurate and dcstructiro ma 
the firo of his guus that the Rclicl batteries bj tlio churcli were 
dnven fVoin their position. Ru^seU'a and Barilott'a brigade* 
morod forward to rout tho oncmj from the woods, fiodgwich 
tuppofling thoro was but a small forco to oppose liim. Tlie 
advanoo was over ground sltght]y ascending, tlirough an open 
field, towards tho wooda, where tlie Rebel skirmiBhera were 
Ijring. It IB a narrow bolt of woods. Behind it were tho church 
and Bohool'houBO, and bojfond the church tho woods whore the 
main bodj of tho Rebels wore lying. TI107 drore the skimuBU- 
ers [Vom the belt of woods, halted a moment to reform tJieb- 
linoa, gave Uiroe cheerB, charged tlirough tho grore, routing 
ilio Rebels tliore concealed. Tlioy surrounded tho school 
house, captured (ho onttro company of tlie Ninth Alabama 
stationed in it, put to flight a ro^^iment lying behind tho liotiao.* 
But the remainder of the Niiilli Alabama, with other regimenta, 
came to Uio rescue, succooilcd in recapturing a portion of their 
oomrados, and forced RubsoII and Bartlett to retire. 

It wa3 now nearly six o'clock in tho ailomooii, and till night 
let in there was heavy fighting along the whole lino. Wilcox 
uid Sommes several timo» adTancod upon Sedgwick, but were 
repulsed. Ho for as numbers wore concerned tho coutoet wai 
about equal. Hut Iho Rebels wore on commanding ground, 
and protected by the woods, while Hcdgwick was in the open 
field. I[i this cunlost Wilcox lust four hundred and ninety-five 
men. He had six officers killed and twonty-throe wouiidod. 
Semmes lost six hnndrod and etglity-thrce killed and wotmded, 
Wafford five hundred and sixty-two. Tho wboJo loss of tht 
Rebels in tiio fight at Ralcm Church was nearly two Uiousand. 
Sedgwick, iuEtead of advancing again, waited for the Robols to 
attack liim, but ttiey did not choose to come out &x>m their 
strong position in the woods, and try it a second time in th« 
field. Thus tlie day cloeed. 

Sedgwick's success endangered lioe, and, unless Fredericks- 
burg were regained, tho Imttio was lost to the B^wla. Lo« 

*y» = — 

• Qtatnl WOons't Otpon. 




Uniok I'osiTioim. 

I. Newton'ft DiriilOB. 
1. Brooks'! « 
«. Howe'a " 


A. Semmes and Mahoiie. 

B. Wilcox. 

C. Kenhaw ud WofTord. 

D. Barkitdale. 

B. ReinrorcemcDU. 

r. Dr. Taylor'i. 

Q. Bonwof WJooz'iB«trMfc 




** Tbfl 6n«m7 had to atrong;iheDod bia po«ttioa Dear ChftDoallortfiUo 
thai il wu dacmi!*! inexpedient to wssil it with ksa tban oar whobi 
force, which coold oot be coD«>utnted until we were relieved from the 
dki^r tint menikoed oar renr. It wae locordinglj resolved fttill farther 
lo reinforce the troops in front of GeoanI Sedgwick, iu order, if poeai- 
ble, lo drive him acrou the Bapptthumock. Accordiuglj, on the 4th, 
Geberal Andertoa wsa directed to proceed with hia rem»tniDg bngadea 
to join General UcLhwa. the three diviaiona of JackHin'i oorpi holding 
our poaition at Chancellor^Tille. Andereon reached Salem Church 
aboQt noon, and wba dir4^(!t«d to gaJa the left flank of the enem7 aad 
farm a junction with Earlj." * 

Half of the Bobol army was arrayed agftimt Sed^ick, wbo 
held his ground through the 4th till uight. Earlj, duHug th« 
day, retrftood his steps up the Telegraph road, and, fiiidiag that 
Sedgwick had moved out to Salem Church, and that the forti- 
fications were xmoccupied, took poeeession, and thus cut Sedg- 
wick's communications with Falmouth. When Andersoo 
trrired he had do altomatire but to retreat by Banks's Ford, 
where be crossed the river without loss duriug the night 
Hooker also rccrossod, took up his bridges, and the armj re- 
turued again to its camp. 

In reviewing this battle, it is apparent that Hooker's moro- 
ment to ChauceUorsriUo was a surprise to Loo. It was excel- 
lently planned and ofBciontly oxecutod, — each corps reaching 
its assigned position at the time appointed by the Commander- 
in-Chief It is pbuji that Hooker's departure from his original 
intention — to await an attack from Lee — was the cause of 
the disaster at the beginning of the engagement. Sickles's 
corps and Barlow's brigade being absent, the balance of the 
Eleventh Corps hod no supports ; and yet by Bushbock's brig- 
ado and Dilgor's battery, with such assistance as was given by 
a fow brave men of the other brigades, Jackson's right was not 
only held in check, but thrown into confusion. Howard's staGft- 
mont of the cose presents the matter in its true light. 

Thus reads his report : — 

■* Now, aa to the cau«e of thi« diaaater to my curpa. 
* lit. Tboagh ooMtaDtly threatened, and apprised of the moving of the 
eoemy, yet the woods were so denae that be was able to man a Urg« 


• Lo**! Beport, p. II. 


■ma hoTca om 'h. 


toTcm, whoM azACt wfaeraabouta neither ptitrok, reooaaGisuDcen, nor 
•couU MocrUtioed. lie ■uoei-t.-Jed in rormiiiK k columD to And outiluk- 
iag my righL 

"Sd. hy the puic produced by tli« entmya revorM Are, reginMDU 
Kud utillcr^ were thrown iiuildenly upon ilu>^ in potition. 

*'8d. Thfl ^Meoce of GnnenJ Bnrlow'A brigwic which I bad pre- 
riouly located in reierve cod tn ttiuUm, with Colonel Von Qilu't, m 
ft.4 to coTer his righl dank. 

" Mj corps WK) very soon reorgaoiied. near ChaiioeUonTiII«, and 
relievAd Oeoerat Slcade'it corpi on \\\» l«fl of the line, where t( remained 
tin llianKiay morning." * 

Had Sicklcs'ti corps anil Barlov's brigado beou Id the line, 
tboru would buvo boou aot ouly uo disaster, but Jacksou would 
bftTe beou dofcatcd at the out«ot; for, upou the roturu of thoe« 
troops fW>m Scott's Ruu, ho vas driron with groat lose. 

Jackson was drivou hj Sickles whea the Third Corpe r^ 
txirued to tlio lino ; and had Sickles aud Dnrlow boon in Uieir 
prope- positions whoa the attack was made, thoj could hav« 
Ripi'hwd him with greater ease. 

Though Jackson's attack was succeasfUl, it is not thorofor* 
NncluBiroIj evident that Loo's plan was wiee. His armj ww 
diTided into thivo parts, — Early at Frodoricksburg, Tjco oa<t 
of Ghanc«ltorsTillo, and Jackson northwest of it. Being thor- 
onghl; acquainted with tlio country, he was able to take hii 
position uno))scr\'cd. 

Tliere wore several opportunities during tlie battle when 
Hookor could have broken Ijoe's lines. Ttio battle virtually 
was lost to Leo on Sunday noon. Hooker had fallen back 
from ChanccHorsrillo, but Sedgwick hod taken Fredericksburg. 
Had Hooker, when bo ordered Sedgwick to attack Ijoo in the 
roar, on Sunday aflenioun, himself advanced, Leo would have 
liooii forced to abandon tliu coutoet ; but, having resolved at 
tlio outeot to stand on tlio defensive, tlie Union commander 
adhered to iho idoa» and thus Loe was able to retrieve the 
disaster at Krodcricksburg, — far more serious tlian tliat which 
had hap|iencd to the Blovonth Corps. 

Could we but oomproliond the ways of Ood, wo might per 
hape disnover that the failure of the Union army at ChancoUora 


TU£ ilOVS OF 'itl. 




** Tbi Yankees can't ride horses ; ttiej were made to go on 
foot and dig in the dirt ; but t)ie men of tho South are tru«- 
boni caraliors, oocuHtomod fVora their childliood to the aporta 
of the field," Bwd a Riohmond newapapcr at tlio bciginjiing of 
Uio war ; hut Zagoni's charge at Springfield, Plo4uaii ton's at 
Barbor'a Cross- Ri)ad8, anil Dalilgron's at Frcdorickaburg showed 
that tho men of tlto Nortli could ride to somo purpom. Up to 
this time the cavalr;r of the Arm; of the Potomac had taken 
Httlo part In tho great Wttles wliich had been fought. Il had 
1)eon divided hj HcClellan into sqiiudrous, and attached to 
hrigades of infantry : but Bnrnside, tioforo his resiguation, had 
begun a roorgnuizatiott of tho cavalry. FTookur cumplctod the 
work bj forming a cavalry corps, consisting of throe divisiotu, 
commanded by Miyor-Oonoral Stonemaii. Tlio division com- 
maudera wore Oeneral^ rioEutanton, Gre,gg, and Avcrill. In the 
mortth of March, Stoncmoji, wishing to ascertain tho |)osition of 
the Rcl>nl cavalry, sent AroriU's divtsinti acroHs the Rappahan- 
nock, at Kelley's Ford. The Relwls guarding tho crossing were 
nearly all captured. Avurill pushed out towards Culpepper, but 
met Stuart, and allor a sliarp oiigagcmeul retired across tJie 

March and April wore muddy; hut Stouoman's squadrons 
woro busy foraging tho country oorth of Uio Rappahannock, 
while his scouts wore findiug their way through Stuart's linos, 
reaching Jomos River, entering Ricluaoud, osoortaining wlioro 
■upplioB for tho Rebel army were accumulated, and what troops 
guarded tlto bridges in rear of I^ee's urmy. They disoovered 
that the main body of the Rebel cavalry was in the vioinity of 
Culpepper and Orange Gourt-House, under Fitz-EIugh and 
Custia Lee. 

One feature of Oenoral Hooker's plan, in the movemout tc 


GhanoctlorsrUle, was the destruction of Lee's supplies and his 
oommunicaUous with Richmond. This part was assigned to the 
raraJrj. Averill was sent to Beolton.on tho Omngo and Alex- 
andria Railroad, as if intending a movement upon OcrdooA- 
ville. Stuart sent tlio two Lees up the river to keep watch, 
wliich left a door open at Gcrmanna Ford. 

Stonomati sent all his unscrriccahle horses and men to Fal 
mouth Hen who oould not endure hardship and exposure 
woro detailed to remain and guard tlie camp Tlio caTalr^men 
onlj know that there was to be a movement somewhere, so well 
kept were Hooker's intentions. 

Ploasanton was ordered lo accompany Hooker to ChanooUora- 
▼ille, Averill was directed to cross the river at Rappaliannock 
Htation,and move towards Gordonsville, while Gregg's division 
was selected to strike the hlow which would cripple Lee. 

On tho 29th of April, when tlie Eleventh and Tweiah Gorpa 
readied Kcllej's Ford, on the Rappaliannock, Gregg, who wai 
lying there, crossed in advance, and moved west towards Cul- 
pepper. Averill at tho same dmo forded the river at Rappahan 
nock Station, four miles above, and moved aleo towards Cut- 
pepper. There was a small force of Rebel cavalry in that towu, 
but Averill charged tlirough the streets. The Rottols made a 
hasty retreat towards Gordnnsvillo, crossing the Rapidan at 
tlie railroad and burning tho bridge behind them. Averill 
followed, and the Lees thought that Gordonsville was the. 
pomt aimed at. Gregg, instead of going to Culpepper, turned 
south through Stovonsburg ; and, while tho Eleventh aud Twelfth 
Corps wore crossing tho Rapldau at Germauiia Ford, his troops 
woro forajig the same stream ciglit miles higher up. 

When Gregg arrived at Raccoon Ford, he found it guarded 
by a strong force ou the opposite side, intrenched around the 
house of Colonel Porter, which overlooks tlie ford. Gregg 
halted his column in the field aud woods, noar tlio house of 
Mr. Striugfellow^ on the northern bank, and made demonstra- 
tions as if to crust;. Ho opened with his artillery, which was 
replied to by the Rebels. While the enemy was thus diverted, 
a small force was seot to Morion's Ford, two miles below, which 
crossed without opposition, dashed up the road, and came upoo 
the Babels in roar of Colonol Porter's house. Tbey fled to 


THE BOYS or '61. 


words Onuigo Courtrlloiiso. lioutonont Oaskol], with a por- 
tion ofllic Fidli Uiiitod BtatoeCavotr;, folluwiid Lliem Iivo milob, 
capturing an officer and eoveral men. Tbe dinsion croased, 
GJid bWouacked on tlio hills around Coloucl Tortor's hoiuw tot 
thv. night. This movumuiiL of Grugg's compullod tUo Loos, who 
iuloudcd to flglil Avorill at Rapidau Station, to make a hasty 
ratroat towards Gordon»vitIti, for Qrcf^g was on thoir flauk. 
Avurill croKsod Uio otroam, driving back the Robels, aud hy \m 
moTemoiit docoiving Aw onoiny. Ho followed tJiom noarlj to 
Qordoiisvillo, ramolncd till Qrcgg's division was well on ita wajr. 
then recrossod the stream, and rejoined Hookor. 

The night of Uic BOtli of April was cold and tlio grouud damp, 
but QO fires woro altowod. At two o'clock in tlio moniing tlic 
mou wore roused Qrom sleep, not by the buglo-coU, but hy low- 
spoken words. They were soou read/ to movo^ but woro obliged 
to wait till da/light for a guide. Four Iiours of valuable time 
wlto lost by this delay. 

The column moved aloug the road whicli runs soutli tfota 
K^iocoon Ford to Louisa Gourt-Houso, at Oroouwood. It croasod 
Mounlaiu Run »oou after daylight, roachod Die Fredericksburg 
plank-road, aud moved on the uorth fork of the North Anna. 
A small body dashed into Orange Spring early iu the morning, 
and captured a Ueutonaut of Jackson's stalT, and a wagon 
loaded with mtrenchlng tools. Squadrons wore sent out in all 
directions, — on the side-roads and by-patlis, Uirough tlio fiotdi 
aud fciest«, — telling the people ovorywhoro tliat Uookor'i 
whole army was oa the march, creating tbe impressiou among 
the people tliat Ilookor was making a swill descent upoD 
Eichmoud. The soldiem helped themselves to cliickonN, tur- 
keys, lamtw, and obtained breakfasbs in the houses of tlie 
farmers, who wore ostouiBlicd at their sudden appooronco, tuid 
their unooromonious way of sittiug down to breakfast without 
being asked. Thoy visited stabloit, seized or exchanged horses 
without paying any l>oot. Great was the excitement among the 
negroes, who poured out from the cabins with wild expros- 
lions of joy. Uundrods of tliem joined tlio column, without 
laying good by to tlieir masters. The citizens wore sullen, bm 
the women gave froo utterance to (heir feelings. 

Gregg reached Louisa Court-House, twenty miles from Roe 




x»n Ford, at two o'clock in tlio artornoon, The Virginia Cen- 
tral Railroad, fVon) Eicliiuond Eo GonJotisi'tllc, passes tlirougfa 
Uio town. A large ijuaiitity of supplies was in store there, 
guarded bj aeroral hundred Rcbol cavalry, who, wlioii they 
hoard that the "TaiikcoB" wore coaung, sent ofT what the; 
could on a train of carst and thou llod to OordoiiBTillc. Oregg 
MMit out a rogiment in pursuit, while tlio main body of lua 
ooaimand bivouacked in the field west of the Court-Houso. 
Small bodies were detailed east and west along the railroad, 
tearing up the tnick, lutniing Uio tics, and dostrojing all the 
culverts and bridges in thu vicinity. 

It was tlie first lime that the people of Louisa Oourt-fiouae 
had l>eeu visited by the Yankees. Tliey had lived in securi^, 
never entertaining the thuiight that the '* Tatikees " oould pen- 
etrate so fkr into tlio Ulterior. Thoy wanted liigh pay for all 
ihey had to noU, hut were ready to make a great discount 
>>etwoeii Confodorato currency and grcoiil)acks. Gregg w&r 
DOW oast of Gordonsrillu and Avorill nortli of it. Gregg sent 
a portion of the f^i Maine Cavalry towards the place, as if 
intending to proceed in tliat direction. Three or four miles west 
of the Cour^Houso the Maine men encountered a largo force* 
which had been sent by Fitz-Hugb Leo. Tbo officer command- 
ing the party sent word to Gregg, and fell ))ack slowly ; but the 
Rebels charged upon him, killed two, and captured twenty 
eight. Gregg formed his division for battle, and the Rebels 
retreated towards Oordonsvillo. 

At live o'clock in the afternoon, the railroad and depot build- 
mgs having been destroyed, ilio column turned southeast, crossed 
the South Anna, passing throiigli Yancyvillo, a little village on 
that stream, moved dowu the river, and reached Tbompaom'i 
Gross-Roads at eleven o'clock, 

Up to tliis time General Stouemaa had not informed his 
(Acers of hia intentions. He called tbom together at midnight 
and gave them their instructions. 

" Tou are to destroy the bridges over die Norcli Anna, and 
break up Lee's communications in Uiat direction," were hb 
Instructions to Gr<^tgg. 

*' Colonel Davis will destroy the bridges over the Soutb 
Anna, south of the Fredericksburg Railroad." 


THE BOYS oy '(Jl. 


''Colonel WyiidUain, wiili ilt'Liils ol rcfrimcnts from hif 
brigado, will reach (lie James Rivor at Colurabiu,, and destroy 
the bridge thoru and broak up the canal." 

"Colonel Kllpalrick, wiili ilic Harris Mglit Cavatry, will 
moTo to tlio Cliickaliouiiny, and ttnrn tlic bridgoe across that 

Stoiioman liimsclf, willi the main forco, was to remain lliore 
and coT&r tho movoraont. Whoii Oio ohjoct each commandei 
bad in riow was nccompHshcil, tboy wore allowed ttio widest 
latlttido for other njiorntioii!). 

At half [last two o'clock Sunday morning, May Sd, tlio various 
coliimnsaro in molioa. It is a bright moonlight night. Orogg 
moTcH northeast, Da/is cost, Kilpatrick soullioast, and Wynd- 
ham south. 

At lliia moment, t^co at Clmncollursvillo is arranging foi 
his second attiiek on Hooker; rnidj^wick preparing lo ntonn the 
heights of Fi-odorickshnrg 1 Siunewnli Jnckiiuii Ik murttkUy 
wounded, and lying in a Iiouko at Oulncn'x .Sinlion. Avorlll It 
hastening to withdraw from tho riclnity of Orange Court- 
Houi^o, when he sliould Im moring on towards Gnrddiisrillo. 
OouriorB are Dying through the country, along the mads lead- 
ing to Richmond, trith tlio astounding intolligeiioo that ** the 
Yaukoos are coming!" 

Qonera) Urogg lia» the First Malno and Tciitli New York, 
with two piuces of orLillory. Do moTc» rapidly up the Ooutral 
Railroad. Tticro aro no troops to opp060 him. Do hums the 
slatiou at Iteavor Tiam, and Andorsoii's l)ridgo across tho North 
Annu, about throo milos iiorlli of tlio station. Ho sondn out 
detachments along tho railroad, buruiiig all the bridges in the 
riclnity. AnotJicr dctachmtnit mores to Iho Soutti Anna, along 
tho Richmond and Qordonsritlo turnpike, and dostroys the 
bridge called tho Ground-Squirrel bridge, over Uiat stream. 
Uaring accomplished tho object of the expedition, without any 
loKs, Orogg returns and rejoins Stonemon at lliompson's OrosB- 
Roadii tlio 5th of May haring made a forced marcli of Eoreoty 
miloH, and doing gi-uat damago. 

Kilpatrick and Davis are near together in thoir movomeutB, 
going «ast and bouthuast. Kilpatrick makes his first halt tliir- 
IMO mile; from Richmond. There are bodies of Retiel troops 




uoiuid him, — a large force at IlanoTer JunoUon, othsr 
troops iu tUe ricinit; of ^slilaiid, uiid otliers moving out froni 
tho city to iut«rcopt him. Ois only safoty Is iu a rapid, atid»- 
dous moTomout. At daylight oii Monday morulug, May 4th, 
after a short rast for liia mou aud horses, lio is again iu motiou, 
directly towa'.'d Richiuoud. Ho strikoR tlio FrodoricicEburg 
railroad at Uoiigary Station, fivo miles from tho city, bums the 
depot, tears up tho track, pushes directly dowu Uio Brooke pike, 
till ho can see tho spires of tlio city, only two miles dtstaut. 

Tliere is great oicitomeut iu the city, — riding to and fro of 
officers and couriers, mustering of militia, turuing out of olerlu 
from the dcpartmciit«, sliouldering of muskets aud liasty buck- 
ling on of cartridgo-boxes, forming lines and hastening out to 
the intrcnclimeuts. Frightonod farmora ride in from all diroo- 
tions vith the intclligoncc tliat tho country is swarming with 
Yankees. A company of artillery and a considerable force of 
inlkotry, with cavalry pickets and scouts, which are moving out 
on the Brooke pike, are Foized with a panic and rush uac' tc 
the city. The bolts are ning. The confusion and couRtemft- 
tion incroaso. Men ludc their valuables. Women and children 
cross Uie river to Mnnchestor. Tlio Union prisoner.*!, who haTC 
beet) suffering the horrors of Libby Prison for many months, 
looking through tlicir iron^^icd windows, behold tho commo- 
tion. Tlioy can hear tho booming of Kilpatrick's guns. Tlieir 
hearts bound wiili indescribable joy. They are tlirilled wiUi 
the thought tliat deliverance is at liaud. 

Kilpatrick captures Lieutenant Brown, an aide-doKWunp of 
Geueral Winder, and an escort accompanying him, within the 
fortifications. lie paroles him, dating the parole at tho city of 

" You are a mighty daring sort of follows, but you '11 oer 
lalnly bo captured before sundown," said tlio aide. 

"That may all be, but wo intend to do a mighty deal of mi» 
chief first," rophed Kilpatrick.* 

He leaves a portion of tlio troops with hia artillery, which 
engages tho Kobcl batteries, while, guided by a negro, with 
a small detachment he moves through tiie fields to the raijt- 

• Kilpatrick ud Our Canltj, p 4a 


THE BOYS 0? '«L 


roftd, burns Moadow bridge, runuiug a. traiu ot cars into the 
vtream- WiOi one regiment of cavalrj ho rcaclicB die Rebel 
fortificatiouH, captures RelxtU iusido them, plants tiis battorioa, 
and tluxjvs shells almost uito tlio city of Richmond, in face of 
their own batteries, destroys commuuicatton with Leo, oumiug 
bridges, tearing up railroad tracks, pulling down talcgrnph 
wire, ninuuig a train of cars into the river. wiUi robol troope 
all around Mm. 

Having accomplished this he moven northoa-st, for be can see 
Rebel columns moving up the Brooico pike and Mochanicsville 
rood, to cut off his retreat. Ho dismisses all hope of returning 
to Rtonoman. It is a critical moment. Ho must move in some 
diroctton at oiico. Ho conaulLs his map. 

'* To horse, men ! Wo are all right ! We are safe yet." • 
With a faithful negro to guide him, ho movos through woods 
and 5elds, along by-paths and cross roods, going east and north- 
east, to Hanover Town, on the Pomunkey. His horses are 
jaded, hut )lo makes a hard ride, reaches the placo m safety, 
crosbcs the strenm, sots ftru to the bridge, halts his men upon 
the northern liauk. Tlie Rebels, iu hot pursuit, come down 
to the other bunk, morliHcd und chagrined and enraged at his 
escape. Tho YankeoH throw up their caps, and greet them 
with a hearty choer. Scouts come iu and report a traiu of 
thirty wagons l(wdod with corn for the Rebel army uoar by. 
Kilpatrick captures thorn, foodn his horses witli what corn he 
nooda, destrnys tho rest, moves fu'o miles up tho river, bivouocks 
for tho night, remains till ouo o'clock in tho morning of the 
5th, then moving rapidly north to Aylolt's, near Muttapony 
fUvor, surprises tluvo hundred Rebel cavalry, capturing two 
oflpujrs, thirty-Lhroe men, burning fifty-six wagons and a build 
ing containing twenty ttiousand barrels of com and wheat, 
qukuUtioB of clothing and commissary stores, safely crossing 
tlio Mattapoiiy in auodoii to escape the advance of tho Robe] 
cavklry in pursuit. Pushing on, later iu tho evening, ho do 
■troys a tliird wagon train, burns buildings containing a large 
amount of com, iiear Tapj>aliaiinock, then turnuig southeast, 
DuWuig a fbrood niaroh of twenty mitos, roaches King and 

KflMirirk and bar Cttniry, p. U 




Qncen Court-IIouBO, whoro ho finds a '>ody of cavolry drawD 
up to dis|)iiUi his passage. Ho proparoti Lu charge, hut suddoD- 
\j discolors that it is a portion of tho TwolfUi IlUuois of Colouel 
DaWs'p couimaud. Tho moetuig is a joyful one. Tho two 
coamiauds move on together, marchiug souttieast, reachiug 
Oloucoetor Potut at teu o'clock on tlio morning of tho 7th, 
Tliere thoy find rest and safety under tlio guns of tho Union 
ftirtifications, making a march of nearly two hundred milss in 
lees Ulan Ato days, with a loss of only one officer and tbirty- 
Bovcu men, having captured aud paroled upward of three buD' 
dred of Uio onymy.* 

" Who will convey news to Hooker of our sucoom ? " w»f 
the question put hy KHpatrick when at Aylett's, after routing 
the Rebels tliere. 

** I am ready to go," was Uie quick response of Lioutenaitt 
Bates of tlio First Maine, who was acting as aide to Kilpatrick. 
Tni men wore detailed to accompany him. They etnick 
M)ro«s tlio cou-itry north, and reached tlie Rappaliannock at 
TftppahauDock Oourt^House. dashing into tliat place, and 
captoring a lieutenant and filXeen men! whom thoy paroled. 
The rivor was swollcu, and thoy could not cross. The whole 
OOtintry was alRrm<:d. The mihtia were assembling. There 
ware three hundred on the north side of the river. Tho 
oflScor in command sent over a fiag of truce demanding the 
Ueutenant to surrender; but Licutoaaut Estos had no inten- 
tion of giving up just then. Finding that he could not go 
north, he turned south. In ttis flight ho came upou a Rebel 
mf^r, two captains, and three privates, who were captured and 
paroled. But the militia were close upon llie bravo Lieuten- 
ant, who found himself and party caught in a trap between the 
river and the Great Dragon Swamp. Seeing tliat Ihey could 
not oscapo on horseback, tliey abandoned their horses and took 
to tho swamp. Tho militia surrounded it>and set bloodhounds 
ou tho track of the fugitives, who were finally captured, and 
tent off towards Richmond, under a strong guard ; but before 
diey reached the Mattapony, Kilpatrick set them at liberty and 
look the Rebel guard along with him to Gloucester, acoompa- 

* Sllpatrick't R«pon 


THE BOYS or '«L 


□ted bj thousands of nogroes, on foot, io carts, wagoiu, uid old 
ramil]r carriogos, drawn hf mulos, oxuii, and somotimos hj com, 
— packed full, and loaded down on top, by the dark-liiiod but 
Ught-faearted creatures, who tiad heard of tlio proclomatiou of 
President Lincoln, and wore roiidy to accept rroudom at the 
bauds of the Yottkcos. After resting a few days, Kilpatrick 
crossed the rircr on transports, marched up tbo tongue of land 
betwoon tlio Rappahannock and Potomac, and joinod Hooker at 
Falmouth, baring made a complulo circuit of the Robol army. 

When Colonel Wyndham lofl Tliompson's Cross-Roads on 
the morauig of tlio 3d, ho moved rapidly soutli vest towards the 
Jamos, striking it at Columbia. Tbo distanoo was about twen 
tj miles. There were many small creeks to cross, but Wynd 
ham reached Columbia at eight o'clock. The people had JUFt 
ftnished breakfast when a man, riding (\iriouBly, his liair wol 
with foam, camo doKhiiig down the street, shouting " The Yan- 
kees arc coming ! tlio Yankees arc coming ! " 

The pcoplo laughod ; Bomo thought liim crazy. Tlio Yan- 
■000 coming ? Impossiblo ! But a column of men in blue, 
with gloaming sabres, dashod down tho road into the Tillage. 
Ttcro wore no RoM soldiers in tho vicinity to oppose Wynd- 
bam. Homo of tho citiEens fled in constornaUon across the 
Jamos, giving the alarm. But tho people over tho river would 
Dot belioTo their stories. 

" I *U go and see for myaolf," said an old farmer, who mount- 
ed his horse and took one of liis best servants with him. He 
went on till ho was in sight of tlie Yaukees, thou stopped and 
looked at them in amazemout. Suddenly liis servant dashod 
away straight towards tlio Yankees. 

" Stop ! como back ! " ho shouted, but tho negro galloped 
boldly into Wyndliam's Unos, bringing an oscollout liorso, wliile 
his lato master turned the otlter way, more amazed thiui ever. 

Some of tho eoldlors told tlio inhabitants that tlioy bolougod 
to Stuart's command ; and Uto word spread tliat thoy wero not 
Yankees after all. A young fellow, tlio son of a rich farmer, 
rode boldly into tlie Huob to see Htuurt's cavalry. 

** Has Lue lickod the Yankees 'i " he aoked. 

" I reckon," said a cavalryman. 

« Good ! " said the boy. 




*' See hero, my rrioud, my horse lias p'n out. I am od im- 
portaiit businoss ; I should like to oichaiige hones with you. 
Oeueral Stuart irill mako it all right vith you when he oomoa 
this way," said tho soldier, who, without funlior curomouy, pu( 
his saddlo upon tho iiohlo-bloodod animal, while tho young nuui 
IcKtkcd on in amazement. 

Many of tlio Robot cavalrymcu were drossod in blue cloth- 
ing, wbicli had been Btrippcd fVom prisonors, and tliat was the 
reason why tlio- inhabitants were at a loss to know whether 
tbey werc! Yankcus or Rebels. 

Colonel Wyndham burned the bridge across tho James, de- 
stroyed several canal-boats loaded with supplies, burned a ware- 
house nilod with curu and medical stores, d\ig sluices iu tlie 
banks of tho canal, and attempted to destroy tho locks, but did 
not succood. He remained till four o'clock in the aflenioon, 
then pushed down the river five milos, moved north, then nortli- 
vosl, and reached Stoiioman at ton o'clock in tho evening, ac 
oomponiod by hundreds of negroes. When the alarm was given 
on a plantation tlmt tho Yankees wore coming, tho farmers made 
all hB£to to secrete tiieir liorsos. 

" Here! Jim, Sam, Cuffee, take the horses into the woods. 
Quick!" Tbore was a grand commotion in all the stahlos, 
the negroes mounting the horses and riding into the tliick 
bushes ; but as soon as tliey wero out of their masters* sight, 
tliey made for the Yankees by the shorteet route ! They wore 
ready lo do auylliuig for Uieir deliverers. They kept close 
watch while the soldiers rested ; visited plantations, bringing 
in chickens, turkeys, calves, and laiubs, and cooked dolicious 
suppers for the whole command. They kept ^tonemoii in- 
formed of what was going on. Ho learned that in two hours 
after Wyndhara left Gcihmihia, a largo body of cavalry entered 
tlie place in purstiit, but Wyndbam moved so rapidly (hey could 
not overtake him. 

A portion of Buford's brigade, the First Regulars, dashed 
along tho Virginia CeiUi-al Railroad, and tore up tho track. 
A. company went to the North Anna, drove off a guard of in- 
fantry from a i)ridgc, captured live prisoners, burned tlio bridge, 
and relumed to Stunoman witlumt losing u man. 

Tlie F^nii Regulars went down the Jamss to Cartor»rille 


THE BOYS OF '<11. 


cweWfl mT1o8 below Columbia, to destroy a bridge. Tbcj met a 
portion of I<oo'6 brigade. Thoro was 8kirmiRlihig ; but wbUo 
one portion of tlie Regulars was liolding tlio Rebels in cbfick, 
anotlier party reached tho bridge, sot it on firo, and then the 
whole force returned to Stoncman. 

The Rebels all tlie while wore hovering round Stoneman on 
the Boutbwcst. but did not dare to attack lilm. They did not 
know what to make oflhu conflicting stories. "The Yankeee 
are at Frodoricksball, at Ashland, at Columbia^ at Thompocn't 
CpoBB-Roade, at Ijoiiisa, at Riclunond," were the reports. The 
country swaruiod with Yankees ; every farmor bad his story of 
woo, of stolon horses and runaway nogroo!! ; tlie farmers* wives 
and daughters mourned over lost cbickens, of meat-bouses bro^ 
ken open, Jars of jelly and prosorvoB carried away. Few of the 
7ii^nia farmers had ever seen a regiment of cavalry, oad when 
tfae lines fUed down the narrow roads, a ^tquadroii was mogni 
6ed to a regiment, and a hundred men became a thousand. 

Oa Tuesday aflemoou, all of the detocbmentB except Kilpat- 
rick's and a portion of Diiviit's having returned, Htuneman 
commenced his homeward march, aud recrossed Um Rapidan 
at Raccoon Ford, iu eafoty, tJiough he was obliged to swim bu 
horsoii tiu^ugh tho swoUcn t«trcam. Ttiere was no enemy to 
molest him, none to hang u|>oii bis roar. Ho rocrotssed the 
Rappalianiiock at Kelley's Ford, and rejoined Hooker at Fal- 
mouth, having successfully acvomplitibcd what bo hod uiider 

Tho Rebels were morUGod, chagrined, and exasperated. The 
success which tlioy had ac}iicved in compelling Hooker to re- 
tire from Gbancellors>'ille was in a measure counterbalauced 
by Stonomon's operations, especially by EUIpatrick's audacioui 

Tills ctf^alry movement was the first great raid of the war. 
it was not only a success, but it toughened tho soldiers and 
prepared thorn for the hardships and battles which followed oa 
the Upper Rappahaunock, at Aldie, Middleburg, and Getty^ 
burg. It gave oonfidonce. The men felt that they wore do 
longer the laughing-stock of llie army. They had other em- 
ployment now than guarding tcanu or keeping watch od 
the picket line. There was pleasurable excitement in rid 




lug through the enemy's country, making dashes into Tillagefl, 
obargiiig upon the enemy, ridiug Uinmgb the dense forests, and 
finding good iiriug at erery Ikrm-bouse. There were plenty of 
Totuntccrs for any enterpriBC. 

A fuv days Utor Stuart attempted a counter rud iii rear of 
the army, but wae dnvoii across tlio Rappaliauuock witli ease. 
Hum came tlto wvoro strug(;Ie at Brajidy Station. I^ee had 
started on his (rcttysburg campaign, and Stuart was kept on 
the fiank to conceal tbo movomentf but Kilpatrick and Orogg 
unmarked it. Tlion an Stuart ewiiug along tlio base of the 
Blue Hidgo, while Loo went down the Sbcuandoah witJi the 
iufkntry, the contest was renewed iu a running fighi from 
Aldie to Snicker's Gap. In all of tliefe engagements Uio su- 
periority of the Union cavalry va^ fully establishod. The 
Union soldiers had learned to ride horses; and from Stono- 
mau's raid to the capture of Jeff Davis they rode to som* 






Thr enoouulcr hotwoon tlio Morrimack and llio Monitor had 
nt ttio world agofc on tho matter of armored vossols. A fleoi 
of ironclads had boon proparcd, with tho spocia) object in vieir 
of roeapturing Fort Sumtor. It was an event lookod forward 
to with intense interest, not 011I7 in the North, but thronghout 
Uio civilized world. Having a dcsiro to witness Oiat attack, I 
procooded South, leaving New York on tho 7th of Fchruary, 
1863, on hoard tho steamer Augusta Dinsmore, I)olongiiig to 
Adams's Eiprcss. Captain Crowell, hor commander, waa a 
sbarp-ojed Connecticut Yankee, who kept Uio lead constant!/ 
going as wo ran down the const, and who was as well &ci)ualnt- 
ed with all thu soundings as tho skipjjur of Nantucket immor 
talized by Mr. Fields, who detoctod the soil of Marm Qackett's 
garden by smell and taste, altliough Nantucket had sunk. 

Tho harbor of Port Royal was crowded with shipping. Oeo- 
eral Foster's force from North Carolina had just arrived, to 
participate in a land movoment. General Hunter was in com- 
mand of tho departmont, and there arose at once a question 
of jurisdiction, wliich paralyzed the operations of tho army. 
Tlie oflicers atid soldiers at Port Royal, weary with doing noth- 
ing, had fitted up a theatre. The building was used For church 
lervicoa on Sunday. Attending die morning service tho day 
after our arrival, I found an audience of about one hundred 
persons, among them (Icncral Hunter and sUitr. The ctergy- 
mait, an Episcopalian, in a rusty block gowu, stood upon the 
itago. A soldier played a melodeon arul conducted the Kin^ 
iiig. In tlio afternoon llicre was a basino.ia meeting in the 
African Baptist church, which I also attended. Rev. Abraliam 
Murchison, a toll coppcr-hued negro, was fiastor, and pmsi-itd 
over tho delilierations. Ho had boon a slave in Savannah, but 
made liU way tt* "ur Hno6. was a etorekecper or huckster 00 




veek-dafB, and preached ou Sunday. The church was a plain 
wooden building, erected hy order of General HitchoU for an 
African church. Tlioro wore two rows of benches, a pkin pine 
pulpit, a Toutilatod coiling, from which three or four glass lampi 
were Kuspondod, — all Iwing very much like tlio rude ohurchnii 
to be found in the thiutj-fiottlcd prairies of llliuoie. The coo- 
grcgatioD wore singing when wo ontorod, — 

■* Sweet 6cl<la beyond the avellicig fiood 
Sund dr«M«d in Uring gr«CD, 
80 to the Jem fair Cannon abxtdf 
WhiJ* JortUn rolleil Iwlween," 

Tlie leader was a round-headed, compact, energetic negro, 
tweut7-6ve years of ago, whoso zeal was bounded only by the 
oapaoit; of his lungs. It was tlio woU-knowu tuno "Jordan," 
rang by millions in times past and present. Tlie women oo- 
cupied ono eido of tho house, tho mcu sitting opposito. It 
was a dusky view, looking down tho aisle from my seat at the 
right of tho pulpit. Thoy wore countenances not types of 
beauty, not attractive intoUoctually. But thoro was perfect 
decorum and solemnity. All bonds wore bowod when tlie 
preacher addrossod tho Throne of Oraoo. It was a prayer 
ftill of supplications and thanksgiTing, expressed in fitting 

Tho church had a case of discipline. Their sexton had 
bccu romiss in lighting tho lamps, and was arraigned for trial. 
llio pastor called the sexton to tlio front, and thus indicted 
him : — 

*' John, my son, you are arraigned for not doing as you haTe 
agreed, and covenautod to do. We pay you one hundred and 
twenty dollars a yoar fur ligtiting tliese yore beautiful lamps 
which the church have so genorously provided, aiid, sir, yuu 
have been remiss in your duty. On Thursday night, when we 
were assembled for holy prayor, wo woro in darknoss. Ton did 
wrong. Ton broke your obligations. You must be punished. 
What say you ? Bretlircn, wo will hear what ho luis to say." 

" I lighted the lamps, sah, but thoy went out ; do oil was 
bad, 1 reckon," said tho sexton. 

The pastor called upon one of the deacons to lake ihe chair. 
He was of middle age, black as anthracite cool, bald-headed, 




lUiJ was drosscd iu pants oiid coat made of old sail-cloth. Bj 
his fiido sal Inn coltouguc, wearing a United Slates soldicra' 
blue ovurcoai. Thti preacher, lakiug his Ktaud iu tlie uisle, 
laid a^iidu his clerical autliurity, and liccainu ono of the brctli- 
reu. " Brotlier cticormaii, our brotltor am proKiim[>rujr. Uo 
BAjr ho light do lamps ajid doj go out. How dix's lio knoT doj 
go out? Ho ought to stay atkd see doj don't go out. lie am 
presumptus and should bn punLthcd. I move, sir, dat oar 
brotlmr be sot aside from commiu lo do Lord's tabk till bo make 

A brotlior sccondod the motion, and tho question was put \>j 
the deacon. Two or throo votod affirmatively, but noarlj oil 
nogatiTolj. Tlic question was not ujidorstood. Tlie prcaclior 
explained : *' You is discomposed iu your miuds. You do not 
ondorstond do question. Cou any of you toll mc hov you 
rotcd ? " 

The question was put a second time, oud Uio offendiug mem- 
ber was unanimously debarred the privileges of the church. 

AAor tlto disdpline a candidate for admission was presented, 
a itout young man, uomud Jouos. 

*• WiUl, my son, wbero are you ftom ? " said tJie pastor. 

"From Cliarlestou, sir." 

" Was you a member of the church there, my sou ? '* 

" Yes, sir, I waa a meml>or of the churcli." 

" Does any one bore know anytliing about Jonaa ? " 

A half-dozou responded " Yes," all agreeing that hu deport' 
mcut was corroct. 

" Did you bring your 'stificatc with you ? " 

** No, sir; I came away in a hurry, aud liad n't any timo to 
get oue." 

" Yes, my son ; wo undorstaud that you were obliged lo 
leare in a hurry or not at all. But what made you become » 
ChrUtlan ? " 

** Because I felt I was a sinner." 

" Did you pray, my son ''. " 

" Yoi, sir ; and I feel that through ilie mercy of Jesus Chrsl 
my itins arc jtardoned." 

It wo-i a simple narrative, aud expressed with evident oou- 
•eiousnees of the solemnity of the declaration. It was {dalo 




thttt u spiritual thiogs those people were fiirtlier adranced 
than iu buBiiicss mattere. The endoDC« was eatiti factory, and 
Che nember roooived hy an extension of ri^lit liund of fel- 
luTAliip on the iiart of the pastor. In the evenhig Bev. Ux. 
Murchisou preached from tlio text, " And they shall call upon 
the rocks and mountains to fall upon thorn," Ao. 

It vos a crude, disjointed discourse, having very little lugic^ 
& great many large word.s. Esomo of Uinm ludicrously misap- 
plied, yet contained striking thoughts, and appropriate sixoiloti. 
Tliii) was a congregation standing on the lowobt step of civiU* 
zation. Miuifiter aiid people were but a twolromonth out of 
boudage. All bohiud thooi was barbarism. Before thorn was 
a future, uuroTealed. but iuhnicoly better than what thoir past 
had boon. Their meetlug waa orderly, and I have seen grave 
legislative bodies in quite bs much of a muddle orer a simple 
question as that congregation of black men emerging from 
thoir long nigbt of darkuefis. 

On the following Sunday I was present at a serrice on Ladies' 
Island, llie owner of the plantation where (be meeting wu 
held erected his house in full view of Beaufort, and near the 
bank of the stream where the tide ebbs and flows upon the 
sandy beach. It was a mean mausiou. standing ou posts, bo 
give free circulation to tlie air uudorueath. In hot summer 
days the shade beneath the bouse was the resort of all the 
poultry of the pramiscB. Thousands of hard-working Now 
Knglaod mechanics Utc in better houses, yot from Beaufort the 
l^oc made an imposing show, surrounded by orange and mag^ 
nolia trees. The sandy acres of the plautatiou stretched to- 
wards St. Helena. A sliort distance from the planter's house 
were the weatlier-beaten cabins of the negroes, mere horels, 
without window-panes, witli mud cliimneya. — the homos of 
generations who had goue from the darkness and hopeleas- 
nets of a wearying life to the rest and quiet of the grare. 

On that morning when Admiral Dupout slieUed the BebeJs 
out of the forts at Hilton Head and Bay Point, Uie owner of 
these acres made a hasty exit from his house. He sent his 
overseer to the cabins to hurry up the uegroee, but to his sur 
prise not a nef|;n> was to be found. Tho colored peof^e had 
heard tbe thundering down the bay. They knew its moauinji 


THE B0T8 or '«!. 


It wit their hearts hoating as the; novor had throhhed boforo. 
It was tho Hwooteet music thojr crcr had heaid. A horeenuo 
oamo riding furiously up to the houso, with terror iu his ooon 
teuaucu. Tlie master hasloued out to know how tho battle 
wan going. 

" The Yankees have lakou Uie forts 1 " said Uie meeeeuger. 
Hit master Itocauio paJe. 

" You had hotter ^t your nogrooa togotlier, uid be read; 
for a inoTo," said tlio mossoiigor. 

Sharp COTS had hoard all this, — tho oars of Sam, a colored 
maa, who, sooiug the herald arrive in hot haste, had tho curi 
oaitj to hear what ho had to sajr, theu bouudod like a deer 
to tho cabiuB, ruuiiing from door tu door, wbisporiug to the 
inmates, " To the wood* ! to Iho woods ! l>o Yaukoes hab 
tftkoo de forts, — massa ia going to do maiulaud, aud is going 
to tako us wid him." 

Tlie cabins were deserted in an iuestoiit; and Gto minutet 
Utor, when tlio oTemoor came round to gather his drove of 
human cattle, ho found empty hovoU. The planter and hu 
QTorseer wore obliged to do their own liotfty packing up. 

Tho plantation was in tlio hands of a worm-lieartod Chriatian 
gmtloman from MassachuHOtts, Mr. Norton. Tho [wople of 
Die estate gatborod for worship in tlie large parlor of the 


Tho room was eighteen or twenty foot square, oud had s 
wido-mouthod fireplace, in which a choorful (ire of pitch knoti 
was blazing. There was a sottee, a mahogany ndcboard, where 
the former owiior was accustomed to qualT liis wines and liq- 
uoni. Boats and chairs were brought in. The big diiiuer-beU 
was rung, aud the people, tliirty or forty in uiuuber, came 
in, men, women, and childron. Some of tho women brought 
tboir infants. Uncle Jim, the patiiarch of tho plantation, wa» 
too feeble (o attend. Tlio superintendent, Mr. Norton, com* 
fnrted his heart by reading to him a chapter in tlio Bil>lo and 
oObring prayers in tlie misemble cabin, where tho old man was 
lying on a pile of rags. Uncle Jim was a sincere Chnstiftu 
The word of God was sweet to him. Ilis heart overflowed 
with thanks and praise, for tlio display of Ood*s great goodnew 
to him and his people. 



A hynui waa linod off" by Mr. Norton, after the fashion of 
our fatliers. William, a 8t*>ul, middle-agod man, strnck into 
St. Martiu'e, aiid tLe cougregatioa joined, not rwadiug the 
musio exacUj as good old Tausur oomposod it, for there were 
crocks, tunifi, slurs, and appoggiattiras, not to be found in 
any priutod copy. It was E\iug barslUy, nasally, and dragged 
out iu long, Blow uotos. 

A puro-bloodod negro. Sanulio, offered prayer. Ue had seen 
great banlBliip in lifo aud had sulTerod more than his uame- 
aake, the squire, who watt once unceremouioualy tossed in 
a blanket. His prayer was the free uttoraiic« of a warm 
heart. It was a familiar talk with Jems, his best friend. 
Ho improved the opportunity to mingle an exhortation with 
his supplication. Ho thus addressed tlio uncouTorted : — 

" 0, my poor, impeuit^ut fellow-siuuor, wliat you Uuuk you 
■re doing? Whore you think you are going? Death will rid« 
up HMMi in a big black carriage and take you wid him down to 
de rogions of deep darktiecss. Why don't you repent now, and 
den he will carry you up into do light of paradise ! " 

[jouklng forward to the hour of the Christiaii's release ttvm 
tbe bondage of this lifo, he said, in conclusion, " And now, 
good Lord, whou wo have done chaw ail de hard bones and 
swallowed all do bilter pills, we trust de good Lord will take 
ufi to himself." 

After an address from tho suporui tendon t, Saiicho rose. 

*' Hy bolobcd friends," said ho, " 1 nobor 'spoctod to see such 
a day as dis yoro. For twenty years, I liirod my time of old 
massa, I was 'bleogcd to pay him twelve dollars a month iu ad- 
vauco, and if I did n't hab de money ready, he wolloppod me. 
But I 's a free man now. De good Lord hab done it all. I can't 
road. It is de great desire ob my heart to learn to read, so dat 
1 can read de Bible all my own self; but I 's too old to learn. 
But 1 r^oice dat my ctiilton can hab de opportmiity to study de 
precious word. De Lord is doin great tings for us iu dese yere 
days. Ole massa, was a purty good massa, aud I prays de Lord 
to make him lay down lus weapons ob rebellion and become a 
good Union man and a disciple ob de Lord Jesus, for Jesus lella 
UB dat we must lub our enemies." 

After tbe exercises of the religious meeting were concluded. 



Um chain veie mi aside, and tlioy b«gau a ** pnuM m«eUug," 
or liugiug meeting. Most of tbeir music is plaiiitiTe. Tba 
piece frequontlj' commeuces with a recitative b/ one voice, and 
at the end of tlie first Uue the chorus joins. The words nn 
odeu improvised to auit the occasion. 

A favorite song is " Roll. Jordan, roll," in which the pro> 
gression of the melody is very descriptive of the rolling of 
waves upon the beach. Tliere arc many variations of the mel- 
ody, but that liere given is as 1 heard it sung by the aognou of 





UUM (AlMna «llnc W a»l 



feT)MfW ^r f^ 'i=# ^^ 


T — r 


^ . ^ ■ ^ r r f T r*- 



g r • f 

Hie verees vary only in recitation. If Hr. Jooes ii [>ra» 
ent be wilt bear, " Ur. Jouee is sitting on the treo oT life.^ 
Thero is no pause, and before the last roll is euded the ooe 
giving ttto recitative places another personage cm the tree, and 
dius Jordan rolls along. 

As tbe toof^ goes on the enthusiasm rises. They sing load^ 




ud etrouger. The recitativo is given with iitcrecsed vigor, 

tnd the chorus swells with increasing voliuno. Tlioy beat 

time, at first, with tlioir hands, then tlieir foot. Thoy rise 

from thoir soata. William begins to sliufflo his foot. Anna, a 

short, thick-set woman, woaring a checkered dress, and an apron, 

whicli ouce was a window-curtain, claps her hands, makes a 

ihort, quick jerk of her body, stamps her feet on the uuao- 

oeat«d part of the mea»uro, keeping exact syncopaticu. Calh- 

eriue and i^ancho catch the inspiration. Thoy go round iu 4 

circle, shuffling, jerking, shouting louder and louder, while 

those outside of the circle respond with increasing vigor, aU 

stamping, clapping thoir hands, and rolling out tho chonu. 

William scorns to bo in a trance, his eyes are fUod, yet he 

goes on with a doublo-flhufflo, till tho perspiration stands in 

bnads upoii hia faco. Every joint scorns hung on wiroi. 

Feet, logs, arms, head, body, and hands swing and jump Like 

a child's dancing Dandy Jim. Sancho enters into it witli all 

his heart, soul, mind, and might, clapping his liauds, rolling 

his eyes, looking upward in ocBlasy and outward upon the 

crowd, as if he were their spiritual father and guardian. 

Thus it went on Ull nature was oxhaustod. Wlion tho meet 

ing broke up, thoy all came round in procession, shaking hmidi 

vitli tho superintondont and the Btrongers prasont, and suiging 

ft parting song, 

" Tlflre *■ a meeting hen to-night I ' 

The superintondont informed me that tho children who at- 
tended school could not bo coaxed to tako part in those prain 
meetingB. They had learned tc sing Sunday-school sougs, and 
evidently looked upon tlio plantation songs of their fatlicrs and 
mothers aa belonging to thoir bondage and not wortliy to bo 
tiing now that they were tree. 

A. short distance IVom Hilton Head is tho town of Jlitchel- 
nlle, laid out by tho lamented astronomer, Qoncral UitcheU, 
who fell a victim to the yellow-fever in tlio summer of 1802. 
Tlie town is on a broad sandy plain, bordered by grovee and 
tUokets of live-oak, palmetto, and llio coast pine. 

At that time there were about seventy houses, — or oabina 
mther, — of the rudest description, built of logs, chinked with 
day brought up from tho b«*<««h, rools of long split sbin;' es, 


THE BOTS 07 *«1. 


board floon, vtndovs with shnUen, — pltin board bUndi, 
without suli or glue. Bach Houso had a quarter of an acre 
of land attached. There was no paint or lUno, not oren 
whitewonh, a)>out llicm. It was just such a place as might be 
eipoctcd in a now countrjr, whore thcro woro uo saw-milla or 
bricV'kUns, — a step in odranoo of a lioto in tbo ground or a 
Lark wigwam. It waa the bcgiimlng of tbo cx|iorimcnt of 
civilization on tho jjurt of a Bumt-barfaarous pcoplojustrolcoBed 
fh>m nlijcct bondage, and far from Ining JVoo mon. 

I luiikv-'l Into tliu fimt caiiin, and seoiiig an old man sitting 
before tlio firo, grouted him witlt " How do you do« Vacle t " 
the eobriquot of all middlo-agod nogro men. 

"'Pean how 1 'm rather jworly, — I *8 got de chills, boei." 

Ha WW a bUitc in Florida, made his escape from his inaster's 
plantation ddy miles inland, reached Femandina, and entored 
tho lineB of Uio Union army. Uo was dressed In pants miide 
of old sailcloth, and the tattered ca»t-ofr blouse of a Union 
soldier. The room was twoWo feet squoro, I could see 
thnragh the chinking ill a hundred places. At tho coping of 
the roof, whore it should bare joiuud the wall, thuro was a wide 
opening all around, which allowed oU the warmth to escape. 
Tlio (Uruiturfl consisted of three tabloe, four chairs, a mahog- 
any wasb-atand, all of which once stood in tho manBion of some 
island planter. There was a Dutch-oreu on the liearth, the 
light of wbicb made tay mouth water fbr tho delicious tea- 
cakes of cltildhocjd. There wore pots, kettles, baskota, and Ijags, 
and a pil? of rags, old blankets which tho soldiers had thrown 
aside. It roquirod but a few words to Uiaw out Uuclo Jacob, 
who at onoe oommouced fumbling in bis pockets, producing, 
after a studious search, a brown paper, carefully folded, en- 
elonog the name of a gentleman in New York who bad taken 
hODA Dncle Jacob's nepbow. He wanted me to read it to 
him, — tlio name, tho street, the number, — that he might 
loam it bjr hoart. 

" He Is learning to write, boss, and I shall have a letter trom 
him b; and bj," said the old man, in glee. He handed me 
three letters, all from roon who onco wore staree, not written 
by them individually, but by amanuonsos. One was a sailor 
oo tho gunboat Ottawa, off Otiarleston ; one was in New York 
oity, and the third in Ohio. 


Tus ATuunr:! ooaxt. 

** Please, boae, I should like to hab you read 'em," he 

It was a pleasure to gratify the kjnd-hearted man, vho Ua- 
leaed with eadsfactioii beaming from every line of hu oount»- 

fjucle Jaoob bad been fire months io the employ <^ the 
United States, tuiloading rossok at Hilton Head, and had ro- 
ceived only his rations and a little clothiug. 

'* Well, Uncle Jacob, which would you rather be, a fhseman 
or a slave ? " I asked. 

" 0, Lor' blees you, boss, I would n't like to be a alaTe 


*' Do you think you can take care of yourself 7 " 

** Jos lot gubb«rmeiit pay me, hoes, and see if 1 oao'i.*' 

It was spoken with great earnestness. 

In the next cabin I found Peter, who had taken the tiame of 
Brown, that of his former master. Slavery gave its victims but 
one name. General Mitchell said Uiat they were entitled to 
another name, and he ordered that they should take that 
of their former masters ; hence there are Peter BeaurogardB, 
fames Trenholms, Susan Rhetts, Julia Baniwells, on the plan- 
tations of tho Sea Islands. 

" Mr. Brown, did you ever hear about the A.bolitioiuali T ** I 

** Yes, sir, tank you, I *8 he'd of 'em ' 

- What did you hear about them ? ' 

^* O, dey is a werry bad sort of people, sir. Old maasa said 
iBl if dey could get a chance dey would take all our picka- 
atnuiee and smash der brains out agin de trees ! " 

** Did you ever see au Abolitionist ? " 

^ No, sir, tank you, nebber saw one." 

" Well, Mr. Brown, I am one." 

Mr. Brown started iuv<Juutarily. He looked me all over from 
Dead to feet, giving a keen search. ^ 'Pears how I should n'l 
tink yon oould hab de heart to do it, sir." 

" Do I look as though I should like to kill joar Uttla 

** Ho, sir, I don't tink you would." 

I told him who the Abolitionists were, and what they wished 




dignitj than Sojonm«r her aodienoe. Slie 'itoorl among them ealm and 
erevt as one of ber own oative palm-trees wBvmg alone io tbe doHit 
I prMftDied one after another to her, and at l«t tmd, — 
" Sojourner, ihiH U Dr. Beecfaer. He 1^ a Tor; eelobratod praadier." 
" Is he?" Hhe 8aid, ofTeriiig lier hand in a coiLd««c«nilinK inanu«r, and 
ooiinji down on his white iieiul. " Ye dear lamti, I 'm glad to nee j« ! 
I>e I<ord bleaa ye 1 1 lovea preacbers. I 'm a kind o' preacher my- 


" Tou are F " satd Dr. Beecber. ** Do jou preach from the Bibl« ? " 
** No, honey, cau't preach from do Bible. — cam't read a letter. ■* 
" Wliy, Sojourner, what do you preach Trom, then ? " 
Her answer wan given with a mlemn power of voice, peculiar to hta^ 

WtSSt that hushed every one in tbe room. 

** When I preacher I had je«t one trxt to preach from, an' I alw»yi 

pnMhea from this one. My text ia, ' Wdbn I rocmf Jkbck.' " 

* Well, you oould n't have a better one," taid ooe of the miniBtan. 
She paid no attention to him, but fttoo<1 and A«i!mod swelling w^th hei 

own thuughtm and then bo^aii tbb oarmtion : — 

" Well, now, I 'U Ji-kt have to go back, an' tell ye all about it. Te 
tea, we waa all brought over from AfVica, father an' moCber an' 1, an' a 
lot more of ua ; an' we was sold up an' down, an' hither an' yon , an' I 
can 'member, when I wa.-t a little thinf;, nnt bigger than ibia 'ere," point* 
iog to bt-r grandiion, " bow my ole mammy would ait out o' doon in the 
eveoin', an' look up at tbe itara an' groan. She 'd groan an' groan, as' 
■aya I to her, — 

" ' blammy, what makes you groan ao ? ' 

- An' ihft 'd wir, — 

** < Matter enoogh^ chile 1 I 'ni groantn' to think o' my poor cbOdron : 
tb«y don't know where I be, an' I don't know where tb«y be : tbaj 
lookii op at the sUub, an' I lookii up at the iitara. bnt T can't tat] wber* 
they ba 

*" Now,' nbe said, 'chile, when you 're fijown up, you may be «old 
•my from yoor mother nn' all your ole TriendA, an' have great tnoblea 
eome on ye ; an' when yoo baa tbeae trooblea oome oo ye, y« }m' go to 
Ood, an' He 'U help ye.' 

* All' aaya I W her, — 

' ' Who ia God, anyhow, mammy ? * 
" An* aayo abe, — 

* * Why, chile, you jea' look op dor / It '■ Him that made all 

** Well, I did n't miivd much "boot Ood in them daya. I grew op 
pretty Urely an' strong, an* could row a boat, or ride a bone, or wort 
leond, an' do 'moat anything. 




* At iMt I got sold Rtvay to H Tvui bard nuusa an' miMift. Oh, t t«ll 
JOD, they vof hard I 'Peared like I oonid n't pIooM Vm nofaow. Aj^ 
then I tboughl o* what my old mamni^ totd me about God ; an' I thought 
I *d got into irouble, aqm ooough, an' I wanted to And God, on' T hierd 
aotoa one tell a Ktory alxmt a man that met God on a thrsnhio'-floor, 
an' I tbougbl, • Well un' good, I 'II hare a tlireshinMloor. toa' So I 
went down in tb« lot, an' [ threahrd down a placr? real hnrd, ao' I umJ 
to go down thtre cvtry day, an' pmjr an' cry with all m; mighty a-prsjr- 
tn* tA tlM Lord to make m; ma«» nu* mitm* better, but it did o't seen 
to do DO good ; an' M Mlj* I, 0116 liaj, — 

" ' O God, I been a-anliin' ;c, an' aKkin' ye, an attkin' ye. for all tbii 
long time, to make my mai>Ba an' missia better, an' you don't do it, ao* 
what can \m the reason ? Why, mnyhe you can't Well, I ahould n'l 
wonder of you could o't. Well, now. I tell you, 1 11 make ■ bargain 
with you. Ef you '11 help mo ^l away fVom my masea an* mis^b. I U 
•gr«e to be good ; but ef you don't help me, 1 really dou't think I can 
be. Now,' lays I, ■ I want to git away ; but tlie trouble 'a jeat ber« : 
ef I try to git away id the night, I can't see ; an' ef I u-y to git away 
in the daytime, they 11 see me, an' be after rae.' 

■* Then the I.ord Mud to me, ' Get op two or three honra afbre diqr- 
light, an' Btart off.' 

<■ An' aaya I, ' Thank 'm. Lord t that '■ a good thonght.' 

** Ro op I got, about three o'clodk in the momtn*, an' I atjirtad an' trav- 
elled pretty fsal, till, when the fion rose, I was crlear away from oar 
place an' oor folks, an' oat o* aight. An' then I begun to think I did 
a't koow nothin' whore to ga So I kneeled down, an' eaya I, — 

** * Well, Lord, yoa 're startwl mo out, an' now pleaae to show ma 
where to ga' 

■* Then the Lord made a houie appear to me. ao' He Mid to me thai 
[ waa to walk on till 1 ?nw that bou»e. an' then go in an' aak the people 
to take me. An' I travelled all day. an' did n't pome to the bouxe till 
late at nigfat i but when I saw it, aare enough, I went in, as' I told the 
folha the Lord aeot me an' they wax Quakers, an' real kind tbey wai 
to me. They jeit' took mo in, en' did for me as klod aa ef I 'd been 
one of 'em ; an' aAer they 'd gir me eupper, they took me into a room 
where ihere was a great, tall, white bed ; an' th4-y told me to sleep 
lliere. Well. Iioney, I was kind 0^ skeered when they left dm alone 
with that great white bed 1 'caoBC I never had been in a bed in my 
life. It never t^ame into my cnind ihey could mean me to nleep in it 
An' to X jes' <wnped down under it, on the floor, an' then I slep' pretty 
well In the moruio', when they came in, they asked me ef I had o'l 
b«eo asleep; an' I aaid, ' Te« I never slep' better.' An' tbey aaiiL 




Why, fOD luTo B*t been In tbe bed I' An* mj» I, ' Lawn, you did n'l 
think o' Mcfi a thing m my ileepin' b d«t 'ar* 6m/, did ^dd ? I oerar 
b««rd o* Mch a thing in my life.' 

" Well, JO BM, honey, I itayed an' lived with 'em. An' now jw' 
look here : inataad o' k«epiu' my promite an' betn* good, u I told tbe 
Lord I woold, j«8t a* iooD m vretything got a-goin' eaiy, I forgcl aU 
abovt God. 

" Pretty wall don't need do belpt an' I gtu' up prayin*. I livad 
there two or three yean, an' then tlie slare* in New York were all »el 
tnb, an* ote mnwi came to our hotiM to make a ri^t, an' be asked me 
ef I did n't want to go bock an' toe tbe foUu on the ole place. An' I 
told him ] did. So be wd, ef I 'd jf»' git into the wagon with him, 
be 'd carry me orer. Well, jeat M I wae goin' out to git into the wagon, 
Imtl God/ an' saye I, ' O Ood, I did n't know at yon wu eo great t* 
An' 1 turned rigbt roond an' como into the honw, an' set down in my 
room 1 fbr 't was God all aronnd mo. I coald feel it bnmin*, bomia', 
bamin' all aronnd mo, ma' goW through me ; au' 1 saw I was »o wicked. 
It eeemed as ef it wonld burn me np. An' I said, ' O aoin«body, tome- 
body, atond between God an' mel for it hums met' Tlien, honey, when 
1 nld 10, I fbit aa it were eometliin* like an amfmriU [umbrella] that 
oiae between me an' tbe light, an' I felt it waA tomehody, — somebody 
that stood between mo an' God ; iin' it felt ooot like a itbade ; au' aaya 
I,* Who 't thit that stand* betv><ii me an' God? Is it old Oato?' 
Ua wat a pious old preacher ; but then I teemed to see Calo in tbe 
light, an' he wia all polluted an* vile, like me : an' I said, ' Is li old 
Sally r ' an' then 1 taw her, au' sbe seemed je«' mx An' tben says I, 
' Who it tint ? ' An' then, hooey, for a while it was like tlte nan thinin* 
IB a pail o' water, when it morea up an' dowu ; for I begun to fee) 
\ WW MBMbody that loved me i an' I tried to know bim. An' I said, 
' I know you 1 I know yon ! I know yon 1 ' — an' then I taid, * I don't 
know you I I don't know you ! I don't know you I ' An* when 1 aaid, 
' I know yoo, I know you,' the light came ; an' when I taid, ' I dont 
know yoii, I dem't know yon,' it went, jea' likr tho sun in a pal) o' water. 
An' finally tomethin' npoke out in me an* said. *Thit is Jetuaf An' ] 
«poke out with all my might, an' tays I, '7'Am i$ Jttm! Olory be to 
Godl' An' then the -whole world grew bri;;bt. an' the treee they 
waved an' waved in glory, an' every tittle hii o' stone on the ground 
abone like glass ; an' I shouted an' said, ' Prat«e, prnise. pnii»e to the 
Lord \ ' An' I began to feel s^.-cb a love in my soul a» I never felt bo- 
fora, — kve to all oreaturea. An' then, alt of a (iudden, it atopped, an 
I taid, * Dar '* de white folks, that have aba»ed yon an' beat you an' 
abated yoar people, — think o' them \ ' But then there cuoe aootbat 


rsx Aiuumc ouabt. 


mt of luve tbroagh tny ftuiil, an' I cried oat loud, — * Lord, Lord) I 
BBD love 9V9m dt vkite Jolkt ! ' 

** Honoy, I jes' walked round an' round in a dream. Jeani lored am) 
I kDowe<l it, — I felt it. .Iuau« wa.« my Jeaun. Josus would Iutu mo 
■hrajB. I did n't dan tall nobody \ 't was a grsat Muret. Evarythiug 
hid boen got away from in« thai I erer bad ; an' I thought that ef I 
let white fttlka know abont thia, majbo ibey 'd gel ^m avay, — to I 
■aid, ' I '11 koep tbia close. I won't lei any one know.' " 

" But, Scjcwnier, bad you uover been told about Jesus ChiMt?* 
** No, booey. I bad n't beerd no preacbtn', — been to no meetts 
Nobody had u't told me. I 'd kind o' heerd of Jesut, bat thoagbt be 
WM like Giubral Lafajr^tte, or iomo o* tbem. But one night there was 
a Metbodial meotiu' sutoewb«rg in our parta, an' I went; an' they got 
up an' b«gun for to tell der 'xpcrietiCM ; an' de fuKt oue begun to apeak. 
I started, 'cause he told about Jeau.-ii. * Wliy,' 8aj« I to mTSol^ ' dat 
man's foond him tool' Aa' naoth'er got up an' apoke, au' I eud. 
He 'a found htm, too I ' An' Snallj I luud, ' Why, they all know hiiu 1 ' 
I ms so happy 1 An' then tlmy nung this hymn " : (Here Sojourner 
•ang, in a strange, cracked voice, bat evideotly with all bar soal and 
migbt, miaprODouncLng ihiD English, but seeming to derive aa much el» 
vatioo and comfort from bad Kngiisb oa from good) : — 

*' ''RiKt^ is a holy city. 

A world of light above, 
Above tb« itoin and r^ona,* 
Built by tif! God of Iotb." 

** Wellf dan ye see, afler a while 1 thought I 'd go back an* tee da 
folks on de ole place. Well, you. know, de law had passed ilat de culled 
folkii was all free ; an' my old missis, ahe hftd a daughter married about 
i&A lime who went to live iu Alabama, — an' what did she do but give 
ber my son, a boy about de age of dis yer, for ber to take down to 
Alabama \ Wliou I got back to de olo place, they told me about It, 
«n' I went ngbt up to see ote miaaia, au' aaya I, — 

** ' BlJMts, have yon been an' aent my aon away down to Al*>i*t»i^ ? ' 

" ' Tea, I have,' aays she ; ' he 's gone to live with your yooof 

" ' O ItfisaLi,' says I, ' how could yoii do it ? ' 

" * Poll \ ' eayn she, ' what a fnaa you make about a little nig^ 
dot more of 'em now than you know what to do with.' 

•* 1 tall you, I siretcbdd up. I felt as tall as the world I 

* Starry rvfions. 




- ' row wiD, JOB nigger ? How yoa gain' to do Et ? Toa hs^t gM 

•0 maucj.' 

••*No.MiKk, — bat Am/ hM. — u^oall mm He 11 help Ml' — 
■n' I tnmed roaod an' went oat. 

** O, Lnt I mu •ngry to hare bsr %yeak to me m hw^btj «b ta 
«jon>rul, w ef EDj cliil* wm n'l worth aajifaing. I Mid to Qod, ' O 
Lord, rvnder aato her doable I It wu • dreadful pr^ner, hi' I did n't 
know bow true it would o(xii«. 

** W«I1, I did n't rightlj know whJch war to hud ; bat I weot U> the 
LcH^ an' 1 aeid to Him, * O Lord, of I was as rich ai job be, ao' jtm 
ml M poor «• I be, I 'd belp joa, — jou Iimw I woaU ; aad, ob, do 
help ma I* An' I felt mm then that He would. 

" Well. I talked with people, ao' tbej ^aid 1 taukt git tbe caie before 
a grand jury- So T went into tbe town when they was holdio' a eoart. 
to aee ef I nmld find anj grand jarj. An' I rtood round the ooan- 
boQW, an' when tbey waa a-comin' out, I walked right ap to tbe pwirf- 
Btt-lookin* one T n>nlH see. an' laji I to him, -^ 

'^ ' Sir, be JOU a ^mnd jurj 7' 

" An' then b« wanted to know wbj I aiked, an' I fold htm all about 
bt ao' he aaked toe all aorbi of queAtiona. an' flnallj he mji to 

" * I think, of you pay me ten doUam, that 1 'd agree to roI y«"r ■"* 
for you.' An' iiaya he, poiniin' lo a hou.*© orer the way, ' Vou go Toor 
BO* t«ll your Btory to the folks in that house, an' I gueaa ibey 11 gire you 
tbe money.' 

" W(!ll, I wont, an' I told them, an' they gave ttw twenty dollars; aa* 
thou I liioughl lo myself, > Ef ten doIlHra will gil him, twenty dolian 
will gil him forfiit.' So I mrriM it to tlm mnn all out, an' said, ^ 

" * Take it all. — only hv. sura an' git liim.' 

" Well, flDttUy ih*y ^<m the boy hmaght back; an' then ihey tried lo 
fVighien him. an' to make him may that I wu n'l his mammy, an' thai 
he dill u't know me ; but they could n'l make it out. llicy ^ve him 
lo me, an' I look him an' carrieil liim hom<> ; un' wbon I cnme to take 
off his clothcfi, there was lii.^ [nnr little Ijack all oovRred with flcara an' 
bard lumps, where they tlogewl him. 

" Well, you i*ec, honey, 1 told you how 1 prayed tlie Lord lo render 
UBto her doulilu. Well, it came true : for I was up at oIq miui-i' hooae 
Dot knig aAer an' I heerd Vm readin' a lellvr to hor how her daughter's 
Imibaad bad murdered hor, — how he 'd thrown her down ao' stamped 
iho UAi out of her, when he wai in liquor i an' my olu miaais, sbo glv a 




•creecb, u* fell flat od tbe floor. Thea uj-s I, *0 Lord, I did n't mean 
•U that I You took me up too quick.' 

** WoU* I want m an' tended that poor mtter all Digbt She wh 
oot of her mind, — it-ci7ui*, an' callin' for hor daughter : an' I held ber 
poor ol« h«*d on my um, bo' watched for her a* of ah« 'd bttan mj 
htUbj. An' I waichod b; hor, an' took care on her all throngb ber Ark- 
BOH tfter that, aa' the died in my arma, poor thing 1 " 

In the spring of 1851, a Woman's Rights Conrcuition wu 
beld in Akron, Ohio. The uowB|>apora Imd ridiculod suob 
oouveutioiis, and the; woro looked upon as legitimato Bubjeoti 
for ridicule. Tliey had l>eea vilifiod and caricatured, but there 
WW a desire through that sectiou uf tho couutr; to liear what 
tbe women would haro to Ba; for themselves, and the chtirofa 
In which the meeting was held was cousequotitly crowded. 
Sojoiinior Truth was there. Mrs. Gago was prosidont of the 
ateetiiig. She Bud : — 

"Tha l«fulftra of the movemont, ti^mblinglj aliva to evary a{ipear> 
inM of evil ihst might spring up in their tnidiit, were many of them 
almott thrown into panics on the first day of tho meeting, by seeing a 
tall, punt black woman, in a gray dreaa and uncoath sun-bonoet, march 
dt'lilxiraUity into the churcli and Dp the aJale with au air of a queen, 
aad take b«r seat on (h« pulpit steps. A buzt of disapprobation wm 
heard all over the house, and such words as these fell upon listeining 
ran: *An Abolition affair I Woman's Rights and Niggers I' 'We told 
you ao ! ' ' Go it, old darkey ! ' 

''The second day the work waxed wann. Methodist, HaiitiM, Epiv 
oopaLatid Presbyterian, and Universalist ministerB came in to bear aad 
diMMM tbe resolutions brought forth. Oue claimed superior rights and 
privQegea for man because of naprrior inlclloct ; arotlicr, bocausc of tbe 
manhood of Chrisl. If God had dearnd the equality of woman, he 
would have given some token of his will through the birth, life, and 
death of the Saviour. Another gave a theological view of llie $m of 
oar first mother. There were few women in those days who dared * to 
speak in meeting ' ; and the august t^acheni of the t»oop]e, with long, 
winded bombast, were seeming to get the better of ua, while the boys 
ir! the galleries and sneerets among the pews were eqjoying hugely 
Um discomfiture, as they Bup]K»cd, of the Btrong-minded. Some o( lh4 
tender-Bkinned friends were growing indignant and on ih« point of 
loaing dignity, and (he atmosphere of the Contention helokeoed • 





** filtiwl; from hor scftt id tbft ooroor ros« Sojourner Truth, who till 
now bad lianlly liAcd her bead. 

" * Don't lei bcr tupeak I ' gapped h twlfHloxeD in taj ear. Sbt- caoved 
ilowly and 8ol<!nin1j lo llift front, laid lifr old bonnet nt her fret, and 
t^^]l^d licr great pierring ejKf upon m«. Tbere wan a biuing sound of 
duapprobation aboTe and below. I roee und announced ' Sojourner 
Truth,* and bogged thft Budi«>D(!e to ktwp sUonce a few momenta. Tho 
tumult lubdided at once, and every eyu was llxed on ibia almort AnutKUi 
ferm, whirh stood nearly six feet bijjb, hntd frrect, and Aye pierrinjT l)i« 
upper air likp one in a dream. At li«r Umi word lliere wan a profound 
huab. 6he epoke in de«p touoi, wbiob, though not loud, n5ached every 
ear In the bouso. and away through the ihroog at the doors and win 

** * Well, chillen, whar dar '» -to much nii-ket dor inuat bv aom'tng out 
o' kilter. I tink dal 'Iwixt de uiggad of de Suuf aud de women of de 
Norf, all a talking about de rigbta, de white men will be lo a &x preUy 

'* * But what 'a all diH hnn talking 'liout 'f Dal man ober dar aay dat 
woman netsla to be helped into carriagv-*, aud liAod uber ditches, aud to 
hab de beat plaot^ cberywhar. Nobody cbcr help« me into carriage;*, or 
ober ditched or ober mud-puddlon, or giveA me any beat place.' Ebie- 
ing berteir to her full height, and her voice to h pitch like rolling thuu- 
der, ihe anked, ' Ami am't I a woman P Look nt me. Itook nt my 
arm.' uid the laid bare ber right arm to her shoulder, showing ila ir»- 
mendoai muscular power. ' I have plou^liod, and planted, and f{Btb<Ttid 
into boms, and no man rauld head me ; and am't I a woman ? I have 
borne thirteen chillon, and set^n mont of 'em eold ofl* into ehLvery, and 
when I cried out with a mother's grief, none but Jctfos heanl ; and am't 
J • woman? Den dey talks about din ting in de bead. What dia d«y 
call it P ' ' Intellect,' whispered Hoiue one near her. ' Dat 'b it, honey 
What 'a dat got to do wid woman 'n ri)i;htfl or n'tf^en' rij^htu? If my cup 
won't bold but a pint, and youre holds a quart, would n't you be tnais 
not to let me have my little half measure fuU?' 

**8he pointed her signifleant flngor and sent a keen glaaoe at the 
minister who had made the argumeui. The cheering was long aud 

" * Den dat Utile man in black, dar, he say woman cnn't have as much 
right as man. 'cause Christ was n't a womaa. Whar did your Chriti 
tom» from t ' 

" KoUiof; thunder ouuld not hHTe stilled that crowd as did those deep 
and wonderful tooen, as she stood there with outstretched arm and eye 
of Are. Raising ber roicA she repeated, > Whar did your Christ coma 



4oin f Krom God and a woman. &)•-» bad nothing to d« witli 

"O whai a rebuke ftho gavo the litilfi man I Turning again u 
■DOtber objwtor, aIi«> took up tli« deJ«nce of Mollier Eve. It wa« 
pointed, and witt^, and nnlt^mn. and eliciting at almoAt every ^enwnoe 
ieafeniog applause ; and Rbo ended by B3»<ertiog tlial ' if de fast woman 
God eyvT made wa» stiong enough to turn tbe world upside down, all 
beraelf alone, all due togcder/ and she g1anc«<] her oy« orer us, ' ou>;ht 
lo bo able to luru it back aguia and gil it right side up again; and now 
dey i» aiiking lo, l>ie men Iielter let 'em. Bleegfd to you for heario 
mOf aad now old Sojourner ba'a't got notin' more to 5sy.' 

"Amid roars of applaoM the turned to hvr corner, leaving more than 
one of 01 with Mnnnllig eyes and beans beating with gratitude. She 
bad taken us up in her great ttrong arms and currii-d us over tbe slough 
of dificut^, turning the whole tide in our favor. I Imvo nfiver in my 
life seen anything like the magical influence that .^tnbilaed tbe mobbinb 
■pint of tbe day and turned the jibes and &n«ers of au excited crowd 
into not«i!i of re«pect and odmiraliMi. HundrMU rUHhvd up to Ab«k« 
hands with tbe glorioo^ old motber and bid her God speed." 

The euUstiudat of Qegi-o troops began at Port Royal in tbe 
Ekll of 1^62, and by midwinter tbe First South Carolina, com- 
manded by ColoDol Higgiusou, had its ranks nearly ftill. Tliere 
was Btrong prejudice in tbe army against employing negroes, 
The New Jersey troops in tlie department of the South were 
bitterly hostile. Colonel SteveneoD, of Massachusette, a gal- 
lant officer, having imprudently gireu utterance to his feel- 
ings upon the subject, was arrested by Oeneral Huater, 
which caused a great deal of excitement In the annyt and 
which attracted tlte atteution of the country to the whole 

The day after the arrest of Colonel SteTenwm, a scene oc- 
curred in the cabin of the steamer Wyoming, plying between 
Beaufort and Hilton Head, which is giren as a historical note. 
The party consisted of several ladies, one or two chaplains, 
Kfteen or twenty oflioerfl, four nowspapw correspondents, and 
•QTeral ciTiliana. 

A young captain in the Tenth Now Jersey opened tiie con 

'* I wish," aaid he, " that erery negr-o was compelled to take 
off bis hat to a white man. 1 consider him an inferior being." 




'* Tou differ from General Wasliington, who took ofl hia hat 
ud uluted a negro," said ono of tlie eotrcMponduuts. 

" Oeaor&l WaBhington could afford to do it," said tho cajy 
tain, a little staggered. 

"Are we to uudorntaiid that in tliiit ago a captain cannot 
■nhrd to equal a negro in politonota 7 " was the provoking 
qnestion of Iho correspondent. 

" Do TOU want to Iw huricd with a nigger, and haTo joui 
bones tonch his in tho grave?** 

" Ab to tliat 1 have no Peeling wbatovor. 1 do not suppose 
that it wil! make much dinbronco to the liones of either iiorty-" 

" WoU, when 1 die I want twenty niggers packed all around 
me," shouted tlio captain, oxcitedljr, turning to the crowd to 
■00 Uie effect of his sarcafiin. 

'* I preBume, sir, you can bo accommodated if you can get 
the consent of tho twenty iiogroca." 

Tho c^taiu saw that h& was losing his argument by losing 
his tompor, and in calmor tones said: "I wont to see the 
nogro kept in his pro(>or place. I am perfectly willing he 
should U6U the shovel, but it is an outrage upon the white 
man^ — an insult to have him carry a musket." 

" 1 would just as BDun see a negro sliot as to get shot myselT. 
I am pcrfLHjLly willing tJiat all tlio uogroos should help pit 
down tlie Rebellion," said tho correspondent. 

" 1 am not willing to have thorn act as soldiers. Put tliem 
Id tJio ditchoH, whore tlioy Iwlong. They are on inferior race." 

A second correspondent broke in. " Wlio are you, sir?" 
said ho; "you who condemn tlie government Y You forget 
that you as a ooldier hare nothing to wy about llie orders of 
tho President or tliu lawi* of Congress. You say that tho negro 
is an inferior being; what do yon »ay of Frodorick Pouglasa, 
who has raised himself fr&m sluvery to a high [Ktsition ? Your 
■traps wore placed ou your shoulders, not bocauso you had done 
anytliing to merit them, but because you had friends to inter- 
cede for you, — using their political influence, — or because 
you had money, and could purchase your commission. You 
hate the negro, and you want to keep him in slavery, and you 
allow your prejudice to carry you to the verge of disloyalty tc 
the goTonimont whicli pays you for unwortliily wearing your 




Tlio captniu ac'l the entire company listened in jritenoft while 
4iiotlior corrospoudent took up the question- 

" Qcntlemaa, you deaouace tbe negro ; you say that he in 
&n inferior being. Tou for^^ot that wo wliilu men claim to 
stand on tho higboat plane of civilization, — tliut wu are of a 
race which for a thousand years liaa been in the fVout rank, • 
tnat tho o^ro has boon bruised, crushed, trodden down, — de- 
nied all knowledge, all right, e^erytliiug ; that we have oonk- 
pcllod him to labor for us, and we have eaten tho fhiit of his 
labom. Can we expect him to l>e our equal in acquisition of 
knowledge 'i Wliere is your sonso of fair play ! Are you 
afraid that the negro will push you from your position ? Are 
you iifmid that if you allow liini to aid in putting down Uie 
Reboltion, that he too will become a b-co man, and liavu aepi- 
rations like your own, and tu time osprose toward you the Bame 
ckivalrio scntimenta which you expross toward liim ? How 
much do you love your country if yon thut> make oouditlons 

Tho captain made no reply. The whole company was silent. 
Tlioro were Rrailcs from the ladies. The captain went out upon 
the deck, ovidoiilly regretting that the couverBatiou had fallen 
upon so exciting a topic. 

Tbe Fii^t South Carolina Regiment of loyal blacks was in 
camp on Smith's plantation, Ibur miles out from Beaufort. Wo 
rode over a sandy plain, Uu-ough old cotton-fields, pine-bwrciis, 
and jungles, past a dozon uogro-butA, where the long trut^^cs 
of mo68 waved mournfully in tho breeze. Tho men bad gath 
ered a boat-lood of oysters, and wore having a fbast, — old and 
youug, gray-lioadod men, and curly-haired children, were hud- 
dled round the pans, steaming and smoking over the pitcli-knot 

Smith's plantation is historic ground, — tho place vUotg the 
Buguonots b\iilt a fort long before the Mayflower cast anchor 
in Cape Cod harbor. Tlic plantation was well known to the 
colored people l>ofuro the war as a ptaco tu be dreaded, — a 
place for bard work, uumereiful whippings, with very Uttto to 
eat. Tho hou^e and the nugro quarters were In a delightful 
grore of live-oaks, whoso evergroou leaves. wid»«proadiug 
branches, thick foliage, and gnarled trunks, gave cooling 




ihade. lu IVout of tlie hou^u, k-udin^^ dowu to Uie fort, ti 
ft magitolia walk. Holiind tlio liouse, iu a circular badn,— 
a doproMiou ofiou found ou saudy plains, — was the garden, nir 
rounded by a tliiuk-Kot, rnnla.itic paliuetto liedgo. Tliu f^ivut 
oak botvoan tho Iiouho nitd the garden^ was tlio whipping-poet. 
Oito of the brauclioe was suiootb, as if a owing had been aluog 
tliore, and tbo Itark bad boon worn by ttie rope swaying to the 
morry chattering and liglit^hoartod taugbtor of children. Not 
that, howoTcr. Tboro the offender of plantation law, — of amo^ 
ler's caprice, — bad paid the ponalty of disobedienco ; there men, 
wnmcn, and cbildrciir siiapondod by the tliumbs, stripped of 
their clottiing, received tlie lash. Tboir moaiis, groans, cries, 
liud prayorB foil nnhoodiiig on'ovorBPor, master, and raistrosa,— 
Itut liunrd iind boodisd ihoy were in hoavon, and kept in rfr 
mombrnucG. And tbo hour of rotribirtion had oomo, llie time 
of dcliToranco wiu near. 

What a choice spot for the punishment of tho criminal I 
oloBO to iho house, — whcro the matitor, tbo mlBtrosti, tlioir aona 
and daugliton, tho infant at tlie nurse's breast, could see the 
blood fly. 

Tlie plantation jail wan in tbo lol\ of tlio granary, beneath a 
pltcb-pino roof, which, under tho iicat of a niidBiimnier suu, 
wofi like an oven. Tboro was one Uttlo window in tlie gable 
for the adiuittHJon of air. Theru wore iron rings and bolls in 
tlio boamn mul mfturs, whuru tlio Klavus woro chained. 

Tho owner of ihu plantation was not unmindful of tlio relig- 
ious wants of luE fellow-Christians. West of tho bouse woa the 
plantation chapel, a whitewashed building of rough boards, 
twenty foot by tiiirty, witli a rudo bolfry, whore huiig llie 
plantation bell, which on week-days was rung al daybreak. 
Charmingly its music floated over tho bluo waters of Beaufort 
Bay, auiigliiig with tlio morning winds, bwaying tho magnolia 
branches, calling the bonds — men, women, and cbildron — to 
their unroquitod taska in the cotton-fiold. Ou Sunday it called 
Uiom, witii Bihcry lipa and molting sounds, to como and wor- 
ship: not to study Qod's Word, not to bow down with him 
who — by tlie '* divine missionary infttitution," as tlie Southern 
doctors of diriuity called it, was their master, ordained of 
God — could separate hiuband and wife, or toss in a baby 




to boot, ui a bargain ; not to bow dowu with him, for he wor- 
sUippod. in Beaufort, ia the niicient churcli ; — he was a c)iiTa\- 
ric sou of South Carolina, riding up iu hiB coach, and leaving 
his four hundred fellow-disci plos to fprope thoir way to heftTon, 
directed by a pioun bondman, as host thoj might. 

If one wish for a flood of reQectioiis, he will be overwhelmed 
on such a spot. 

The Fimt South Carolina was at drill beneath the oak , 
drilling as skirmishers, advancing, retiring, rallying, deploy- 
iug, loading and firing, with precision. They had already been 
under fire iu an expedition up one of the Georgia rivers. 

I had breakfasted with the captain of the steamer Darlington, 
wTiich was used as a transport on the occasion, who ahowod me 
the numerous bnllet-markH on the steamer. 

** How did the negroes stand fire ? '* I asked. " Tlioy fought 
iplendidly, sir." 

It was no longer an experiment whether thoy would moke 
good soldiers. Thoy had demonstrated it by their courage and 
patriotism. The antipathy which at the beginning was ram* 
pant quickly toned down. The deportment of the colored 
soldiers under insult, thoir bravery in battle, compelled reepeot 
from all who bad doubted their heroism or fidelity. 

In the attack upon Jacksonville, which occurred on th« 
12th of March, an old patriarcli — too old to do any 5gbl- 
ing — liaranguod tlie troops, and told thorn that every one who 
should lie killed in a cause so holy would bo pretty sure of step- 
ping directly into heaven ; but that if tJicy hung bock and 
diovod tliat thoy wore oovards, there was ti't mnch hope of 
etamal life for such ! He was greatly veueratod >>v Uie aoldien^ 
for he bad been a proaclier. 



TKE B0Y8 or 41. 

I April, 



APTBB vexatious delays, the ironclad floot was roadjr for 
aolioii. It was doomed dosirablo to tost Uioir armor, bofora 
attacking Sumtor, tiy making a reoonaoiasanoo of Fort McAllis- 
tor, ou Uio Ogeecliee. 

It was latti uti the aftonioou uf March IbI, wbeu tlio Bteamor 
Georgo Wat>1)ingtou Icfl Hilton Uoad for a trip to Ossabow 
Souud. Tlio Fa»saJc, Moiitaiik, Naliaiit, aiid PaLapeco, ironcUds 
oftho Monitor pattorn, wore already tlioro. Tho Washtugton took 
tlio ** insida " route up Wilmington River and through tlio Rum 
I07 marahca. Thu gunboat Marblchcad was guarding tho en 
traaco to the river. It was past sunset, and the tide was ebbing 

" You hod bettor lie bore till morning ; there aro iudicatjons 
that we shall hear fVom Lhoso follows up there/' said the com- 
mander of tho Marblohoad. Looking westward into tho goldeo 
light of the departing day, we could sue tho spires of ISaraiinab, 
also nearer ttio Rulwl gunboats moving up and down tUo river. 

Thti ancliur dropped, tlio chain rattled tlirough Uio liawse- 
hole, tlio tights were oxtii]gni8hod, tho guns put in trim; the 
look-out took hitj |K>Hition; tlio sentinels |>asscd to and fro, fxjor- 
ing into Uto darkness ; a buoy was attached to tlie cable, tliat it 
Loight be slipped in an instant ; all ears listened to catch Uw 
sound of mufTled oars or plashing paddle-wheoU, but there woa 
no sound save tho piping uf the curlew in the marshes and the 
•urging of tho tide along the reedy shores. At three o'clock in 
tho morning wo wore away from our anchorage, steaming up 
Wilmington River- Tho moonlight lay in a golden flood along 
the waters, rovealing tho distant outline of the Rebel earth- 
works. How chanuiug the trip! exliilarating, and sutliciently 
exciting, under the expectation of falling in with a liostile gun- 
boat, to bring every nerve into action. It was sunrise when the 
Washington emerged from tho marshes and came to anchor 




amuog the ironclads. Tho Montauk had juiil complotod « 
glorious w^rk, — tbe deBtnictiou of iho NasUvillo. Wo Uad 
Ueard the roar of hei guua, and the quick, ineffectual firiiig 
from Fort McAllister. 

The Na&hvilte, which began her piraUcal depredations b; 
burning tho ship Harvey Birch, ran into Savannah, whoro sht 
had been cooped up Eovcral monthfi. She had been iraitlug 
many weeks for an o})portunitjr to run out to sea again. On 
Saturdaj momiug, the last dajr of Febniiuy, a dense fog hung 
over the marshes, tho islands, and inlets of Ossabov. Tlie 
Moutauk laj at the jiuicUoa of the Great and little Ogeecheo 
RiTers, when the fog Ufl«d and the Naslmlle was discovered 
aground above tlie fort. 

The eje» of Captain Worden sparkled as he gave the com 
maud to prepare for action. Ho had not forgotten hit 
eooouiiter witti ttie Merrimack. Tlio Moutauk moved up 
aCream, came wittiiu roiige of the fort^ wliich opouod from all 
its guns, but to which Captain Worden gave no heed. Tak 
iog a position about three quarters of a mile from the Nashville 
aad half a mile from Uie fort, he opened witli both guns upon 
the grounded steamer, to which the Nashville replied with her 
hundred-pounder. Tlie third shell from the Moutauk exploded 
inside the steamer, setting hor cotton on fire. Tlie flames spreati 
with great rapidity. Iler crew fled to the marshes, tlie maga- 
xino soon exploded, and the career of Uio Nashvillo was ended. 

At high tide on the morning of tlie 3d of March the Paaaaio, 
Patapfsco, and Nah&ut moved up the Ogoeobee, and opened fire 
on the fort, to test the working of their machinery. Ttie fire 
was ftirious from tho fort, but slow and deliberate fW>m tho 
ironclads. Several mortar-schooners threw sbolls iu tho direc- 
tion of tho fort. The monitors were obliged to retire with the 
ride. They were struck repeatedly, but the balls fell harm- 
lessly against tho iron plating. It was ovident tliat at tho 
distance of three fourths of a mile, or a half-mile even, the 
tronolads could witlistand the heaviest gune, while on the other 
tiand the fire of the monitors must necessarily be very slow. 
Tbe attack was made, not with the expectation of reducing the 
fort, hut to t«8t the monitors before the grand attack upon Fort 




The first attack on Sumtor occurred on the 7tli of ApriL 
Tlio fort stood out iu iwld relief^ the bright uoon-sun shuung 
f\ill upon its southern face, (Voitting tlie shallow wator towardi 
Morris Island, leaviug iu shadow its easteru wall toward Moul- 
trie. The air was clear, and wo wlio wore ou shipboard Just 
beyond the roach of tlio Rebel gntut, looking inland with our 
glasses, could see the city, the spires, the rooh of the housei 
througed with people. A tliroo-masted ship lay at die wharves, 
the Kobel rams were firod up, stiil-buala wore scudding acrora 
the harbor, ruuuing down toward yumter, looking seaward, 
tlieu hastening bock again like little children, expectaut and 
rostlesB ou groat occasions, eager for something to be doue. 

The attacking fieot was iu the main ship-channel, — dghi 
little block specks but little larger tlian the buoys which toBted 
beside them, and one black, oblong block, the New Ironsides, 
the flag-ship of the fleet. It was difficult to comprehend that 
beneath tlio surfaoe of the sea there wore men as secure from 
the wares as bugs iu a bottle. It was as strange and romantic 
u the stories which olmrmed tlio Arabian ohiefloina in the day* 
of Harouu AJ Raschid. 

The ironclads were about one third of a mile apart, in the 
fbUowing order : — 

Weeliawkeu, Fatapsco, Nantucket, 

PasMiic, Ironsides, Nahaut, 

Montauk, GutskiU, Keokuk. 

The Keokuk was built by a gentloouui who had f\ill faith in 
her ijtTulnorability. Klic was to bn tested under fire fW)m the 
Robot batteries before accepted by the govemmout. She had 
sloping sides, two turrets, and was built for a ram. The opin 
tool goaorolly entertained were that she would prore a failuro. 

General Hunter courteously assigned the steamer Nautuckot 
to the gentiemeu connected with the press, giving them ooi» 
plete control of the steamer, to go where they pleaded, knowing 
that tliere was an iuteuso desire uot oiiJy in itic Kortli, but 
throughout tlto world, to know the result of the first contest 
between ironclads and fortifications. The Nantucket was a 
fmall sido-wheel ateiuuer of light drafl, ojid we were able to 
run In and out over the bar at will. Just before the sigual 
was giTeu for the advance we ran alongside the flagship. Th4 





orev wore hard at work hoistiug shot and sticlls ft-om the hold 
to the dock. Tho upper deck was bodded with »uid-bags, the 
pilotrhouBO wi-apped with cable. All the ligtit hampor vaa 
taken dowu and stowed awa^. Ttie irou plaliikg was s^ushod 
with grease. Rebel soldiers were niarcluit^' across Morria 
lelaiid, witbiu easy rauge. A sliell would hare Eoitt them 
in haste behind the saad-hills ; but heavier work was at hand, 
and they were harmloGs just ttieit. 

It was past one o'clock when tho signal for sailing was dis 
played from the Uag-ship, and Uiu Weehawkeu, with a raft at 
her prow, iuteudod to remove torpedoes, answered tho signal, 
nused her anchor, and went steadily in witli the tide, followed 
by the others, which maiutaiuod tlioir respective positions, dis- 
tant from each other al>out one third or a half-mile. In thu 
battle of ironclads tliero are no clouds of canvas, no lioautif\il 
models of marine architecture, none of tlie stateliness and 
majesty wluch have marked hundreds of great naval engage- 
ments. There are no human beings in sight, — no propelling 
power is visible. Tliere are simply eight black specks and 
one oblong block gliding along the water, like so many 

But Sumter has discovered tliem, and disoliargos in quick suo- 
cession nine signal guns, to announce to all Rcbeldom ttiat the 
attack is to be made. Morris Island is myst«nuusly silent aa 
(lie Weohawkcn advances, altliough she is within nmge. Past 
Port Wagner, slraighl on toward Moultrie the Wechawkon 
moves. Tho silence is prolonged. It is almost poinful, — tlie 
calm before the storm, the hushed stillness before the burst 
of the tornado I 

Tlierc comes a single puff of smoke from Moultrie, — one 
deep reverberation. The silence is broken, — Uie long months 
of waiting are over. Tlic shot Qics across the water, skip- 
ping from wave to wave, tossing up fomitains, hopping over 
the deck of tho Wcohawkcu, and railing along the surface 
with a diminishing ricochet, sinking at last close upon ilie 
Morn.4 Island beach. Fort Wagner continues the story, bend- 
ing a shot at tlio Wcchawken, wliieh also trips lightly over tlie 
deck, and tosses up a water-spout far toward Moultrie. The 
Weehawken, unmindful of this play, opens its porta, and sends 


TBK BOrS OF «]. 


a Sftoon-iticli solid Nhot toward Sumter, whiuh, like diose that 
faave been liurlod tovard her, takes a lialf-dozoji dtepH, making 
for a moment its fbotprinta on tiio wuter, and crashes against 
the Roiithwost Ihcc of the fort, followod a momoiit later bj its 
eleven-inch compauion. The rossol is for a moment ouvoloped 
in the smoke of its guns. Bravely done I There oomes on an- 
Bwor. Moultrie, with tlie tremendous batteries on eitiier side bj 
the hotel and ctisl of it, and toward the iimer harbor, bunts in 
an instant into sheets of flume and clouds of sulphurous aiuoke. 
There is one long roll of Uiunder, peal on peal ; deep, lieavy 
reverborations and sharp concue^lons, rattling the windows of 
our steamers, uid striking us at the heart like luuumer strokes. 

Ttio ocean Iwils ! Columns of spray are tossod high in air, 
as if a liundrod submarine fountains wore lot instantly on, or 
a school of wlialos wore trying whidi could spout liigbeet. 
There is a screaming in the air, a buzzing and humming never 
before so loud. 

At five minutes before ttiroo Moultrie began tlie lire. Tbd 
minutes have passed. Tlic thunder has rolled incu!S!>untly from 
Sullivan's Island. Thus far Sumter has been silent, but now 
it is enveloped witli a cloud. A momout it is hid from view 
— first a lino of Uglit along its parapet, and thick folds ol 
smoke unrolling like tiuecos of wool. Otlmr Hashes burst 
from the casemates, and the clouds creep down the wall to tlie 
water, tlicii (ilowly float away to mingle with that rising from 
the furnaces in Uic sand along tlio uhore of SuUivan'B Island. 
Tlion comes a calm, — a momentary ccsfiatiou. The Rebel gun- 
oers wait for the breeze to clear away the cloud, iliat tlicy may 
obtfiin a view of the monitor, to see if it In' o not been piuiched 
into a sieve, and if it bo not already disappearing benoatli the 
waves. But tlie Weehawkcn is there, moving straight on up 
the channel, turning now toward Moultrie. To Iter it has been 
only a handful of peas u , Ics. Some have rattled against 
licr turret, Mjme upon her deck, some against her sides. In- 
stead of going to the bottom, she revolves her turret, and fire 
tvo shota at Moultrie, moving on the while to gain the south 
eastern wall of Sumter. 

Again tlie forts oud batteries begin, Joined nt^w by Cum- 
mings Point and long ranges from Fort Johnsoa 411 ar^imd 




Ibe W«dukwken tho shot flash, plungo, hop, skip, folHiiR lik« 
the raio'diopii of a summor shower. Unliormed, uiidauiitad, 
sho mores stroiglu on, reeling her way, moring slowly, witb 
grappling-irons dragging from tlie raft in front to cutcb ufi 
torpedoes. It is for the Weehawkeii to clear the channel, and 
make smooth sailing fbr the remainder of ttio fleet. 

To get the position of the Weetiuwken at this moment, draw 
A Hue from Cimunings Point to Moultrie, and stick a pin on 
Ibe line a little nearer to Moultrie tliaii to Morris Island. It is 
about one half a mile ft-om Moultrie, about one ttiird of a mile 
from Sumter. 

Ttiere sho is, — the target of probably two hundred and fifty 
or tliroo hundred guns, of the heaviest calibre, at close range, 
rifled cauuon throwing forged bolt£ and steel-pointed shot, 
turned and poUslied to a liair iu the lathes of £uglish work- 
shops, — advancing still, undei^ing her first ordeal, a trial 
unparalleled in liistory ! 

Fot fifteen minutes she meets the ordeal alone, but the chan 
net found to be clear, tlio Passaic, the Moritatik, and Patapeoo 
follow, closing up the Hue, each comiug iu range and deliror 
log their fire upon Sumter. At twenty minutes post three the 
four monitors composing the right wing of the fleet are all cu 
gaged, each pressing on to roach the northeastern face of tlu- 
fort, where the wall is weakest, each roceiviug as they arriTc 
at particular points a terrible fire, seemirkgly from all points 
of tho compass, — points soloctod by trial and practice indi- 
cated by buoys. They pass the destruotive latitudes un- 
harmed. Seventy guns a minute are counted, followed by 
moments of calm and scattering shots, but only to brook out 
again In a prolonged roar of Uiunder. They press on, makin}; 
nearer and nearer to Sumter, narrowing the distance tu ont> 
thousand yanih, eight hundred, hix, five, four hundred yards, 
and send their fifteon-iuch shot crashing against the fort, with 
detibarato, effective firo. 

At first the fori and tho batteries and Moultrie seem to re- 
double their efibrts in increasing tlio fira, but after an hour 
there is a perceptible diminution of the discharges from the 
fbrt. After eticli bIidI from llio Ironclads, clouds of duBt con 
be discerned rising alwve tlie fort and nungling with tho smoke 




Steadying my glass in the lulls uf tliu Htrife, watcluug whom 
tho Boiitliwest brcezo whifl's away tlie Biuoko, I uiui see increa^ 
iug pock-marks and discoloratioiis upou Uio walls, as if there 
bail 1>uoii a sudden breaking out of cutauoous dlisoaeo. 

The flag-sliip, drawiug boventoon feet of water, was obUged 
to moTo cautiously, foeliug her way up tlio channel. Just as 
■ho came withui range of Moultrie her keel touched bottom 
on tho east side of tlio cluiiinel ; fearing tbat she would run 
aground the anchor was let go. Finding the vessel was otear, 
the Admiral again moved ou, signalling tlie left wing to prest 
'orward t^i tho aid of tho four already engaged. Tlie Irouiddoa 
kept the main cliauuol, «..ich brought her within about one 
tliouband yards of Moultrie and Sumter. She 6rod four guut 
at Mouliric, and receired in return a heavy fire. Again she 
touched bottom, and tlioo tunie<i her how across the cUaunel 
toward Sumter, firing two guns at Cummiiigs Point. After 
this weak and iuelTcctual effort, tlte tide rapidly ebbing the 
while, she again got clear, Imt gave up the attempt to advanoe 
Tho Oatskill, Nantucket, Nahaiit, and Keokuk pressed up with 
ali pOHsiblo speed to aid ilie four which wero rftceiviug a tre 
mondous hammering. 

See them sweep post Uio oonvorgeut points and radial Hneet 
See tlio bubbling of the water, — tlia straight colunuis thrown 
up in tlio sunlight, — tho Hashes, the furrows along the wave*, 
as if a plough driven witli lightning Npeod were turning up the 
water ! They are all close up to Sumtor, within four or fire 
hundred yards. Behind them ore Moultrie and Fort Ripley, 
and Fort Beauregard, flashing, Rmnkiiig, hollowing* in fVout it 
Sumter, and in tho background arc Fort Wagner and Oum- 
mings Point. Across the shallow waters is Port Johnson ; 
still farther off to Uic right is Coatlo Piuckney, too far away 
to do damage. From all tiides the bulls fall around tho fleet. 
Oalmly and deliberately tho llru ia roturned, — with a doUbora- 
tion which must have commanded tho admiration of tlw enemy. 

Tho Kookuk presented a fair mark with her sloping sides and 
double turrets. Ilcr commander, Captain Rliiud, although dct 
having entire confidence in her iiivulnerability, was detetm-ic ' 
to come U) close quarters. She was not to bo outdone by the it. 
olads who had led tho advance. SwiHtor than they, dmving t* 




water, tibe wade baste to get up with the Weobawkcu. Tfa« 
giinif wliich had boou trained upou tho others were brought to 
bear upon her. Whore ehe sailed tho firo was Qorceat Het 
plating was but pino wood to tho stool projoctilos, fljing with 
ahunst the swifluees of a miiiie bullet. Shot which glauoed 
hanule&stj from tho others peuetratod lier angled sides. Hoi 
after turret was pierced in a twinkling, and a two-hundred 
pound prq^tile dropped inside. A beavj shot crash&d into 
the ffurgeon's dispensary, and mixed emetics, cathartics, pills 
and powders not according to proscriptions. The enemj 
noticed tho eflect of his shot and increased his fire- Captain 
Bhind was not easilj daunted. He oponod hts forward turret 
and gare throe shots in return for the throe or four hundred 
rained around him. Hie aea with everj passing wave swept 
Airough the shot-bolos, and he was forced to retire or go to the 
bottom with all on board. 

The tide was ebbing fast, and the signal for retiring was dis- 
{dajed by the flag-ship. It was raised, seemingljr, at an Inop^ 
portuue momoiit, for the firo of the fort had seusiblj diminished, 
while tliat iVom tho ironclads was steady and true. It was 
past fire o'clock, almost sunset, when the fleet camo baok. 
Nerer had there boon such a honunerlng of iron and smashing 
of masonry as during two and a half hours of that ailoriioon. 
Tho gunboat Bibb, the Ben Deford, and the Nantasket had 
taken position in the North Channel at a respectAU distanco off 
BuUivau's Island. A mile or two oast of Moultrie is Beaofa 
Inlet, where a powerf\il battory had boou erected. While in 
ieatly gazing on the ooutost, tho correspond euts and all hands 
on the other steamers were startled bj hearing tlie whiff and 
whix of a rifle projectile, which come diagonally aoross tiio 
Nantasket, across the bow of the Ben Doford, falling into the 
■ea about one hundred yards ahead. There was a laugh- 
able cuddling down and scamperii^ for the coal-bunkers, the 
engiuo-room, and betvoen decks. Ttiere was an immediate 
hauling in of cables and motion of paddlo-wbeels. A second 
•hot in admirable tine feD short. We being at anchor arid 
within range, the Rebel gunner had made nice calculatioas. 
He had already flred a half-dozen shots, which had fallen far 
ahead unnoticed. Outii.niiigs Pouit also tried to reach us with 


TUK. BOYS Oi-' '81. 


diellfl, but rultid. Ono uf tlio corrtispunduutd datmtid that the 
pren completely sUoucod a battery — hy guttiug uut of tlie way ! 

Steaiiuji({ ixito the rotiruig fleet wo rau alougside the Keokuk 
A glatico at lior Mdoa uliowed bow terrible the firu bod bevu- 
Uer buiuke-«tagk, lurrut«, eideti, — all were scarred, gu«lied, 
pioroed through and through. An inspectiou revealed nuiotj- 
(bur short-iuoxke. Tlioru wore uoue below the water-lino, bul 
each wave swept through the holtm on tbo Bides, iler pumpa 
were going and tthe was kept fVoe. OnJ^ three or her oiBcen 
and crew were wounded, although she hod been so badly per 

"All right, nobody hurt, ready for tliem again," was the 
heutf respooso or Captahi Qoorgc Rodgera, of the CatskiU. n» 
I stopped upon the Hhishod deck of that vessel and grasped the 
hand of her wide-Awako commander. Hie CattkUl hod received 
about thirty »hots. Oiio two-hundred- pounder, thrown evideiiUy 
from a b&r)>otte guu, had fhllcu with tromoudouB force upon Uie 
deokt bending, but not breaking or penetraliug tlie iron. On 
the aidea, on tlio turret, and on tlio pilot-houao were indonta^ 
tioDB like nucors, but Uiero was no sign of seriouf damage. 

The Nahant oame down to her anchorage with a gashed 
unoke-staok. Ooing on hoard, we found ttiat eleven of her 
offioors and orew had received contusions from tbo flying of 
bolt-heads in the turret. One shot had jammed the lower ridge 
of her turret, hiterferiug witli its revolution. Hhe had been 
•truck forty times, but— asido ft-om the loss of a few bolt-hoada, 
a diminished droll to her chimney, and the ttUght jam lipon 
tlie turret — hor armor was intact. 

The other monitors bod oach a few bolts started. Four gun- 
osrriagos needed repairs, — ii^ured not by the enemy's shot, 
but by their own recoil. Ouo shot hod ripped up tlie plating 
of tlie Patapsco and pierced the woodwork beuoatli. This was 
the only shot, out of the twenty-five hundred or three thousand 
tuppuBod to iiavo been Qred from the forts which peueirated 
the monitors I 

The Weehawkon had reooived three heavy ehot upon her 
side, the indentations closo together. Tlie plates wore badly 
bentf but the shot had fkllon aei harmlussly as pubblo% upon tht 
tide of a bam. 




The Ironsides had received thirt; bolls, all of which bod been 
curaed by liar armor. 

Ouo hundred and fifly-thrco shots were fired hy tbo deet, 
agabst tweiity-rivo biuidrod or three thouBaud by Uie KubeU. 
Tbo muuitont were Ktnick in the aggregate about throe biui- 
drod Kud fijly times. 

About eiz thousand pounds of iron wore burled at Fcfft 
dumtor during the short time the ficot uras engaged, and prob- 
ably &ve or six times tliat amount of metal, or thirty thousand 
pounds, was thrown at the Qcct. The casualties ou board the 
Uoet were, — none killed ; one mortally, one seriously, and thir- 
teen slightly wounded. 

Captain Ammen, commanding the Patapeco, was coufident 
Ibal the last shut^ which ho Brod passed tlirough tlie wall of the 
iBIt. He and other coromaudora obeyed tbo sigual for retiring 
with great reluctance. They saw that the fire of the fort waa 
growing weaker, — that the wall was crumbling. It is uow 
known tltat the R«bel commander, General Hipley, wu ou the 
point of eracuftting the fort when the signal voii made for the 
fleet to withdraw. The wall was badly shattered, aod a few 
more shots would have made it a complete ruin. 

Tlie lower casemates wore soon after filled with Baud-bags, 
the gunit having been removed. Tlio waits were buttressed with 
palmetto logs, and the fort tost nearly all of its original features, 
but* was made stronger than ever. 

The Keokuk sunk in the morning ou the bar. The sea wai 
rough, and the water poured through the shot-liolea with every 
ware, so that it was found impossible to keep her afloat. 

Admiral Dupont decided not to renew the attack, which 
caused a good deal of mtirmuring among the soldiers in the 
fleet. The ironclads returned to Hilton Head for repairs, the 
expedition was aliundoned, and Sumter was left to float its flay 
hi dofianoe of Fftdoral authority. 



BOTB 01 




Tbk seooud iurasiou of tbo Nortli was planned imnHKUfttaij 
•Her tlie battlo of Cfaauc«llorGTillo. Tlio luovoDiont of G«uenl 
Lee was upon a great otrole, — down Uio vallof of tho Sheoan- 
doali, crossing the Potomao at WUliauisjnrt with his iulkDtry 
and artillery, while General Stuart, with the main bod/ of 
Rebel cavalry, kept east of the Blue Ridge to conoeai the ad- 
vance of the inTantry. 

Geueral Hooker, at Fredericksburg, tlie first woek in June, 
reoeired posiUve uiformation that Lee was breaking up hi* 
camp, and tliat some of his divisions wore moving towards 
Culpepper. The duatpclouds which rose above the tree-tope 
iadicated that the Rebel army was in motion. The Army of 
the Polomac Uumedialoly broke up its camp and moved to 
Cattett's Station, on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, where 
intelligence was received that 8tuart had masked Uie Rebel 
cavalry at Brandy StJitiou fbr a raid in Pennsylvania. 

Oouural PleasAuton, commanding tlio cavalry, was sent with 
his ontlro force to look into tlm matter. He fell upon Stuart 
ou tho Uth of June, on the l)road, open plains along the Rap- 
poliaiuiock. A desperate battle ensued, — probably it was tho 
greatest cavalry battle of the war, — in which Stuart was driven 
back upon the Rebel infantry, which was hurried up from Cul- 
pepper to his support. The ot^ect of tho attack was accom- 
plished, — Stnart'e raid was postponed and Lee's movomont 
unniaskod. On tho s&me day, I^eo's advanced divisions reached 
Winchester, attacked General Milroy, captured the town, the 
cannon in the fortifications, and moved on to the Potomac. 

Hastening to Pemisylvania, I became an obi^ei'ver of the great 
events which followed. The people of the Keystone StAte in 
18G2 rushed to arms when Loo crossed tlio Potomac, but in 
1809 they were strangely apathetic, — intent upon conveying 
tbeir property to a place of aocurity, instead of defending tlieix 




homiM. Ill 't{2 iho cry was, ■> Urivu tiiu cuuiny from our eoU I " 
in '63, •♦ Wbero bUoU wo lude our good" 1 " 

Uarrisburg ffoa a Bedlam whoa I entoroU it ui ttio 15th of 

Tlio railroad titalinns wera crowded with aii ozcitud people. — - 
men, wumcii, ajid cliildreii, — with Lruiikb. boxes, buiidlne ; 
packages tied up iii bod^btankets and qiiilte ; muutitaius of Lag- 
gage, — tumbling it into the care, niHliiug horo aiui there in 
a frantiu mauuur ; e>houtiiig, scroamiiig, as if the Rebels were 
about to dash into tlie towu and lay it in ashes. The railroad 
BLihoritios were romoTing Uioir can and engines. Ttie mer- 
cJiants were packing up Uioir goods ; housowiTcs were ttecreting 
Uicir silTor ; everywhere there was a burly-burly. The exoito- 
mejit was increased when a train of army wagons came nim- 
bliiLg over the lojig bridge across the Suiiquohauiiali, acoom- 
pauiod by a squadron of cavalry. It was Milroy's train, which 
had Iweu ordered to make its way into Peunsylvauta. 

"The Rebels will be here to-morrow or next day," said the 

At the Stato-House, men in tlieir sUtrt^looTes were packing 
paporo into bozce. Every team, every horse and mule and 
handcart in tliu town were employed. There was a steady stream 
of teams Cliundering across the bridge ; farmers &om the Cum- 
berland valley, with their household furniture piled upon the 
groat wagons peculiar to tlie locality ; bedding, tables, chairs, 
their wives and children perched on the top ; kettles and pails 
dangling beneath ; boys drivuig cattle and horses, excited, wor 
ried, fearing tliey knew not wliat- The scene was painful, 
fet ludicrous. 

General Couch was in command at Harrisbui^. He hid 
but a few troops. Ho erected fortiHcations across die liver, 
planted what few cannon he had, and made preparations to 
defend the plaoo. 

General Loo was greatly in need of horses, and his caTalry- 
meu, uuder General Jeukins, ravaged tlie Cumberland Valley. 
A portion visited Cliambersburg ; another party, Mercersburg ; 
another, Gettysburg, before any infantry entered tho Stale. 

Ewell's corps of IjCo's army crossed the Potomac, a divisioo 
at Williamsport, and another at Slicphardstown, on the 22d of 

THE Bon OP 'eL 


JniM, and came together at Haj^rstown. The main body of 
Lee*s army was at Winchester. Staart had moved along the 
eairtem base of tlic Blae Ridge, and had come in contact with 
a portion of Plcaaanton't caTalry at Aldio and Middlcbui^. 
Hooker had smiag the anny up to Fairfax and Ccntrerllft, 
oionng on an inner circle, with Waehington for a pkot. 

Visititif; Baltimore, where Oeneral Schcnck was in cummaiul, 
I found the Marylanders much more alive to the eiigcncies of 
(he hour than tlie Penn^lvanian!). Instead of hurrying north- 
ward with their household furniture, they wore tiard at work 
bnilding fortifications and harricading the streets. Hofpiheadi 
of tobooco, barrels of pork, old carta, wagons, and lumber were 
pQed acro^ts thn streets, and patriotic citizens stood, musket in 
hand, prepared t^> piok off any Rebel troops. 

Colored men were impressed to construct fortifications. They 
wero shy at first, fearing it vns a trap to get (hem into slavery, 
but when they found they were to defend the city, tJiey gave 
enthusiastic demonntratious of joy. They went to their work 
tinging tAeir MarteiBaue^ 

•• John Btowd'^ body," are. 

While writing in the Rutaw House, I beard the song sung 
by B thousand voicen, accom|>anied by the steady tramp, tramp, 
tramp of the men marching down the street, cheering Oeneral 
Schcnck as timy [tossed his quarters. 

How rapid the mvolutiou ! Twenty-six months Itofore, Moa- 
sachusotta troops bad fought their way through tbe ci^, now 
the colored men were suigitig of John Brown amid tbe cheers 
of tlie people ! 

General Hooker waited ui front of Wasliington till ho was 
cortaiii of Lee's intentions, and thou by a rapid march pushed 
on to Frederick. Leo's entire army was across tbe Potomac. 
Rwoll was at York, enriching himself by reprisals. staaUngB, 
and confiscations. Ouiierai Hooker asked tliat the troops at 
Harper's Ferry might lie placed under bis command, Uiat he 
might wield the entire available force and crush Lee ; this was 
reftued, whereupon be informed tbe War Department tliat, un- 
^6M tiiii couditiou were complied with, he wished to be relieved 
i<f the oommaud of the army- The matter was laid before 



the Pro«doiit aud his request was grouted. Qenenl Meul« 
waa placed in cotumaud ; and what was deuied to Goueral Hook 
er was Hubstantially granted to Ooueral Ueade, — that lio was 
to use his best judgment in holding or evacuating Harper's 
Perry ! Oouerol Halleck was military advisor to the President, 
and the question between bim aud Hooker was whether Hal- 
leok, Bitting in liis chair at Washington, or Hooker at tlio head 
it the anny, should fight Oenoral Lee. The marah of Hooker 
from Fairfax to Frederick was one of tltc most rapid of tlio war. 
The Eleventh Corps marohed fifty-four miles in two dayi, — a 
striking coiitraitt to tlie movement in i^ptembor^ 1H02, when 
the army made but five miles a day. 

It was a dismal day at Frederiuk when the news was promul- 
gated that General Hooker was relieved of the command. Not- 
withstanding the result at Chanccllorsville, the soldiers had a 
good degree of confidence in him. General Meade was un- 
kuown except to liis own corps. He entered tlie war as briga- 
dier in the Poimsylvaiiia Be&orvos. He commanded a division 
at Aiitietam aud at Fredericksburg, and Ute Fifth Corpe BX 

General Meade carod but little for Uie pomp and parade of 
war. His own soldiers respected him because he was always 
prepared to eiiduro hardships. Thoy saw a tall, slim, gray 
bearded man, wearing a slouch hat, a plain blue blouse, with 
bis pantaloons tucked into his boots. Ho was plain of speech, 
and familjar in convorsalion. Ho eiyoyod in a high degree, 
eBpociolIy aftor Lhe battle of Frodoricksbui^, the contidenoe of 
the President. 

I saw him soon after he was informed that the army was un- 
der his command. There was no elation, but on the contrary ha 
BOemcd weighed down with a sense of the responsibility resting 
on him. It was in the hotel at Frederick Ho stood silent and 
thoughtful by Mmself. Few of all the noisy crowd around knew 
of the change that had taken place. The correspondents of the 
press knew it long before the corps commandors were informed 
of the fact. No change was mode in the machinery of tlie army, 
and there was but a few hours' delay in its movement. 

General Hooker bade farewell to the principal officers of tlw 
army on the afternoon of tlic 2Sth. They wore drawn up iii 


•nu. BOr» OF at 


lino, flo shook liands vitli each oflicor, laboring in vain to 
ititiu his emotion. Tho teon rollod dowit his chooks. The 
officoni wpra dtwply afTtxtcd. Ho said Umt ho had hoped to lead 
thom to riotory, but the power alravc him had ordered other 
wind. Ho spoke hi high tonus of Qcnoral Mcadc. Uo be* 
lievod tliat thoy would defuac tho onoray under his leadership. 

While writing out tho ovonta of the day in the parlor of a 
private houm> during the evouing, I heard ihe comments of 
»oT«ral officont upon tho chango which had taken placo- 

" Well, I think it is too liad to have him removed juat now," 
«td a captain. 

** 1 wonder if wo sliall have UcCloltan back ? " queried ■ 

*' Well, gentlemen, I don't know about Hookor as a com- 
mander in tho field, btit I do know tho Army of the Potomac 
was uoror so wotl fed and clothed as it has beou since Joa 
Qitokcr took command." 

** That is so," said aoveral. 

Iftor a sliort silence, another ofl^r took up the ooaversK- 
ti«ii and said, — 

"■* Yea, tho army was in bad condition when he took command 
of it, and Imd off every way ; 'out it never was in bettor condi- 
tion than it is to-day, and the men begin to like him." 

Tlio army was too patriotic to ozpross any dissatisfacti<Mi, 
and lu 4 fow dajT^ the event was wholly forgotten. 

It was OTident that a collision of tho two armies must tak« 
place befbro many days, and their positions, and iho Hum 
of movement indicatod tliat it must Ito near netty.-*hurg. which 
is tlie county »oat of Adams, Pcnusylvauia, nearly forty miles 
a Utth) north of out from Fn)derick, on tlio hoad-wators of 
tbe Monocacy Rock Crtvk, which in spring-time leaps oror 
bug« granite l>ouldor». runs soutl\, a mile cam of iho town, and 
W th« main st«m of tho Monooacy. Being a oounty aoat, it ii 
wim ft grand c«ntrv for tliat section of tho Sw/^ ooattuna thna 
UwQMud iulMbitant», and ha« a (tleasant looatioA, nurauodod 
with MMOOry of quiet boauly, lulls, ralleys, the dark ovtUno 
and TwdttR^'lad siilas of the Blu« Ridge in tbo v«M, and lh« 
b^ovry Caloctiu range on the s«.uth, Roada rftdSato in all 
Jireotioas. It was a oentnJ |KHnt. admitting of a *)u»ck ooo 
cviitmtinn of (nnwt. 



Ttie tunaj conuoaiided bj Oonoral Meadi; coiiststod of soveo 

1. Mf^or-OcDeral Rojni^da; 2. M^jor-Goiicrol Uanoock; 3. 
Hajor-Geiicral Hicklee ; 5. Ht^or-QonGrol Sykos ; 6. H^jor- 
General Sedgwick ; 11. Migor-Gciioral Howard; 12. M^r- 
Goneral Slocum. 

As Ewell was at York, and as l>eo wa£ advauciug in tltat 
iirocttou, it vtSh uocessaiy to take a wide swoep of country in 
tbo marcli. All Suuday the anu; was passing through Fred- 
erick. It was a strange ftiglit. The churches were open, and 
some of the officers and Koldiors atteudcd senico, — a procioui 
pnTilegQ to those who before eutonug the arm; were engaged 
in Sabbath schools. The stores also were open, and the town 
was cleaned of goods, — boots, shoes, noedlos, pins, tobacco, 
pipes, paper, pencils, and other trifles which add to a soldier*! 

Cavabj, infantry, and artillery were pouring through Um 
towu, the bands {^ajring, and the eoldien singing their liveliest 



meadows west of the town, and the woni and weary Holdien 
woro lulocp, catching a fow hours of repose before moTing on 
to the place wliero the/ were to lay down their lives for tbeir 

It was post oiglit o'clock on Thuredaj moruing, Julj 2d, b^ 
fore we reached the field. The ISfth Corps, turning off from 
tho Elonovcr road, oast of Rock Greek, pn^sod over to the Bal- 
timore pike, crossed Bock Greek, filed tlirouf^h Uio fiotd on tli« 
lofl: liBtul and moved towards Little Round-top, or Wood's Bill 
as it is iinw cxillcd. 

Riding directly up the pike towards ttio cemetery, I saw the 
TwoWlh Corps on my riglit, in tho thick woods crowning Gulp's 
Hill, [loyoiid. imrtli of the pike, van tlie Pin^t Cf>rps. Amma- 
nitiun wagons wcro guing up, and Uio artiUoryiuen wore filling 
tlieir liintier cheets. Pioiicors were cutting down the trees. 

Reaching the top of tho hill in front of tho comotory gate the 
b&ttlo-fiold was In view. To understand a bstllo, tho moTomonta 
of tlio opposing foroos, and what tliay attompt to acoompUsh, it 
is necessary first Ut coinpreliuiid the ground, its features, Um 
hillSf hollows, wouds, ravines, ledges, roads, — how they are 
related. A rooky hill is frequently a fortress of itself. Bail fai^ 
OBI and stone wjUIh are of value, and a ravine may be equirfr 
lent to ten Uiuusaud men. 

Tying my horse and ascending the stairs to tlie top of the 
gateway building, 1 could look directly down upon tlio town. 
Tho houBoe wore not forty rods dlstaut. Northeast, three 
fourths of a mile, was Gulp's Uill. 

On the uortheni side of the Baltimore pike were newly 
mown fields, tlie grass springing fresh and green since tho 
mower had swept over it. In those fields were batteries will- 
breastworks thrown up by Howard on Wednesday night, — 
light aflairs, not intended to resist cannon-ehot, but to protect 
the cannoneers from sharpshooters. Howard's tines of infantij 
wore behind stone-walls. The cannoneers were lying beside 
their pieces, — sleeping perhaps, but at any rate keeping close, 
f<»^, occasionally, a bidlot come sinf^ng past them. Looking 
north over tlie fields, a mile or two, wo saw a beautiAil farming 
country, — fields of ripened grain, — russet minirled with tb« 
(H-een in the landscape. 




GoiispicMoiis amoDg tlio buildings is tho almshouse, vitU its 
brick walls, gruut barn, aud numerous outrbuildiagB, on the 
Qoiritiburg road. B6yond are Uie houBea of Darid and John 
Blocher, — John Blochor's boing at tho junction of tho Car- 
lisle aud Nowvillo roads. Looking ovor tlio town, tho buildingE 
uf FenuBfWauia College aro iu full view, between the rood 
btidiiig uortliwest to Mutntnasburg, and the uiifinishod track of 
a niilrood niuuiog wot^t tiirough a dcop ozcavakion a half-mU'e 
from the college. Tlie Chamborsburg turnpike runs parallel 
to tlic railroad. South of thi» is tho liUthorari Theological 
Sominarj, beautifully situated, in front of a sliady grove of 
oaks. West and soutliwest wo look upon whoat, clover, and 
corn Beldsj. on both sides of the road looding to Emuiottsburg. 
A liolf-mile wet^t of this road is an elevated ridge of land, 
orowued with apple-orcliards and groves of oaks. Turning to 
the »ontlieatil, two niileci dii^tanl, is Round-top, shaped like a 
eugar-loaf, rocky, eteep, hard to climb, on it« western I'aoe, 
ea^y to be held by those who liave possesaiou, clad with oaks 
and piues. Nearer, a little east of Llio meridian, 10 Weod*a 
IJ ill, with Plum Run at its western base, flowing tlirough a 
rocky raviue. From tlie sides of th^ hill, aud on its top, great 
iKPulders bulge, like plums in a pudding. It is very stony 
west o( the hill, as if Nature in making up the mould had 
dumped the d^brii there. 

Between Rouud-top and Weed'» there is a gap, where men 
bent on u det^purate eiilor[>ribe mlglit fmd a patisway. Between 
Weed's aud the cemetery the ridge is broken down and 
smoothed out into fields and pastures. Tho road to Tanoy- 
town runs east of this low ridgo, tho road to Enimottsburg 
west of it. A small house stands on the west side of the 
Taneytowo rond, with the Amr^rican flag flying in front of it. 
There are horses hitched to tne fences, while otliors aro nib- 
bling the gross in the fields. Officers witli stars on their nhoul- 
ders are oxntnining maps, writing, and sending olT cavalrymen. 
It is General Meade's head-quarters. When tl)c Rebel batteriM 
open it will be a warm place. 

Elanng token a general look at tho field, I rodo forward 
towards the town, between Stewart's and Taft's batteries, in 
position on either aide of the rood. Soldiers in blue were ly- 
ing behind the garden fences. 


THE BOYS or '61. 


" Whore are you going ? " said oce. 

•' Into the towii." 

*• I roekou not. The Robs hold it, and I advise yow to turn 
flUmt. It 19 ratlicr dangerous whoro you are. Tho RaMb are 
r^n over tliore in that brick house." 

Bight OTor tliore was not thirty rods distant. 

** ring ! '* — and there vras the sharp ring of a bullet oiwvr 
our heads. 

General HoTrard was in the comotory with hjs maps and 
plans sproad upon tlio graund. 

" Wo arc just taking a lunch, and thora is nMim for odo 
mora," was his kind and courtoous wolcomo. Then romoTing 
his hat» li6 asked God to bless tho ropaBt. The bullets wore 
occasionally singing uvor us. Soldiers were taking up tho 
headstones and removing the mouiuneuts tVom tlieir pedee- 

" I want to preserve tliom, boeidos, if a shot should strike n 
stone, the piocos of morblo would ho likely to do iiyury," said 
the Gonorai. 

Tho flowont wore blooming around us. 1 gathered a hand- 
^ 1 as a momonto of tho hour. ProparationR wore rapidly 
^ng on for tho approaching stnigglo. North, west, and 
fouthwost the whole country was alive witli Rebels, — long 
lines of men deploying in various directions, tents going up, 
with yellow flags above thoiu on tho distant Iiills, tliuusands of 
caiivas-«uvercd waguns, slowly winding along the roads, reach- 
ing as fkr as tho oye could soo towards Chambersburg, Oar 
lisle, and FairHold, — turning into the fields and taking poei''^ns 
in park. There wore batteries of artillory, tlio cannon gloam- 
ing in the noonday sun, and hundreds of horsemen riding in 
hot luisto on many a dosporule errand. 

While purLaking of our roftushment, General Howard nor 
rated tJin operations of tho preceding day. 






Om Tuesday eveaiug, the 30th of June, General B«7nol<tL 
iras ill oamp on Marsli Rtm, a eliort dietaiice from Enunette- 
burg, wliUe General Howard, with t)ie Eloventli Corpe, was in 
that town. Instructions wore roceired from Qoiioral Moade as- 
signing Geiitiral Reyuoldi* to Iho command of the First, Elevonth, 
and Tliird Corp». General Reynolds moved early ui the mom 
ing to Gettysburg, and eent orders to General Howard to fol- 
low. General Howard received the orders at 8 o'clock in. the 
morning. General Barlow's dirisiou of line Eleventh followed 
the First Corps by tlie moet direct road while General Schurz's 
and General St«inwohr's diTisions went by Hornor's Mills, the 
distance being tlurtcou miles. Goueral Hovard. with bin etafi, 
pushed ou in advance of liis troops. 

Buford's diri»<ion of cavalry passed through Gettysburg on 
Tuesday and went into camp a mile and a half west of tlic town 
ca the Chamborsburg pike. At 9.S0 A. M. on Wednesday, the 
Bebela of A. P. Hill's division appeared in front of huu. and 
skmnisbiug oommencod on the farm of Hon. Edward McPher- 
Bou. General Reynolds rode into Gettysburg about 10 o'clock 
in advance of bis troops, turned up the Chambersburg road, 
reconnoitred the position, rode hack again, met the head of 
his column a milo down the Enmiettsburg road, turned it di- 
rectly across the 6olds, towards the seminary, and deployed 
Ills divisions across the Chambersburg road. General Archer's 
t-rigado of Heth's division of A. P. Hill's corps was advancing 
uistward, unaware of Reynolds's movement. He had passed 
Uerr's tavern, two miles beyond the town, when ho fonnd liim- 
self face to &ce with General Meredith's brigade of Reynolds'i 
oommand. The fight opened at once. Archer and seva-al hun 
dred of his men were captured. General Outler, it\ishing ou 
from the town between the half-finished railroad and the Cham 


TU£ BOYS OF '61. 


benbui^ road, oamo in contact with Davis's brigade of Bfi«i»- 
■ippians. The contest iDcroaficd. GcaonU Uejnnlds, while 
riding along tho lino, was killed in the field boyoiid the Sem- 
inary, oud tho conuoand dovoWod ou OenenU Donbledajr. 

General Howard heard tliu cojnionadc, and riding mpidlj up 
Jie Emmettsburg road ontored tlie town, BOut mossongore in 
leorcli of General Royiiolds, asking for iustnictiouB, not know- 
ug Uiat lie had l>ooii killod. 

While waiting tiio return of his aids, ho wont to tho top of 
tho collogo to rocotmoitro tho surrounding country. Uis aid, 
H^jor Biddio, soon oauio back, with Llic tiod intciligonce tliat 
General Reynolds had fallen, and that Uio command devolved 
on himsoir. 

It was half past otcven. Tlio Rebels were appoariug in in- 
oroosed force. Tho prisoners taken said that Uio whole of A. 
P. Hill's corps was near hy. 

** You will have your hands full bofore uight. Longstroot u 
near, and EwcU is coming," said one, boaotiugly. 

** Alter an uiamination of Uie goiieral foatures of tlio oouu- 
117," said General Iloward, '' 1 caiue to tho concluaiuu tliat tlie 
only tenable position for my limited force wus on this ridge. 1 
saw that this was tlio highest point. You will notice tliat It 
commands all tho otlior ominoiicos. My arlillory caji sweep 
tlic fields completely." 

Ho painted towards tlie north, where across tlio pike, just 
beyond the gateway, woro Colonel Woinwright's batteries of (he 
First Corps, and around us were Colouol Osborn'e of llie 
Eloventli. Behind ui, east of the cemetery, was some of 
tho roBorve artillery. 

Tho head of tlic Eleventh Corps reached Gettysburg about 
twelro o'clock. The first and third divisiou passed tlirougb tiio 
lown, moved out beyoud the collogo, and joined the right of 
tlie Firat Oorps. Howard eent three battonos and his second 
division, Stehiwohr's, to take possession of the cemetery and 
the hid uortli of ttio Baltimore pike. 

Thus for success had attended the tJnion arms. A large 
uumber of prisouers had been taken witli but little loss, and 
the troops wero holding their own against a superior force. 
About half past twelve cavalry scouts reported that EwoU wa> 




oomiug dOTii the York road, aiid was not more thau four milot 
dletant General Howard seiit au aid to General Sickles, who 
was af Emmetuburg, requesting him to come on with all haste. 
Ajiother was sent down the Baltimore pike to the Two Tar- 
enij. throe milos distant, with a similar message to General 
Slociun. The Second Corps was there, — resting in the fields. 
They had hoard the roar of the battle, and could see the cloud« 
of smoke rising over the intervening hills. General Slocum 
was the senior officer. He received tho message, but did not, 
fcr reasons best known to himself, see fit to accede to the r^ 
qnest. He could have put tho Twelfth Corps upon the ground 
in season to meet Ewcll, but remained whore lie was UU after 
the contest for the day was over. 

It was a quarter before tliree when Ewell's lines began to 
deploy by John Blocher's house on the York road. Tlie Rebel 
haUeries were wheeled inio position, and opened on Wad»- 
worth. Weidorick's battery in tlio cemetery replied. Again 
a mOBseniror went in haste to the delinquent officer. 

" I sent again to General Slocum, stating that my riglit flank 
was attacked ; that it was in danger of being turned, and ask 
ing him If ho was coming up," said General Howard. 

The message was delivered to .Slocum, who was atill at the 
Two TaveniB, where bo had been through the day. Wcider 
ick's battery was in plain view fWim that position, but Gen- 
eral Slocum did not move. 

This officer on Thursday aud Friday did bard service. Ho 
afterward commanded acceptably one of Sherman's wings 
in the march from Atlanta to the sea, but on tlio fir^t day at 
Gettysburg his inaction, unless satiEfoctorily explained, will 
compel the impartial historian to assign him a lower place 
on the scroll of fame than would otherwise have been ao 
curded him. 

Sickles was too far ofl to render assistance. Meanwhile 
Swell was pressing on towards the college. Auotlier division 
of Rebels under General Pender came in from the ttoutliweat, 
and began to enfold the left of Howard's line. 

" T want a brigade to help me ! ** was the word from Schuri, 
commanding the two dirisions in (Vont of Ewell. beyond the 


THE BOYS or *«I. 


" Sotid out Costa's brigade," said Ilovard to his chief of 
tuff, llio liriKudo wout dowu tliruugU tlie town acvumpauied 
bj ft batlory, and joinod t}io liuo, upou tbe double-quick. Xa 
bour paanod ol close, dott{>cr&to figbting. It wauted a quarter 
to foiir. Howard confVoiitcd i>y four times his own force, was 
flliU holding his ground, wailing for Slocum. Another meBsao- 
(Ifer rode to the Two Taverns, urging Slooum to advance. 

" I must have roinforcvments ! " waa the message (max 
Douhloday on the loft. " You must reinforce me ! " was the 
word from Wadsworth in the centre. 

'* Hold out a littloi longer, if posaiUo ; I am oipocting Qon- 
wal Hlocum every moment," was Howard's reply. Ftill 
anoilior despatch was sent to the Two Taverns, but General Slo 
cum had not moved. Tlie Rebel cannon wore cutting Wndti- 
worth's lino. Ponder was swooping round Doubleday ; Ewell 
was enclosing Sclmn. Sicklott was Rto mllcit distant, advAii- 
ciiig as fast aa ho could. Slooum was whoro lie had been flrom 
early morning, tlireo miles distant. The tide was turning 
T)ie only alternative was a retreat. It was past four o'clock. 
For six hours the ground had been lield against a groatly supe- 
rior foroo. 

Ut^or Howard., the Oenoral's brother, a member of his staff, 
dashed down tlio pike in searcti of Stocuni, with a roquoKt tlial 
he would move at onoo, and seitd one diviitioii to tlio right and 
tlio other to Uie lolt of Oottysbnrg. Slocum declined to go up 
Co tbe fW>nt and talto any responsibility, as tie understood that 
Oonoral Moado did not wish to bring on a general eugmgoment. 
tin woa willing, however, to send forward his troops as General 
(Inward dosirod, and issued his orders accordingly. Under 
military law tlie question might bo raised wbetlior a senior 
officer had a right to throw olf the responsibility which ciraum- 
stances had forced u|>on him : also whether tio could turn over 
his trooiw to a subordinate. 

But before Uie divisions of tbe Twelfth Corps could gel in 
motion, tlie Robols had oomplotely enfolded liotli Hank;- of 
Howard's lino. Tlie order to retreat was given. Tlio two cor|w 
oamo OTDwUing tiirougli the town. The Rebels pressed on with 
oheei-8. Must of tlio First Corps reached tlio oometory ridge, and 
were rallied by Howard, Stoinwehr. and Hancock. This offioei 




liad jiiRt arrived. Tlie troopft vera HtroamiiiK ovar the hill, vheo 
he reiiiod up hia stood in the ccinotory. Ho camo, under diroo- 
tioii nf General Meado, to take charge of all tho troops in front. 
Tlio ElevonUt Cordis was bard pressed, ojid lost between two and 
three tbousatid pHsonorB in tho towa. 

TliQ Rebels of Ewell's conunaiid pushed up the northern slope, 
through tlio hay-Gelds, fluiishcd witli victory; but Wcidorick'e 
hattory poured canistor Ui quick diKchargos into tho advancing 
ranks, breaking the line. 

Tlic retreat was so orderly and tlie rosietonce so steady that 
the Rebels gave utterance to their admiratiou. Said Oenenl 

" A Taukeo color-boarer floated bis standard in the field 
and the regiment fought around it ; and when at last it was 
nhligod to retreat, tho color-boaror retired last of all, turn- 
ing round now and then to shako Itis fist in the face of the 
advancing Rel>els. lie was sorry wlien he saw him meet his 
do..ra." • 

Three color-hearorit of the Nineteenth Indiana were shot. 
The Sergeant- Major, Asa Blancliard, ran and took tho flag 
when the tliird man foil, waved it, and cried "Rally, boyal" 
The next momcitt ho foil- Hh comrades stopped to carry him 
off. Tho Rebels wore close at liand. 

*• Don't stop for ma," bo cried. " Don't let them have the 
flag. Tell mother I never faltered." Tlioy were his parting 
words to his comrades, who saved the flag. 

General Hancock mot General Howard and informed him of 
his instructions, saying, "General Meade undoubtedly supposed 
that I was your senior, but you outrank me." 

" It is no time to talk about rank. I shall most cheerfully 
obey your instructions and do all in my power to co-operate 
witli you," was Howard's reply, tlius waiving tho command 
which was his by riglit. Tliey perfectly agreed in what woa to 
be done. Qeueral Howard took charge of the troops and batr 
laries on tlio right of tlie line, while General Hancock brought 
order out ofconlXision oti tho loft. 

The Rebels having boon ropnlsod by the batteries, and «ati» 

* linwntDt pTMtntjttEfl. — fttatJieootPt ifofotim, Sopleabar, IWI 



nil:: BOYS OP 'n. 


Red iriUi the vork of tlio day, mado no f\irthor attack, allbongfa 
tliey greatly outnumbered the Union foroo. 

Ociioral Sickles arrived at seTon o'clock, and Oeneral fllocum 
aUo came up, lie being the senior oflioor. General Uoward 
turned over tlio command to liim, while Oouonl Hancock wont 
back to BOO General Meade at Taiieytown, to inform him of the 
state of aflairs. Tlie Third Corps ^lod into position on tltc loit 
of tlie FiTBt. south of the cemetery, while the Twolflh took 
poneinon of Gulp's nui. 

80 elowd tlio fint day at Gettysburg. 


TNnUDiT, Jnlj 1. 

General Meado arrivod on tlie battlo-field at thre« o'clock od 
the moming of the 2d, and had an intorriew iritli Oonerftl 
Howard soon after by tho cometory gate. Thoy rode along the 
linos together. 

*' I am con6dont that we can hold this poettion,*' said Gen- 
eral Iloward. 

" I am glad to hear you say so^ for it is too late to leave it,** 
Raid Monde. 

Tlio cannonade began at d&yhroak, the guns in the cemetery 
and thoso of the Rohcla noar Blocher's house keeping up ■ 
steady firo for an hour, wlioii both paKioa, ae if by mnnml con- 
sent, became sllont; but the pickota were at It all along lIio 

While I was conversing witli Gonoral Howard, his brother, 
M^or Uoward, who was keeping a sharp look upon tho Rebels. 
came running up. **T1icre is a splendid chance to cut them 
up» Ooucral ; just boo tbom ! " 

A column of Rebels was moving along the Cbambenbnrg 
road, and stood out in bold relief. 

" Let Osl>on) pitch in tho shells IVom his rifled ptecea,*' said 
the Major. 

General Howard survoyod them a moment and replied : ** We 
might do them somo damage, but wo are not quite roady to 
bring on a general engagement. It ia n't boat to harry. Wo 
■hall have onough Hghting before niglit.*' 

The battle bad not commenced in earnost Lee was moving 




[lis troops towards the left. Tlie Union pickeUi were posted 
along the EmmulUiburg road ; some were Ijiug dowu in tbe 
wheat-fields beyond It, keeping up a eleadj hitorchaage of 
Bliots with the Rebels. It was a favorable time to ride over 
the grouud where ttie great contest was to take place. 

The first dirision, Qoucral Ames's, of the Eleventh Corps, wok 
north of the Baltimore pike, the tlurd division, ScIiutz'b, was on 
botli sides of it, and tlie second division, SteLnwehr's, in the 
cometory , Ijring beliind the stone wall, which forms its western 
Utundory. Colonel O&born's batteries were on tlie urest of the 
ridge, in position to fire over tlie heads of Uie infantry. Rob- 
inson's division of the First Corps was posted at the left of 
Steinwohr's, crossing the Tanoytowu road. Wadsworth's and 
[Joubledaj-'s divisions of the First were north of the Baltimore 
pike, to the right of General Ames, reaching to Gulp's Hill. 
where they joined the Twelfth Corps. 

Riding down the road towards Taneytown, I came upon Gen- 
eral Stannard's brigade of nine months* Vermont boys, lying 
in the open field in rear of the cemotory. OccasionaUy a shell 
came over them from t!io Rebel batteries, by Blochor's. It was 
their first experience under fire. They were in reserve, know- 
ing notliing of what was going on iha other side of tlie hill, yet 
tantalized by a fiank fire from the distant battorios. A short 
distance farther 1 came to Gonoral Meade's hoad-qtiartors, in 
tlie house of Mrs. Leister. Gonoral Meade was there BU^ 
rounded by his staff, consulting maps and issuing orders. 
General Hancock's head-qnarters' flag, — the tree-foil of the 
Second Corps, — was waving on the ridge southwest of the 
house. Gonoral Slocum's, — the star-flag, — was in sight, on 
a conical hill a half-mile eastward. Tlio crescent flag of the 
HUovonth was proudly planted on Uie highest olovation of the 
cemetery. Tlio Maltose oross of the Fifth Corps was a half- 
mile south, toward Round-top. 

Turning into the field and riding to tlio top of the ridgo, I 
came upon Hayes's division of the Second Corps, joining Rob- 
inson's of the First ; then Gibltons's and Caldwell's of the Sec- 
ond, roaching to a narrow roadway running west from the 
Tanoytown road to the houso of Abraham Trostio, whore, a 
half-mile in advance of the main lino, was planted the di 


TNR KOVIi or '«L 


tw'ii'l 8af( uf thn Tlilnl Corpt, Oonend 8ieklca. Pushing 
lUrtuiliy wii»t, Uiroii^li a ftnl'l whoro tho tfraai wu ripening Toi 
ilui wjrUii), I a)«|irijMliiMl tli<] lioute of Mr. Oodori, od the 
KniiiiitiUlfiirg road. Hut \l wiu a daiiKurouB placo jimt then to 
• iitiui on liormiliiuik, for Uio ptckobi o( ImjIIi armtcEi woro lying 
III lIiq wltimiliotfl wtiil of thu rood, nciioral Carr's brigade 
of lliu'Dilnt Ofiri* wu> lying Imlilnd tho ridgo nonr tho houM 
uf I'lilitr tlugoni. Hnldliin* woro filling thoir cantoouti IW>in the 
tirnok In tli« tiiillnw. Kurtlior down l>jr tho houso of Mr. Wenti, 
al Iho oornur or tho nurrow ntad loading oofit fVom tho Kmmett*- 
tmrK riMul, and in tho jiuaulwirisUardii on both aidos of it, wera 
lriiii|» and haitorlui. Tim Socond Nov Uampshiro, thu First 
Ualnn, and Uio 'riiird Uiuliigon wura tliure, huldhig tho angle 
i»f Uiti hill), whidi lioTD litrnud oiut frum Die Kmmettsburg 
nwd. Tlii>ni|UHin's hattory woa holuud Wuntz's hou&o. Qen- 
•ral Hlokliw hud hU oUior Iwtlomvt hi jioBiUou along tho n&e- 
niw iiuid, Iho miualiM of ilio Runtt pointing iKiuthwost. Admb'i 
Now Yiirk luittiiry wan in tho orchard, atid tho guunors war* 
tyin|[ Uuiualli Uto |N>ttch-tn.>us, vi^ujing the loafy sUadft. 
Qbark'H Nnw Jaiwy twttury, riiillipn's Fifth llassacbuEetts, 
and Hi^i^Ktw'N Ninth Uai^ai'husotta wore on tlie left of Ames. 
Ib^Kiw'a waj In l>unt of Troetlo's hous«, hariug oompleta 
•QMwand and tho ftdl iwwp uf a beautifut slope beywid tiia 
Mfedftu-Mity t\HU 

T^ ti^* dtiBtiouUa to a wooded ranne throng vfaidk viaii 
ft W«9Qk, (uiyUn^ owr a rockf k«cl* B«Toud ths tvook an Am 
ilMM llyrwhaww awl m^miiam ham <if Jalu BoB«iiK vhan 
dwM^yawl «w« llw Uteiw fUkm, aiAaagliig a Aoi nam aad 
ttMM wiOt the ReMa of lia^lnal^ corpa, aMith of Bcm'b. 
'■W WM» ^y^ aton <k» fJaBalian wad. 

CHumnI iMiMala itfliiii «r aha IVM Ooya vaa ■ *■ 
wvMfe iKmlli trf* tlw Mnow ivaid. Mil anaaf tta roefa aa fcaaa 




quaxtera for consultation. Sickles did not atteud, deommg it 
of vital importaacQ to preparo for the edvance of tbo ouemy, 
and his ooldiors were levelliug fotices and removing obstnio- 
tions. « 

A poromptor; order reached Sickles roquiriag Lis preseooe. 
He roda to the head-<]uarters of the army, but the coufereuoe 
wat) over, and. he went batik to his conunand foCoved b; Onn 
eral Mcado. 

"Are you not too much extended! Gau you hold your front T" 
•eked the Coinmanderin-Cliicf. 

** Tos, only I eliall want more troope." 

" I will send you the FiHh Corps, and you may call on Baa- 
cock for BUpport." 

" 1 shall need more artillery." 

" Send for all you want. Call on General Hunt of the Artil- 
lery Reserve. I will direct him to send you all you want.'* 

Tlie pickots were keeping up a lively lire. 

** I think that tlto Rebels will soon make their appeoranoe," 
lud Sicklus. 

A moineuL later and the tscatteriug Ore became a rolloy. 
General Muade took anoUior look at the troops in position, and 
galloped back to his head -quarto re. 

General Lee, in his report, tia» given an outline of his inten 
tions. He says : — 

" It liitd nol Ix-cn intended lo tighl « general batlKt m mc!i ndirtuioe 
from our bnae, iiiileas Atuickud hy ihe enemy; bat, flndin^ oureelvof 
Bnexp«cicdly confronted by Ibe Federal army, it became a matter of 
difficulty Xo wUhdraw through the modnuuni with our large trains. Ai 
the «ame timo thu cuuucry wu uufuvomblu forcoDsctiug nupplie'' wliilt 
iu the prc««iice of Iht? (Enemy's main boJy, as he wa«. enabled to reslraio 
our foragin;; parties by occupyin<r t)ie pR«se;> of the mouataina with 
repilar and local troop*. A battle thus be<»ine, in a measure, uiiavoid 
■hV. Enroumgcd by the iacressful iaaue of the etiijagcment of th€ 
fiiNt day, and in view o** the valuable resulta that would enitue from the 
defeat of the army of Geneni Meade, it was thought advisable to re- 
Dew the attack. 

"The remainder of Kwell's and Hill'ii eorpa having arrived, aod two 
]iviaiooi of Longetreet's, our preparationa were made acoonliugly 
During the aftamooQ intelligence wa^ received of (be arriTal of Geo- 
■tal Stuart at Oarliale, ai:i he wa» onlere<l to march Vi GettyHbarf 




vkd take poailioo on tba left. A full Mcouot of these enj^i^nieoti 
cannol be given until the reporta of the ^ronl commRnding officer* 
«h^l hare been received, aai I .^liall only oSer a general desrription. 

"Tbi^ preparucioru for attack weie not completed tinrit the aftemooQ 
of tb4- 2A. 

"The enemy held a higL an'd comraoitdin); ridgo. aluag which he had 
manaed a large Hmount of artillery. General Kwell occupied the lefl 
of onr liiKS Gent-ral Hill the centre, and GoDeral Lun^treet the right. 
la front of Gi-iicral Lungilreet the eucmy held a poaitioii from which, 
if be could be driven, it wax liiouglil that our army could be uned ta 
adviuitage in availing the more elevated groiin<l t>flyand, and tht» en- 
able ut to reach the creec of the ridge. That ofiicvr wa» directed to 
•Ddeavor to carry thij position, while General Ewell attacked direcily 
the high ground un the enumy's right, which bad already beeo partially 
rortifieil. General ilill was instructed to threaten tlie centre of |Ih> 
Federal line, in order to prevent rcinforoements h<^iiig »ent to either 
wing, and to avail himself of ooy opportunity that might present ittelf 
(0 attack." 

Lee liad been all day pcrfectuig Ms plans. He vas rfdiug 
aloug his liiice at Biinriso, reconnoitring Moado's positiou. Hia 
h«ad-quarU)r8 were near tlio Theological Seminary, where, ac 
five o'clock iu Iho moiiung. Loo, IIUl, Longstreot, Hood, and 
Helli were engaged iu conrereation. The cotiferouco last«d 
till seven o'clock, when Longstreot rode down to his corps to 
make arrangements for the attack. Qood had tlio extrom« 
right, and McLaws stood next in line. Pickett, commanding 
his other division, had not arrived. It was to bo held in 

* Ttio Kcx^Mnpkitjing plan of that hattloliold vcunLlelj rcprvMota tho ^narsl 
pMllioM oC ihe iraopt cngtgtd. Un the ri)(ht of ih« Union line !■ the Twelfth 
Corp*; then two iliriaiona of tba Firnt: ctien ih« KlercoUi in rniil imyand tha 
cemetery; (hgn Kubtnaoii'i itimion of ihu Fini.: then tlw Eiacond aq<j ibo FifUt on 
the left, occupjias Wceil'i Ilitl. The Third t'or|p« tn to Uie poiltioa ii occn|>iviI u 
tJi« begioaing ot ihr bHiileoQ the >nAmaon o(th« a«c»nd xiajr. It wu fom%l bws 
Id TrMtle*! boiue. The Hlsth Corjii i» in ih« poaiiion It oceuiited ai anufci on the 
•aeond day. On ttw ihird dav ii wm io line along Weed'i 11111. When 8liJCDn 
■eat Brer from the rij;ht to aid in rrpulsiag LoDgftrrct on the atcoad day, ht 
paiimil Dflu- the two bouwi »uui<linj|t oa the Tkaeyiown road. Ueade'* quwten 
wen la the buaet oror which ■ Saj> ii Hying. 

Loogatnet i» in the poaltioii ■•hicli be txcnpiod at three o'clock on the ■fteraooa 
•T A» awoad day, and to which he rrdred after biliog to pnih Hirkkt bayoed 

Pkken ratnmuided a dirUioa And not • corpe But u kle dlriaion look tbo lead 




Lee clioso, as his firsi poiut of attack, the portion occupied 
by Sickle*. The ground hjr WeuU's liouso is highoi than the 
ridge, wlioro flancock liad ostaWishcd his head-quartoi^. If he 
ooidd drive Sickles Orom tlio peach-orchard bj tiirniug his loft 
6auk, and gain Woed'o Hill, Mcado would be compelled lo re- 
treat, aud tlie nature of lUe ground was such in roar of ihii 
cemetery that a retreat might l*e turned iuto a oooipleCe rout 
Meade's potation wan a very fair on o for defence, hut one from 
which an anny cotild not well rotiro Iwforo a victorious enemy. 
The trains in [ark along Rock Creek would have been in llie 
way. Raggoge trains are exceedingly usoful, but tlierc ore 
times when commanders do not know what to do with them. 
A battery in the hands of the enemy, planted on the ridgo, or 
in the cemetery, if those places had fallen into the hands of tho 
Rebels, would have produced confusion in Meade's rear among 
the t«amsterA, who arc not always cool nndor fire, especially if 
Iher have refractory mules to manage. General Mcadc would 
have chosen a position fiftcon or twenty miles in rear, nearer 
to hb base of Bupplio<!, and had he boon at Gettysburg aa 
Wednesday evening, doubtless would have ordered a retreat. 
The question, whether to M\ back or to hold the position, was 
aeriously dohated. But [Toward had made the stand. He be- 
lieved that the position could bo hold, and Lee defeated tlicre. 
He did not calculato for a defeat, but for victory. Had Meade 
&Ueti back, Lee would liavo boon wary of moving on. It was 
oot his intention, lie says, to figlit a general battle so far from 
his base. He would havo followed cautiously, if at all. Tlirough 

In the last MUck, on the third ilnj, uid u hi* rvpalMi wh K»aAng]j the taraing 
p^ot of the Rdtiellion «iperiEl mention hM bMD mmAe of ihn put uk»a bj the 
BDOpi nndor bin comnuuid. Hill inpported hln, A poRloa of HiU'i troopi mn 
vrith Loit|faLrc«i in the uuck of tho aoconi day. 

Gwcll in in tho jKMiiioa be occapl«d ai d«xk on ths wcood daj, wbJI* two of Slt^ 
nun'i <ii>iaioDi ircrc Aiding the leR of Mi^ado'i line. 

Lee'» )i(i<d.4|uArt«n were oenr Smucker's hotue. 

The fight on the Am itmy b«gan on Willon^hhij'i Kan. The (TnloD Uhciod that 
itj exLeodul Jn>rn the Middleiown road along the Kmldrcte occapled by tha 
Bcb«l CHQOOD in ihu dijkf^mn. to tbe raiimad cut of Blocher'i. The map ti 
ftdncw) fmim »n umiratii larrrj 

The beat plan or thii baiilo uttajit U tht isometrieal picture of Q«ll7*bDrg, bj 
Oolood J. B. BaUlielder, wbo baa dented manj RMolha Ut the itvd/ of the Held 
ti will vrar b« itandArd sMboHlj for tbe hMtorian 




liio forosiglit, Tuih, and coiirago of Howard, thorofore, 0«t^»- 
btirg liaa bocomo a turniug-poiiii in iiistorj. And yot, not that 
ntooo. for the warp and woof of history are made up of ianu- 
morablB tUrcads. TUo Ilobols, on tbal altornoon of Thursdaj', 
as thoy moved out from Uio woods into the Holds souUi of the 
house of John Rose, had a tliorougb contempt fur Uie troopi 
in blue, standing boueath itics peach-tnjos in .Sherfj's orolianl, 
and along the road tuwardti TruBtlu'ti. Big Botliel, Ball Run, 
Richmond, Matiaesas, Fredoricksburg, ChoucollorsTille, Cedar 
Mountain, Harper's Ferry tlioj reoiomberod as victorioi ; 
and OTon Autiotam and Soutli Mountain woro called drami 
battles by tl)o Rebel comnuuidor-in-chiof. Tliey had already 
aohieved one victory on the soil of PouasylTania. Five thou 
saud Yaokces had been caj>lured. The troops of Uto Coufed* 
eracy ware inTinctble, not only while fighting at their owd 
doors, but as invaders of the Nortli. Sucli vaa Uie feoUus 
of tlie soldiers. But tlio Eiebel officers were not quite 90 
■auguine of success as tlie men. An Englishman, who saw 
the fight fhim the Rebel side, says : — 

" At 4.80 P. M. {WBdnwtday) we choib in light of Gettysburg, ud 
)OiD«d Grneml Lee and General tlitl, who were on the top of one of 
the ridgcfi which form the pectiliar feaiure uf the ooontry round Getiyt- 
burg. We could if.« the enemy retn.>wtinjj up one of the oppomle ridga^ 
pttmued by thn Confederates with Inttd yells. 

"The position into which iJie «nomy had been driven was evidently 
ft strong one. GvnerKl Hill now cnine up, nnd totd oie h« hail L>eea 
very anwell all day, and in fact he looks verjr delicate, lie said he 
had two of bia divisions engaged, and had driven the ettviny four niilei 
into liiii prcHenc poAition, capturing n greni niHny priomera, luimK cannon, 
ftnd Bomo colort; he said, however, that the VRnki^en hnd foiighl with 
R determinnlion anuauaJ lo them. He pointed out a milwiiy cutting 
b which they had madu a good <iiAnd: also a Aeld, in the ceotre of 
which ho hul »«eo a man pluut tht- n-gimuntat colon, round which the 
regiment hm! fought for notnu timt- with iniirh olintiiincy ; and whrn al 
hint ii WHS obliged lo retreat, the oolor-bi'nrer retired Ihhi of all, turning 
round every now aiid then to iliake his fist at the advanuing Rebeb. 
General Hill aaid he felt quite twny when be utw this gall&nt Yankea 
meet his doom. 

" Genernl Kwell bad ooote up at S.dO 00 tbe enemy's right and oosa- 
pletad his •liscomAtara. 




•* Genera! Reynolda. one of iho boat Yankee generml*. wm reported 
killed. Whilst we were talking, ■ laeMage nrrivei] from General EweU, 
reqvMiing R2I to preas the eoemj in front, wbiUt he peirfonned the 
•emfl openitioD od hii right The preosora waa Kooordingl^ applied io 
a mild degree, but the enemj were too atrongljr poUed, and it wM too 
latA ia th^ evening for a regular attack."* 

Qeneral Hill and Qooeral Lee had been o^Mirant of the 
*' detertnination unusual to the Tankeoa." Tlie "prossuro" 
brought upon Hovard in the cemetery, at nightfall, was reaisted 
by man who hod snffercd defeat, who had left a third of their 
comradae dead or wounded on tlio field, or as prisoners in the 
hands of the enemy. But the Robel rank-and-file, remember- 
ing only the Tictorica they had already won, did not for a 
moment doubt their ability to win another. They wore flushed 
with the enthusiasm of repeated Bucceesos. 

On the other hand, the soldiers of the Union believed, with 
Howard, Hancock, Sickles, and other officers, thut they could 
bold the position against the assaults of Ijce. It wao not a 
calculation of advantages, — of tlio value of bills, ravinus, 
Golds, and meadows, — or of uumborB, but a detormiuatiou 
to win the day or to die on the spot. 

Snch were the feelings of the opposing parties on that sunny 
aflomoon, as thoy appeared in liuo of battle. 

The Rebel forces moving to the attack south of WoiiIe's 
were wholly uudor Longstreot's couimand. Anderson's divis- 
Ion of Hill's corps was joined to McLaw's and Hood's, to form 
the attacking column. Tlio Washington Artillery of New 
Orleans was in the woods southwest of Wontz's house. Barks- 
datti's Mississippiaiis wore behind artillery. A few rods west 
of the same house, on a narrow road leading towards Hagers- 
town, is the residence of Mr. Warfield. A third of a mile 
north of Wentz's, ou tho Rmmott«burg road, is the house of 
Philip Snyder. Botwoou Warftold's and Snyder's, fjongstreet 
planted fifty or sixty guns to bear on the poach-orchard and 
the batteries which Sickles had stationed along tho road lead- 
ing past Trostle's, and upon the woods oast of the bouse of 
Ur. Bose. 

Longstreet'fi plan was to attack with all the vigor pOBsihle,— 




(0 bttr dowu til opposition in tito outeet. Commaaden fr» 
^euU*r bogin tu ongagomout by fcoliug of the euemj-'tj posi 
tfoa, — advancing a fow skinnisliors, a re^meut, or a brigade; 
but in t)ii>« iiifitAiico Loiig!«troot ndrauced all but his reserve- 

h was half past three. Riding rapidly to the right to sec if 
there were sigos of aotirity in that dircctiou, diEmouiitiug in 
rear of tlio line, luid tying my borso to a tree, I look a look 
northward. A mile to tliu north Robol oflicors wore in view, 
galloping furiously over the fields, diaappoarlng iu groves, dash- 
iug down tho road to the town, aud again returning. There 
wan a battory in position beyond tho railroad, and as I looked 
narrowly at an opouhig hctwoou two groves, 1 saw tho gUs- 
toning of bayonets, and a line a^ if a coluuiu of tuou were 
marching toward the thick forest on Rock Crook, tt was 
surmised ilmt Uicy were to attack our right upon Gulp's Hill 
by advancing directly down Rock Creek tlirougli tho woods. 
Prisoners oapiui-od said that EwctI had fworu a terrible oath 
to turn our flank, if it took his last man. To guard against 
such a movement, Slocum was throwing up breastworks from 
iJio cran of tlio hill down to Rock Creek. Two battoriet 
were placod in [wsitiou on hillocks south of tlie turnpike, to 
tlirow shells up tho creek, should such an attempt bo made. 
The Union Cavalry in long linos was east of the oroek, and 
tlio Reserve Artillery, in parks, with horses harnessed, vu in 
the open field soutli of Slocum's hoad-quarters. 

* As near as I can make out, the RobeU have got a tine of 
hatterioti iu that piece of woods," said an officer who luul been 
looking steadily aorot<s tlio rnrine to Blochor's Hill. Laying 
my glass upon tho breastwork, I could soc the guns and tlio 
artiUorymeu beside their pieces, as if ready to begin the action. 

Suddenly thoro came tlio roar of a guu from the south. It 
wan Ixtngytreot's signal. Anotlior. anothor, and the Hre ran 
from Snyder's to tlio ^minary, then round to Blocher's Hill. 

I WHS ut tlio moment near tho cemetery. There came a storm 
of shot and shell. Marble slabs were broken, iron fences shat^ 
tered, hor»oa disembowelled. Tho air was full of wild, hideous 
noisoa, — the low buzx of round shot, itie whizzing of elongated 
bohii, and ilie stuDoing explosions of shells, overhead and all 




Tlkore waa a quick rospooM from the UnioD batt«riet. In 
three minutos the earth shook with the tremondotiB coneuB- 
nan of two hundred pieces of artillorj. 

The missiles of the Rebels camo from the northeast, north, 
northwest, west, and southwest. The position occupied bj the 
Vermont nine months' men was one of ^at exposure, as the 
ground in rear of the cemetery was the centre of a converging 

" Lie close," said Clonoral Staunard to the men. The; obeyed 
bim, but ho walked to th<? top of the ridge and watchnd tha 
coming on of the storm hi the southwoBt. 

Ttie Fillh Corps had not moved into poBiUon, but was rosting 
after tlio sixteen miles' march from Hanover. 

The Rebels of Lougstreot's command first in sight come oat 
fh)m the woods )>ehiiid ^Yardeld's house, a long line in the form 
of a crescent, reaching almost to Round-top. Ames's battery 
was the first to open upon thorn. Thomp»ou, Clark, and Phil- 
lips bogan to thunder almost simultaneously. Bigolow, from 
tiia position, could not get a sight at them till two or three 
minutes later. Tlic Third Michigan, Second New Qampshiro, 
and Third Maine wore tlio dntl regiments engaged. The fire 
ran down the lino towards Rose's house. The regiments ia 
the woods along the ravine south of the house, — the Soven- 
teonth Maine, Third Michigau, aud others, — were soon In the 
Gghi. A portion of the Seventeenth Maine had been skirmish- 
ing all the morning. 

Ward's brigade on tlio rocky ridge in front of Weed's HilJ 
was assailed by Hood. How fearful tlie figlit! Siokles's fh)nt 
Une, afUir au obstinate struggle, was forced back. He waa 
obliged to withdraw his batterio.<i by Wentz'B bouse. Bigolow 
retired firing by prologue, over the rocky ground. The contest 
in ttie peach-orchard and around Roho's house was exceed- 
ingly bloody. Sickles sont his aide for reinforcements ; " I 
want batteries and men ! " said he. 

" I waut yuu to hold on where you are until I can get a line 
of batteries in rear of you," said Colonel McGilvory, com- 
manding the artillery of the Third Corps, to Bigelow. "OiTo 
them cauister ! " ho added as he rode away. Bigclow's men 
never had beeu tuider fire, but they held on till every charge 




of caoiitter wu spent^ and then commenced on Bphnrtcal ctM. 
Bigclow was just west of Troistlo's liani. A Rebot battorf ha^ 
tODcd up and uiilimbcrod in the Bold. He opened with all 
his giiiiB, aud tliof limbered up again. McOiWory'e batteries 
were not in position, and the gallant captain and his brare moD 
vould not loove. The Robols nishod upon the guns, aui 
vera blown from tho muzzles. Otlicrs como witti demouiac 
7ells, climbing upon tlio limbers and sbooting borsos. Sergeant 
Dodge went down, killed inetantlj; also Sergeant Gilson. Lip* 
man, Ferris, and Nutting, Uiroc of the cannonoerB, were gone, 
twonty-twu of the men wouiidod, and Bigelow shot tbroogb 
the side; also four men missing, yet they held on lUI McOil 
rery had bis batteries in position ! 

It was a heroic rosistanco. Gun after giiu was abandoned 
to the advancing Robols. But tho cannoneers were thoughtful 
to retain tho rammers, and though tho Rebels soizod the plecoft 
thoy could not turn them upon tho slowly- retreating liandful 
of men, who with two pieces still growled defiance. Back to 
Trostlo's door-yard, into the garden, halting by tlio bam, deliv- 
ering a steady lire, they held tho enemy at bay till tho battones 
of the Fifth Corps, a littlo east of Trostlo's, mid tho arrival of 
reinforcements of infantry, permitted their withdrawal. More 
tliEUt sixty horses bolujig'mg to this one battery were killed Id 
this briof stru^lo at the commencement of the battle. Witli 
the seizure of each piece the Rebels choorod, and advanced 
with confident expectation of driving Sickles over tho ridge. 

But now actors camo. Barnes's division of the Fifth won) 
down through Trostlo's garden and through tlie grove south of 
the house, crossed tho road, and entered tho woods. The Robots 
were iu the mvino by Rose's house. Winslow's Now York 
battory was in a whcat-fiold soulli of Trostle's, holding then 
in chock, wliile Hazlilt's battery on Weed's Hill rained a tor^ 
rent of sholls from its rocky fortress. 

Ayer's divieion of Rcgiilars, which bad been lying oast of 
Weed's Hill, morod upon the double-quick through the woods, 
up to tho summit. The whole scene was before thorn : the tut^ 
moil and commotion in Uie woods below, — Bamos going ia 
and the shattered regiments of the Third Corps coming out. 
Some batteries were in retreat and others were taking nev 




positionB. The; dasliod down the hillsidQ, bocamo a liiila di»- 
org&nizod m crossiug Plum Run, but formed again aud went 
Qp the ridge among tlio boulders, disappearod in the wooda, 
stayed a few minutes, aod then, liko a shattorod wreck upon 
the foaming eea, camo drifting to tlio roos. 

Aftor the battlo, on ofiicor of tlio Sovontoonth Rogulart 
pointed out to mo the Ucio of advance. 

" Wo went dowu the luli upon the nin," said ho. "It wat 
like goiug down ialo hell ! Tlie Rebels were yelling like devils 
Our men were falling back. It was terrible coulUfiion : emoke, 
dust, the rattle of muBketry, the roanug of canjion, the burst- 
ing of tibellfi/* 

The Ponnsylvaoia Reserves, under Orawford, went in. The; 
were fighting on their own soil. Among them wore soldien 
wdose homos wore in Gettysburg. 

Sickles colled upon Hancock for help. CaldwelPs division 
wont down, sweeping past Trostlo's into the whoat-fiold, dadi- 
log through Barnes's men, who were fklling bock. Reguucnta 
from three corps and from eight or ten brigades were fightiug 
promiscuously. Tho Rebel ILnes were also in oonfUsion, — 
advancing, retreating, gaining, and losing. 

It was like tlie writlilng of two wrestlers. Seventy thousand 
men were contendiug for ttie mastery on a territory scarcely 
a mile square! It has been called the battle of Little Round- 
top, but most of tho fighting at thi« point took place between 
Little Round-top on Weed's Hill and tlie house of Mr. Rom. 
But there was also a contest around and upon the hill. 

Tho advance of Hood cnvoloixjd tho Uuiou force below. The 
inOQ on Hood's extreme right skirted tho base of tlie hill, clam- 
bered over the rocks by the " Devil's Don," — a rocky gorge, — 
and began to pour into the gap between Wood's and Round-tt^. 
V^incont's and Weed's brigades were holding tlie hiU. The 
Twentieth Maine, Colonel Chomberiain, was on tho extreme 
tea. The Eighty-Third Pennsylvania, Forty-Fourth New 
Tork, and Sixteenth Michigan were farther north. The Twen- 
tieth Muino stood almost alone. There bogmi to bo adrcpping 
of bullebi along tlie liuo (rom the Rebel skirmishers creeping 
into the gap, and Colonel ChamberhLin saw the enemy moving 
past his fiauk. He immediately extended his own loft Qank, 


lOE BOTS OF '«. 


by forming his men in single nmk. Tlio 6ght was fion *». Tha 
Bebelfl groally outuumberod Chamberlain, but he had the hd- 
Tantage of position. He was on the crest of tho hill, and at 
ever; lull iu tlio strifo his men piled tho loose stoiies iuto a nide 
breastwork. lie sent for assistoiico, but hoforo the arrival of 
reiuforcomonta Hood's troops had gained tho cajitom ai'^e of 
the hill, and the Twentieth Mauio stood in the form of tha 
letter 17, witli Rebels in front, on their flank, and in roar. 

It was iicarlf six o'clock. I was at Moado's hoad^quart^ra. 
The roar of battle was louder and grow nearer. Hill was ibn^at- 
ening thu ccnlre. A cloud of dust could be aeon down ^o 
Baltimoro pike. Had Stuart suddenly gtuucd our roar? Thore 
wore ausious countenances aroimd tho cottage whore thu flof; 
of tho Commander-in-Chief was (lying. OITicors gazed rith 
their field-glasses. " It is uot cavalry, but infantry," said one. 
"There is tho flag. It is the Sixth Corps." 

We could BOO the adranciug bayunots gloaming m tho sotting 
Bun. Faces which a moment boforo woro gravo bocamo choor- 
All. It was ail inspiring sight. The troop.s of that corps had 
marched thirty-two miles during the day. They crossed Rock 
Greek, Hied iuto the field, past the ammunitiou train, threw 
themselves Ufiun tho ground, toflsod aaido tlieir knapsockK, and 
wiped the sweat from thoir auu-burnt cheeks. 

" We want reinforcemonts. Thoy are flanking ua," said an 
officer, riding up to Meade. Word was sent to Hlocum, and 
Williams's diviaion of tho Twelfth loll their breastwork ou 
Gulp's Hill, came down upon tho doublo-qulok, leaping tlie 
Btouo walla between Slocum's head-quurters and the oemutory. 
and moved into tlie field west of tlie Taiieylown road. 

Staiiiiard*8 brigade was attached to Uie I'lrst Corps, com 
manded by Duubleday. The V'ermont boys had been lying on 
ttioir faces tlirougli llie long, toiiuontiiig hours. Thoy were 
ready for desperate work. Oouhleday dashed down to OoueraJ 
8tannard. There is a strong contract between tlioso two ofli- 
oers, DoublecJay is tall, broad-shouldered, a little stooping. 
He was in Humtor with Aadorsou when tho Rebels fired tha 
first gun at tho old flag. He is cuol and uoiinLgei>ua. Htan 
uord is short, straight, compactly built. Ho was u private citi- 
sen at Ht. Albans, Vorinont, when tlie war begaji. Ho la a 
thorough citiecn-euldicr, as undaunted as his superior. 



" Yuu aro wautod over there. Boport to HaDCock," Baid 
Doubled ay. 

Tlio mou of Vormoiit epraug lo tbcir feut, aud vctit up th« 
ridge toward tlie souLhTOit upon the run. At tlio same lime 
ail officer rodo down to the Sixth Corps. I saw tlic tired aud 
wpory men rise from llie ground and fall into line. They also 
mored off upon llio ruu toward Weed's IJill, which was all 
aflame. Hazlitt was firmg canister from the top. Nearly all 
the Third, FilXh, and Socoud Corps batterie!) were at work. 
The siui was juBt setting. Sickles liad l>con forced back from 
tl)L> peach-orctiard, and from Boso's house, but lio was !^ltll hold- 
Uig Tro*»Uo's. TliG dark linoa of the Sixth Corps (xjcamo lost lo 
tight, as they moved into tlie 'itoods crowning the liill. There 
were quicker volleys, a lighting up of the sky by sudden flashes, 
f[dlowud by a cheer, — not the wild yell peculiar to the Rebels, 
but a sharp,, clear hurrah, from the men who bad held the hill 
LoDgstreet wn* gi'ring up the struggle, and his men were falling 
back. Gotoncl lUndall, witli five companies of the Tbirteouth 
yennout, led the advance of flcnoral Stannard's uolumo. 
flancock had 1>cen forced to leavo tlie guns of one of bis bat* 
6rie« on the field near Codori's house. 

Tlie Rel>el sharpshooters were lying along Uie Emmettsburg 
foad, pouring in a deadly fire, under cover of which a large 
body of UelicU was advancing to take possession of the pleoe*. 

" Can you retake that battery ? " was Hancock's queetioo 
to Randlll. 

" We '11 do it or die. sir I " 

"Then go in." 

'* Forward ! " said Rajidall, turalng in his saddle and wavug 
hid sword. Hifl men gave a chocr, and broke into a run. Tlie 
OoloueVs horse fell, shot through tlie shoulder, but the Colonel 
dashed ahead on foot. They reached the guns, drew tliem to 
the rear. The Rebels came on with a rush. But help was at 
hand, — tlie Fourteenth Maine joined the Vorraouters. Lear- 
tng the guns the soldiers faced about, charged upon the BoIk 
eU, captured eighty-tliree prisoners, and two Rebel cannoQ, 
and thou retunied ! Long aud loud were the cheers that 
freeted them. 

**Tou mast bo green, or you wouldn't have gone dcwu 




thero," said a PcnnsjlTanian, who had beOD in a dozen battlet, 
Tho hlood of the Tormont bojs vas up, and thoj had not cal- 
culated tbo couscquoncos of such a moromont. 

So clo^d tho daf on tho left. But just as tho contest wu 
coming to on eud around Weed's Hill, it suddeulj commeuced 
on the north side of tho cemetery Hayes's hrigado of Louis- 
iana Tigers, and Hoke's North Carolinians, belonging to 
Early's diriaion of Ewoll's corps, had been creeping across 
Spanglor's farm, up the northern slope of the cemetery hill. 
Suddenly, with a sliout thoy sprang «pon Barlow's dirision, 
commanded by Amos. It was a short, fierce, but dcci.sivo con* 
test. The attack was sudden, but the men of Ames's com- 
mand were fully prepared. Tliero was a atrugglo over tho 
guns of two Pennsylvania hattcrios. The Fifth Maine battery 
was in an oicccdiiigly favorable position, at on angle of the 
o&rtliworks, east of iho hill, and cut down tho Rebels with a 
destructive enfilading fire. The struggle lasted scarcely five 
minutes, — iho Rebels retreating in confusion to the town. 

Wlien Slocum went with Williams to the left there were no 
indications of on attack on Culp's Hill, but unezpeotedly 
Gwoll made his appearance in tlie woods along Rock Creek. 
General Groou, who had l)een left in command, extended lUs 
line cast and made a gallant fight, hut not having men enough 
to occupy all tho ground, Ewoll was able to take possession 
o! tho hollow along tho Creek. When Williams returned, he 
found his ontrenchmonts in possc.tfiion cf tho enemy. The 
men of the Twelfth tlirow themselves on the ground in tho 
fields on both sides of tho Baltimore piko, for rest till day- 

'' We are doing well," was Longstreet's report to Lee al 
leven o'clock in the evening, from the left.* Ewell himself 
rode down throiigli the town, to report his success on the right. 

At a later hour Longstreet reported that he had carried 
everything before liira for some time, capturing several batter 
iw, and driving tho Yankees; but when Hill's Florida brigade 
and some other troops gave way, lie was forced to abandon a 
small portion of tho ground ho had won, together with all the 
eaptured gims oicopt throe. 



It was late in the eveuiug wlicu I tlircw mjrsolF upon a pUe 
of straw it an old farm-Iiouse, near the Baltimore pike, for a 
few hours' rest, ozpectiug tliat with the oarly moniiug there 
would be a renewal of the battle. 

There was the coustaut nimble of artillery movtug into po> 
eition, of ammunition and supply wagons going up to tlie 
troops. Lights wore gleaming in the hoUowa, honoatli tlio 
shade of oaks and pines, where the surgeons were at work, 
and whore, through the dreary hours woilings and moaniugs 
rent the air ; yet tliough within musket-shot of tlio enemy, and 
•urrouudod with dying and dead, I found ro&eBhing sleep. 


PsiVAi, Jvlj 9. 

Boom ! boom ! Two guns, deep and heary, at four o'clock. 
It WU a sultry morning. Tlie cloudR hung low upon tlio hills. 
Two more ! and then more rapidly than tlie tick of a pendu- 
lum came the concussious. There were flashes from all the 
hills, — flashes iu tlie woods along Bock Croek. The cemetery 
was aflame. The door which had been opened against Slocum 
was to be closed, and this was the bcginuing of the effort. 

The cannonade broke the stillness of the morning, and 
drowned all other sounds. Riding up the turnpike to the bat- 
teries, I had a good view of the battle-ground. General Sicklea 
was being carried to the roar on a stretcher. He had suffered 
amputation. Following him vas a large number of prisoners, 
taken in tlie fight upon tlio left. Some wore haggard and caro- 
worn, — others indiflbrent, or sulky, and some very jolly. "I 
have got into tlie Union after hard fighting," t^aid one, " uid 
I intend to stay there." 

There wore a few musketrehots In the woods upon the hill, 
from the piukots iu advance. Slocum was preparing to regain 
what had been lust. It was seven o'clock before ho was ready 
to move. The men moved slowly, but determinedly. The 
Rebels were in tlie rifle-pits, and opened a furious fire. A tliin 
veil of smoke rose aWve the trees, and floated away before the 
morning breeze. Rapid the firo of musketry, — ternfic tlio 
cannonade. Ewoll was determined not to bo djiven bock. Ho 
held on with dogged pertinacity. He had sworn profanely to 





bold Uie position, bnt in rain his oflbrt. Tlio riflo pita wore 
regainod, and bo was driven, inch b; inch, up Rock Crook. 

It took four hours to do it, howoTcr. Ewel1, well ktioving 
ibe importance of holding tho position, brought in all of hia 
availablo forco. Johnson's, Rhodes's, and Iilarly's dirisions, 
all were engaged. To meet these Uenoral Sbalcr's brigado of 
the Rizth Curpa was brought up to Culp's Hill, wliilo Neil's 
bngado of tho coino corpts was throwii in iijjon Karly's Sank 
eaot of Rock Creek, and Uio work waf ncconipliiihed. The men 
fought from behind trees artd rookn, with great tonacitj. It 
was tho la£t attempt of TiOo ujmti Moado's right. 

Grcgg'R and Kilpatrick'a dinsious of cavalry woro oast of 
Etock Creek. An orderly came dashing down tlie Hanover 

" Stuart IB coming round en our right ! " Eaid ho. " General 
lioasanton londa his compliments to General Gregg, desiring 
him to go out immediately and hold Htuart in check. His 
complimcnta also to General Kilpatrick, desiring him to go 
down lioyond Round-top, and pitch in with all his might on 
Longstreet's left." 

T was conversing with the two officers at the time. 

" Good ! come on, boys ! " shouted Kilpatrick, rubbing hia 
handa with pleasure. Tbo notes of the bugle rang loud and 
clear above the rumble of the passing army wagons, and Kil- 
patriok's column swept down the hill, crossed the creek, and 
disappeared beyond Bound-top. A half-hour later I saw the 
smoke of his artillery, and hoard tho wild about of his men 
as tliey dashed rccklossly upon tho Rebel lines. It was the 
oharge ia which Qonoral Farnsworth and a score of gallant 
uflicera gave up their lives. 

Gonoral Gregg's division formed in the Rolda eaat of Wolf 
Hill. Stiiart bad already extooded hb line along the Bon- 
noughtown road. There was a brisk caimonade between the 
light batteries, and Stuart retired, without attemptiug to out 
out Uie ammunition trains parked aloug the pike. 

Tlirougb Uie forenoon it was evident that Leo wan prepar- 
ing fur another attack. He had reconnoitred tho ground with 
Longstreet in the morning, and decided to assault Meade's line 
between the cemetery and Weed's Hill witli a strong forco, 




flo oould furm the attacking ootiimn out of sight, in the woodfi 
wobl of Codori's house. In advancing Uie troops would be 
sheltered till thoy reached the Eaunettsbiirg road. Howard's 
guus iu the cemotery would trouble them most by onfiladiii)^ 
the lines. Howard must be sileDood hy a concentrated artil- 
lery fire. Tlie cemetery oould bo seon from every part of the 
hue occupied by the Rebels, and all the available batteries were 
brought itLtu putiition to play upon it, and upon the positioa 
occupied by the .Suootid Corps. 

Tlio arrange nioi 1 1» wore iutrusted to Luugstreet. He seleci- 
od rickoit'h, Peuder's, Hoth's, and Anderson's divisions. Pick- 
ett's wero fresh troops. Hoth had boon wounded, and Pottigrew 
was iu command of the diTigiou. Wilcox's and Perry's brigadea 
of AndenKJu's division had the right of the first Rebel line, 
f^okett's division occupied tiie centre of the first line, followed 
by Pender's. Ueth'B division, followed by Wright's brigade 
of Andor&ou's, had the left of tho line. 

Wiloox and Perry's line of advance was past KJiugel's house. 
I^ckott's right swept acruss the Enimcttsburg ruuU hy the house 
of Peler Rugers ; his lufl ruaclied to Codori's, where it juiued 
Pettigrew's. Rliodes's dirisiou of Ewoll's oorps was brought 
down &om the woods b; Smuckor's house, aud put in iracitioo 
south of tlio town, to Support Pettigrew's left. The attack- 
ing column uumbored from twenty to tweuty-6vo thousand 
men, but tlio force in support gave nearly tliirty-five thou- 
sand men whicli Longstrect had in hand. 

The movements of tlie lEobels, as seen from the Union hues, 
indicated an attack upon tmr extreme loft. The Fifth, Tliird, 
and Sixth Corp:> therefore wore placed well down toward 

Commencing at tite Taiioytown road and walking south, we 
have the foltowing ditiposition of Iho troope rosii^ting this attack. 
Robinson's diriHioo of the First Corps, reacluug from tho road 
along an oak urovc, |>iutt a small house occupied by a colored 
man. Hays'a division la^ behind a stone wall, aud a small 
grove of shrub-oaks. Gibbon had no protection except a few 
rails gathered from the fences. There are three oak-trees 
which mark the spot occupied by Hall's brigade. Harrow'i 
was just bejond it, soutli. In front of Barrow's, six or eight 



rods, were three regiraents of Stannard'a Vormoiit bri^dc. — 
thoTIiirUJenth.Fourtcciilli.aiid SiiteenUi, — lying in a Bhallow 
troncli. Caldwell's division extended from Gibbon's to ttio nar- 
row road leading past Trosile's house. TIio ridge iu roar of 
Che troops bristled with artillery. The infautry line was lliiu, 
but the artillery was compact and powerful. 

IjOngstreot liavlug made his disposition for the attack, and 
the Rebel artillery not being ready, throw IiimBelf on thfl 
ground and went to sleep.* 

Loe reconnoitred the position from the cupola of the college, 
OTcr which the Confederate hospital-ilag was flying, — thus 
violating what has been doomed even by half-cinlized raoee a 
principle of honor. 

Visiting General Meade's head-quarters in tho house of Mrs. 
Leister, in ilio forenoon, I saw the Commandor-in-Ohief Kcatad 
at a table with a map of Gettysburg spread out before lum. 
Oonoral Warron, chief engineer, was by hia side. General 
Williams, liia Adjutant-General, who know the strength of 
every regiment, wa« sitting on the bed, ready to answer auj 
question. General Hunt, clitef of artillery, was lying on the 
grass beneath a poach-trco in the yard. General Pleasantoo, 
ohiof of iliu cavalry, neat and trim in dross and person, with 
a riding-whip tucked into his cavalry boots, was walking uuefr' 
eily about. Aid» were coming and going ; a signal-oflicer io 
the yard was waving his flags in rcEponso to one on Roimd-top. 

" Signal-olTicor on Round-top reports Rebels moving towards 
our ]o!\," Raid tho officer to General Meado. 

It was five minutes past one when the signal-guii for the 
opouing of the battle was givun by the Rebels on Seminary 
Hill, Instantly the whole lino of Rebel batteries, an hundred 
and fiily gnns, joined in Uie caimonade. All of tho guns north- 
east, north, and northwest of the town concentralfid their fire 
upon the cemetery. Those west and southwest opened oo 
Hancock's position. Solid shot and shells poured incessantly 
upon tho cemetery and along ttio ridge. Tlie int^jntion of 
Loo was soon understood, — to sileuco Howard's batteries be- 
cause they enfiladed tlio attacking force ready to move oroi 

* Blachwood'f MaffKiioe, Bepumber, 1864. — PravmasUa. 




the fields towai-d llio couLro, our wcakosl point, if Uiey could 
give to the living who held the burial-place a quiet as pro 
fouud as that of the sleepers beueatli tbe ground, theu lite; 
miglit hope to break through tbe thin liue of meu compoeiug 
the Second Corps. 

But Qoirard was uot a muu to be kept quiet at such a time 
Without especial cause. His horses were knocked to pieces, 
tlio tombstones shivorod, iron railings torn, shrubs and treei 
cut down, here and there men killed, but his batteries were 
not silenced. 

Mr. Wilkenson of tho New York Tributie, who was at Gen- 
eral Meade's head-quarters when the 6re was severest, thus 
describes the scone : — 

" In the shadow ciwl by the tiny fartn-hoixe, sizteeu by twenty, which 
General Meade had made his hend-qUArlers, lay wearie<l alaff offlcon 
and tired oorrespocdents. There was not wiuiUng lo the peacefUlnoas 
of the 8oen« tbe singing of a bird, which bad a nest in a peAch*tree 
within the tiny yard of the whitewashed cottttg^. In the midst of iti 
warbling a »bell scrcained over the bouse, instantly followed by another, 
and another, and in a moment tho air was full of the moAt >.'H>[iiplet« 
artillery-prelude to an infantry baitio that was ever fxhihitcd. Every 
lize and form of sbell known to British and to Aniuncan guauery 
ihriekted. whirled, moaned, and whisll^, and wrnthliilly flunered over 
oar ground. Aa many as six in a second, constautly two in a second, 
bunting and screaming over and around the bead-quarlen, made a 
very hell of fire that amazed tbe oldest offloera. They burst in tbe 
yard, — burnt next to the fence oo bolli sidi'S, j^roiebud as usual with 
tbe bitched hor!>es of aides and on!tirlie«. Thu rn»t''iie(I aniinal* roared 
and plunged with t«rror. Then one fell, then another, — sixteen lajr 
dead and mangled before the lire ceased, still fastened by their baiters, 
which gave the exprcjuion of being wickedly tied np to die painfully 
Theee bnite victimi> of a cruel war touchetl all hiiarta. Through the 
mid^t of the gtono of screamiog and exploding ihcU^ an ambulance, 
driven by its f^votied conductor at fall speed, presented to all of bb the 
marreLIoua spectacle of a hone going rapidly ou three legs. A binder 
one had been aliot otTat the bock. A »hetl tore up tlie little ^t^p at 
the bead-<iaarierA rotiage, and ripped bags of oat« as with a knife. 
Another soon carried off one of its two pillars. Soon a epberical oase 
burst opposite the open door, — another ripped through tbe k>w garreL 
The remaining pillar went almost immediately to the howl of a fixed 
itmt that Wbitworth must have made. During tins fire, tlie horses al 


Tm! DOTS OP 'n. 


rwftnry utd thlny feet dlsrant were receiving their <J«ath, and soldfen 
ia Federal blue wan lorn to pi«oQ)i in the road, and died with lbs 
peculiar >'olU thnt blvad the extorted cry of pain with borror and do- 
■pair. Nut an orderly, not an ombulancA, not a siraggtt^r was to be 
Men ujioii tbo plain swept by ihU lempaat of orch&itml d^ntb. thirtj 
miiiuttri aHtir it ouiumeuued. Wero uot one hundred and twenty piewt 
of nrtillory trying to cut from tbo fleld every battery we bad in poailion 
to reftiu ibcir purposed infantry attack, and to awoep awny tbo uliigrbt 
dof«iioD(i b<-liiiid u'liich our infantry were waitinj;? Forty intnutea, — 
lifty minuics, — cciimlod watches tbftl ran, O w langnidty I Shells 
through iho two lower rooms. A shell into the chimney, that dariogl/ 
dill not explwlc. Sbelln in the yard. Tbe air thicker, and AiQer, 
and more d<-affnlng with the howling anrl whirring of thfiw infernal 
niiiKilcH. Tlie Chief of StatT sinirk. — S<-ih Willianw. — lored and 
reep«ctt-(t Ihroiigli the army, eeparalcd frnm instant death by two iiM^ee 
of space venically meavured. An aide Itored with a fra^ent of iron 
througli tho bone of iho arm. And i]j« time mennured on the sluggiah 
watches was one hour and forty minute"-" 

A soldier was lying ou tho ground a few rods distaut trom 
wlioro I WOK Bittiug. There was a shriok, such as I hope aev«r 
agaia lo hoar, and his body vrsm whirling iu the air, a mangled 
mass of IJush, blood, and bones! 

A slioU oxplodiug iu tlio cemotery, killod and wouuded 
tweiity-t»cvGii moil in ono regiment ! * and yot the tixMps, lying 
under tlio foncos, — stimulated and eucouraged by Oenoral 
Howard, who walked coolly along tho line, — kept their phicos 
and uwaitod Uio attack. > 

It was half poet two o'clock. 

" Wo will lot Uiom think that they have silenced u«," said 
General tloword to Major Osborne. The artillerista threw 
(bomsulvtis u()0u tho ground beside their pieces. 

Suddenly thoro was a shout, — " Here tliey come! " 

Erory man was on the alert. The cannoneers sprang to 
their foot. The long lines emerged from tho woods, and mored 
rapidly but steadily over the fields, towards the Emmettsburg 

Howard's batteries burst into flame, throwing shells with the 
utmost rapidity. There are gaps in the Rebel r&nks, bat on 

* nMwra] Howud'* R«port. 




vard BtlU thoy como. Tboy reacb tlio Emmottebtirg ro«d. 
Fiokett's division appears by Rlingers house, AJI or Bovard'a 
^ituH aro al work now. Fickott ttinis to the right, moving 
north, driven iu part hy tho liro rolling in upon \m flank (Vom 
Wood's niU, and from the Third, Fiflh, and Siitb Corps hat- 
tones. Huddoaljr he facos oast, dosconds tho goutio stopo from 
thu road behind Cudori'e^ crosses tho meadow, oomoa in roach 
of the miiBkets of the Vennontors . Tho ihrco regiments rise 
(rom Uieir vliallow trench. Tho men beneath tlie oak-trees 
leap Trom their low hroastworlt of ruila. There is a ripple, ■ 
roll, u doarcniiig roar. Yet tho momciititm of the Rebel col- 
amn carries it on. U i» becoming iliinner and veakor, but Uie; 
still advaiico. 

The Second Corps is like a thin blue ribbon. Will it with- 
etand the sliock ? " Give tliom canister ! Pour it into tbnm ! ** 
shouts Major Charles Howard, running from battei7 to battery. 
The Bebel line is ahuost up to the grove in Tront of Robin 
Boa's. It has reached the clump of shrub-oaks. It has drifloU 
past tlie Vermont boys. Onward still. '' Hroak their iliird 
line! Smash their supports!" cries General Uoward, and 0» 
borne and Wainwright send tho fire of filty gnus into tho Ctrl- 
umn. each pioco firud throe times a minute! Tbo cemetery 
is lost to view, — covurud with sulphurous clouds, flaming and 
UQoking and thundering like Sinai ou Die great day of tlie 
Lord ! The front line of Roliols is melting away, — the socond 
Ls advancing to take its |?Uico ; but beyond the first and second 
is the third, whicli reels, breaks, and Hies to the woods fVom 
whence it came, unable to withstand the storm. 

Hancock is wounded, and Gibbon is in command of the 
Second Corps. " Hold your fire, boys ; they ore not near 
jnough yet." says Gil>bon, as Pickett comes on. The first 
roUey staggers, but does not stop them. Tlicy move upon the 
rub, — up to the breastwork of rails, — bearing Flaucook's line 
to the top of the ridgo. — so powerful their momentum. 

Hen fire into each other's faces, not five foot apart. There 
are bayoneUthrusts, sabre-^trokes, pistol-shots; cool, deliberate 
movumonts on tho part of some, — liot, passiouato, de8|ioi-ate 
etlorts with others; hand-to-batid contests ; rccklessnoes of life ; 
tenacity of purpose; fiery dolormiiifttiou ; oaths, yells, curses. 


Xlit BOYS OF '91. 


burmhs, shoutings ; men goiiig dowii oti their hands and knees, 
spiuiiing round like topa, throwing out Uiuir arms, [^ilpiug up 
blood, falling ; legless, armletss, hoadleett. Tbore are ghastl/ 
heaps of dead mou. Seoonds are cou curies ; mmutos, ages ; 
but tlio Uiin liuo does not break ! 

Tlio Bcbola liaro swept past tho Vermont rogimente. *' Take 
thom in flauk," sa/a Goiioral Htannard. 

Tho Thirtoontli and Hixtcontli swing out from tho trench, 
turn a right angle to the main lino, and face the north. Thoy 
moTc forward a few stops, pour a deadly volley into Uio backs 
of Kompcr's troops. With a hurrah thoy ruoh on, to drire 
home the bayonet. The Fifteenth, Nineloontli, Tveniioth Mas- 
sachusetts, and Seventh Michigan, Twoutioth Xew York, Nine- 
teenth Maine, Ono Hundred Fifty-First Pennsylvania, aud other 
rogimonts catch tho enthusiasm of the moment, and close upon 
the foe. 

The Rebel column ha« loat ite power. The lines waver. The 
soldiers of the fVotil rank look round for tlieir supports. Tlioy 
are gone, — fleeing over Uie field, broken, shattered, thrown 
Into conf\iirion by the romorsolc^s fire from the cemetery and 
fVoQi the cannon on the ridgo- Tho linos have disappoaxed like 
ft straw in a candle's fiamo. The ground is thick with dead, 
and the wounded are like tho withered leaver of autumn. 
Thousands of Robols throw down their arras and give tliom- 
coItos up as prisoners. 

How inspiring the moment! How thrilling the hour! It 
\» tho high-water mark of the Rebellion,— a turniiig>poiut 
of history and of human destiny I 

Treason had wielded its mightiest blow. fVom that time 
the RebolIloD began to wane. An account of the haitlo, written 
on Uio following day, and published on tho 6tb of July io the 
Boston Journal, contAlns the following passage: — 

" Ttiu toTuion of the North wmb over, — the power of the &ouUieni 
Confodoracy broken. Them ai ih«t «nm«t hour I coiiM ilifc-ern llw 
fbturtti 00 loager mn overcast itky, but iht; di«r, uncloudtvj siarlight, — a 
CDuDtt7 ttdeemed, SBvud, tmptiiod, conxscnUed au«w to the oomiog ages. 

" All honor to the heroic: tiving, kII glory to the gallant do«d I They 
bave Dot fought in vnin, ihey have not diud for nimghl. No man Itveth 
lo himuir alone. Not for tliaiiMelvM, bat for their children ; for tboM 




wtto may Dover hear of (bam in ibeir nameless gravu, bow thty yieldod 
life; for the future; for fill that in good, pun:, holy, JtuI, true; for 
faamanity, righleoutnesB, peace ; for Paradiau on oartb ; for Christ and 
for God, tfaoy have given llienutelvea m wilting sacriflce. B)em«d b* 
their memory foroTermore ! " 

I rode along the linos, and beheld the field by tlie light ol 
the gleaming stare. The dead were oTorywhoro tliicklj strewn. 
How cbaugod the cemetery ! Three days Ixiforo, its gravelled 
walks were ijmoutlii and cloau ; flowers irere iu bloom ; binb 
carolled their Bougs auild Uiu treoB ; the mouuments were undo- 
facod ; the marble glabs piiro and white. Now there were 
broken wliools and epliiitorod caissons: dead horses, Bhot in 
the ueck, iu llie head, through the body, difiombowoUod bj 
exploding shells, legs broken, flesh mangled and Com; poola 
of blood, suarlul ejlains ou the headstones, green grass changed 
10 crimsoii ; marblu slabs shirered ; liie ground ploughed bj 
solid shot, holes blown out by bursting shells ; dead men lying 
where they had fallou, wuuudod men creeping to the rear; 
cries and groans all around me ! Fifty shfdla a minute had 
Sillen upon tlial small onclo^uro. Not for a moment was there 
thought of aliaiidoning the position. How those batteries of 
Osborne and Wiiinwright, of tlie Eleventh and First Corps, had 
liglitoncd and thundered I Tlicre were scores of dead by the 
small house where the left of tlie Rebel lino adraiiccd, lying 
jw>c as tlie; wore smitten down, as if a thtuiderbolt had fallen 
upon the once living moss! 

Ail English officer, who saw the battle from tlie Rebel litiei, 
thus says of ttio repulw: — 

" I Mxin begun (o meet many wounded men returning from the front , 
aumy of ibem asked in piteous lonM the way to a doctor, or an ambo 
laoee. The further I gol the greutor became the numlivr of llie wound 
ed. At laat I c«m« to a |>«rfef-t streAni of tliem 6ockiii}{ through tlie 
woods in oumbera lu great as the crowd io Oxfon) Street in the middle 
•f the day. .... Tb«y were slilj under a heavy fire ; the ftbeUii wert 
oontinualty bringing down great Umba of lr©e«, and carrying furtkcf 
deaLruotiou amongst their meliuit-'huly procuiiAiutt I saw all liiii ii 
much le^a lime than it takea to write it, and although astuubibed t« 
neei aach a raal number of wounded, I had not leen enough 10 gin 
■M an idea of the wJ extent of the miscbief. 




" Wben I ^ot close up to GemerEl Longitrcot, I saw ono of bU r«|p- 
menU at'Tandng through the woodi in good order; »o, ihinkinf; I wh 
joBt io time to ««o tbo Rttuck, I rem&i^ed to the Geneml that ' I 
mnild n't h»v6 mifue-d this for anything.' Longttreet ww leut^d oo 
tht top of ■ siwke-t'oiice, in the edge of tbo wood, and looking per- 
fectly calm and tu)perturl>ed. lie roplioU, 'Tbu dovil you would a'%\ 
I would like to baTe miaaod it very mucb ; we 'to attacked and been 
rvpulaed. Look there 1 * 

" For the flml time I Iben had a view of the open 8[)«ce between the 
two poBitiona, and saw it covered with Confedoratea klowly and eulkU/ 
retoming towards us in small broken partiea. .... 

"I remember seeing a general (Peltigrew I ihink it was) oomo up 
10 bim aud report ttiat be was uuable to brtog his men up agaia. Long* 
street rumed upon him and n^plir-il with aomu sarca-iin : ' Ver^ wfU, -^ 
Oflver mind, then, General ; just let them remain where thej are. Tba 
VMtaj is goiug to advance, and will spare you the trouble.* .... 

"Soon afterward I joined General I>e, who bad in the mean ttblU 
oome to the fVont, on beraming iiware of the disadter. Hts was an^^aged 
to rallying and in encouraging the Irooptt, and waa riding abont a litUe 
Id front of the woodn quite alone, the whole of hia slaff being engaged 
in m similar maaner furtbcr to tbe rear. His face, which is alwajB 
plaeid and cho«Hiit, did not show 6i(pi<i of the slightest diauppoiDlmeDt, 
can, or anuoyauco; and be wa» addre^tng lo everj ftoldlur be met a 
fvw words of encouragement, »uch us, ' All this will come right ia tbe 
end{ we will talk it over afierward-i, — bat in the mt-jui time all good 
mea must rallj. We wont all good men and true men juBt now,' Ac. 
.... He iwd to nii>, ' This hiu been a t-ni day for ub, Colonel, — a tad 
day ; but we can't expect ntwHjfl to gain ▼ictorie«.' .... I mw General 
Wilcox (an officer who wears a abort roond jacket and a battered straw 
bat) come up to him, and explain, almost rrying, tbo »tate of bia 
brigade. General Lee immediately shuuk bands with him. and said. 
checrlTilly, 'Novpr mind, General. All this hi« l:»een my fault, — it ia 
I that have lost this flgbt, and you mtiat help me oat of it io tbe beat 
way you can." " • 

It ma past eleven o'clock iii the eveuing wtiea I rodo up 
firom the gory field, over the ridge, whore tbe Second Oorpa 
bad stood like a vail of adamaut. Moade's head-quarton were 
in a groTo, eaat of tlie small house where lie established himaelf 
at the bogiiimiig of the battle. The fire had been too hot at 
)(r8. Leistor's. Moado was sitting ou a great flat bouldor, 

* Blaokwood*B Uai^ala*, Sepieaiber. 1863. — liaattoanvColonal FrMmaails. 




listening to tlie reports of his officere, brought in by cou- 
riors. It was a scene which livot) tu memory : a dark forest, 
— tliB evening breozo gently ruBtUug the green leares otot 
»ur heads, — the katydids and locusts singing cheerily, — the 
birouaa liros gliimueriug on the ground, revoaling the sur- 
totuiding oUjccte, — the gnarled trees, torn by cauuou-shot,— 
the mossy stones, — the group of officers, — Williams. Warren, 
Howard (his right sleeve wanting an arm), Pleasatitou, as trim 
as in the monimg ; Moade stooping, weary, his slouched hat 
laid a£ide, so that the breeze might fan his hrow. 

" Bully ! bully I bully all round ! " said ho ; and then turn- 
ing to his chiof of staff, Humphrey, said, " Order up rationi 
and ammunitioD." 

To Genera! Hunt, chief of artillery, '* Have your Umbers 
filled. Leo may be up to Bomothing iu the morning, and wa 
must bo ready for him." 

A band camo up and played " Hail to the Chief! " the " Stai^ 
•pangled Banner," and " Yankee Doodlo." Soul-etirring the 
strains. The soldiers, lying on their arms, where they had 
fought, heard it, and responded with a cheer. Not all : for 
thousands were deaf and inanimate ovormoro. 

No accuratt) statement of the number engaged in this great, 
decisive battle of the war can over be given. Meade's march 
to Gettysburg was made with great rapidity. The FroTost 
Uarshal of the army, General Patrick, committed tlie great 
error of having do roar guard to bring up the stragglers, which 
were lell behind in thousands, and who found it much more 
coureniont to live on the excellent faro furnished by the farm- 
ers than to (Uco the enemy. Meade's entire force en the field 
ntunbered probably &om sixty to seventy thousand. The Rebel 
army had made slower marohes, and the soldiers could not 
straggle; they were in an enemy's country. Loo, therefore, 
had filler ranks than Meade. His force may be estimated ai 
ninety thousand mou. 

The people of the North expressed their gratitude to the 
leroes who had won this battle, by pouring out their contribu- 
tions for the relief of the wound^. The agents of the Chris- 
tian and Sanitary Commissions were quickly on the ground, 
and hundreds of warm-hearted men and women hastened to 




the spot to rmder aid. The moriiuig after tbe battio I Kaw t 
BtouC Peunsylvauia farmor driniig his two-horse farm wagOD 
up Uio Baltimoro piko, loaded down with loavoa of soft bread 
which his wifo and dniightors had hakod. 

Toiidor and aiToctiiig oro some of the incidents of Uie battle- 
field. A dolcgato of the Christian CommisBion posBing among 
*ho wounded, oame Lo an officer from Soutli CaroUua. 

" Can I do anything for you ? " be asked. 

*' No I " was llie surly reply. 

He pasNod on, but upon hia return repoatod tlie question, 
and roooivod iho same auswor. Tlio day was hot, ttie air ofTou- 
riTe, from puircfying wounds, and the delegate was putting 
cologne on the Uandkerchiofs of tlio patients. 

" Colonel, let mo put some of this on your liiuidkerchiof." 

Tlie wounded man bunt into tears. " I tuTo no band 

*' Well, you ehall bare one " ; and welting his owu gare it 
to bim. 

" I can't understand you Tankoes," said the Colonel. " Tou 
fight us like doviU, and then you treat us like angob. I am 
•orry I entered this war.'** 

Said another Uobol, — an Irishman, — to a chaplain who 
took care of him, *' May every hair of your head bo a wax -taper 
to light you on your way to glory ! " t 

A cluiplaln {lasiiing througli tlio hospital, came to a cot where 
lay a young wounded soldier who had fought for the Union 

'* Poor fellow I " said the chaplain. 

" Don't call mo ' poor follow ! * " was tlie indignant roply. 

** Dear feilow. tlien. Ilaro you written to your mother since 
the battio?" 

" No, sir ! " 

** You ought to. Hero it is the tenth, — a wholo week ainoa 
the battle. She will be anxious to hear from you." 

The lad with his left hand threw aside the sheet whicli cov- 
ered him, and the chaplain saw lliat iiiis right arm was off near 
the shoulder. 

"That is the reason, sir, that I have not written. I ban 

• Addrm Mbn Alunnl of WiUiun» CoI]«B«k IM5. 

ChvlM DemMid. 




not forgotten hor, sir. I have prajod for her, and I thank Ood 
for giving me bo dear & mother.** 

Then turning aside the sheet farther, tlic chaplain saw that 
his lefl leg was gone. Sitting down boside Uio ^oiing hero the 
chaplain irrote as ho dictated. 

" Tell mother ttiat 1 have giron my right arm and mj lo(\ 
leg to mj country, and that I am ready to gire both of my 
other limbs ! " said he. ' 

TJio courage and patriotism of Spartan motbors is immortal- 
iied in Btory and song. " Return with your shield, or upon 
it,*' has boon held up for admiration tlirough itiroo thousand 
yearB. The Greek fire is not cxtiuguished; it buruB to-day u 
bright and pure as over at Salamisj or Marathon. 

Riding in ttio cars through the Stato of Now York after th« 
battle of Gettysburg, I fell in convorsatiou with a middlo-ogod 
woman who )md two Kona in the army. 

" Have tlioy boon in battle ? " I asked. 

" Tes, Bir; one has been in fifloon battles. Ho was takea 
prisoner at Chancel! orsviljo and was wounded at Qettysburg. 
The other is in tlio Medical Department.'* 

>*Tho one wliu was wounded at Qettysburg must have seen 
•ome hard fighting." 

" Tea, sir; and I hoar a. good account of him from hie cap- 
taui. Hq says my son behaves well. / tolJ him, when he went 
mioay, that I would rather hear he wat dtad than that he had i^ 
fraced hivitflf." 

" His time must be nearly out." 

*'■ Yes, sir, it is ; but he is guiug to soe it Uixough, and ha* 
re^ulisted. I should like to have him at home, but I know he 
would be uneasy. Uis comrades have ro-onlisted, and he is 
not tho boy to back out. I rather want him to help give the 
crushing blow." 

There were Uiousands of eucti mothers in the land. 

Lee retreated the morning after the baitlo. His reasuns for 
ft retrograde movement are thus stated by himself: — 

"Owing to ihc strength of the enemy's position aud the redocitoo of 
oar ammuniiioD, a renewal of ibo engAgonieiit could not be hazarded 

* B»T. Hi. Aal«j, naceduj; Chriadwi AaaocUaon. Chkkgo. 




and tlifl difficulty of procurlog supplies rendered il UBpOM&lt CO OOD- 
tinue longer wbera we were. Such of tLe wounded u were in con- 
dition to be remored, and part of thfl mrms colWt^t] on the fieJd, went 
ordered to Wtlliam.iport. Tlie army romainod at Gettysburg during 
tbo 4lh, and at night began (o retiro by the road to Fairfield, carrying 
vitb it about four thou&aod priaooen. Nfarlj two thonuuid had pre- 
rionitly beva parult-'d, but the euomy'i Quuierua<< wouuded, that had 
IWlleti into our handu after the Unl and Hecond day's engagemeats, weM 
left behind." • 

Moade made uo attempt to follow him witli Imb maia army, 
bat marcliod directly down the Emiaettsburg ruad, oiico more 
to Frederick, then west orer South Motiutaia to intercept him 
on the Potomac. Meade had the inside of the chees-board. 
He was a victor. Tlie men who had made a forced march to 
Get^aburg were awake to the exigency of the hour, and mad© 
ft quick march back to Frederick, and over the mountains to 
BooDiboro*. A Revere storm xet in, and the roads were almost 
impassable, but the men toiled on through the mire, lifting the 
cannon-wheelBfV-om the deep ruts, when tlio horses wore unable 
to drag the ordnance, singing songs as tliej raarcltcd foot-sore 
and weary, but buoyant over the great rictory. 

And now, a^ the intelligence camo that Grant had taken 
Ticksburg, that Ijiuika was in possession of Port UudsoDt and 
that the Mississippi was flowing *' uuvexcd to the aoa," tliey 
forgot all their tuiU, hardsliips, and sufTorings, and made th« 
air ring witli their lusty cboora. They could see the dawn of 
peace, — poace won by tlic sword. Tlie women of Maryland 
liailod tlicm as tlioir deliverers, brought out the Iwst stores 
from tlioir pantries and gave frooLy, refusing crtmponsation. 

Moade led all his superfluous baggage behind, and moved in 
light marching order. Leo was oncumborcd by his wounded, 
ajid by his trains, and when Iio reached liugorslowu found 
tliat Moade was descending the mountain side, and tliat Gregg 
was ah^ady in Uouubboro'. 

Reiuforcomentit were sont to Meade from Washington, with 
the ozpoctatiou that by concentration of all available forces, 
Loo's army might l)o wholly destroyed. Tlio clomoiits, which 
had often retarded operatiotis of the Union troops, — which had 




remJered Buriitiide's aud Hooker's movements alxirure m sev- 
eral iuslaiicoM, now were propitiouB. Tlio Potomac was rising, 
aud Uio rain was stiU falling. Ou the nioniiiig of tlie 13th I 
rode to Qeiioral Meado's hoad-quartors. Gouorat Sotb WU> 
tiams, tho ever-courteous Adjutaiit-Goncral of tJio army, was 
iu Geueral Meade's tent. He saJd tliat Meade was taking u 
looh at tlie Rebels. 

" Do you Uiiuk tbat Lee cau get aoross the Potomac?** I 

** Impossible ! The people rosidout Lore Bay tliat it caoiiot 
be forded at this stage of the water. He lias no pontooos. 
We have got him in a tight place. We shall have reiuforoe- 
uiouts to-morrow, aod a great battle will be fought. XjOS ii 
eucumbered wit]i his team^, and bo is short of aumiuuittou.'* 

General Meade came iu dripping with rain, from a recou- 
uoissauoe. His couutcuauce wag uuusually auimatod. He had 
ever bocu courteous to me, aud while usually very reticeut of 
all his iuteutiouB or of what was going ou, as au officer should 
be, yet iu this instauce he broke over his habitual eileace, aod 
said, " We shall have a great battle to-morrow. The reiu- 
forcemeote are comiug np, aud as $oon as tliey come we shall 
pitch in." 

I rode along the Hues with Howard in the afternoon. The 
Rebels were in sight. The picketa wore firing at each other. 
Tliore was some movement of colunws. 

" I fear that Lee is getting away," said Howard. 

He sent an aide to Meade, with a request that ho might 

** I can double them up," he said, meaning that^ as ho was 

00 Lee's Sank, he could strike an oflbctivo blow. 

Kilpatrick was beyond Howard, woU up towards Williams, 
port. " Loo is getting across the river, 1 think," said through 

1 mosaongor. 

It was nearly night. The attack was to be made oarly in the 

The morning dawned and Lee was south of tlie Potomao. 
Tliat officer says: — 

"The anny, after an arduona march, rendered mora difflcult by tki 
raiua, ivacbed li«geratowD ga Uie itfturuouD of tb« 6Ui umI raoraiug >f 
the 7ch July. 




"The PoIouuk: waa fouud to bo iw much swollea by the reiiu thai 
luid QUIen ftlmosi inccuantlj ninco oiir cnlr-Kncfi into MarjUnd, u to b« 
unfordaUe. Our commuiiicatinTuu with ihe south Mde wore thui inter* 
nipteO, ui'l it wan <ti(flc.ult Co pmcure ''ilher unmtinilion or ^iitwi^tAnce, 
thft Utier diffirnlty being finhniict'd hy tha high ivninm impniing the 
working of the oeighboring mills. The trains willi the wounded und 
pruoaen were coakpeU«d to rwbH nt Wiiliamnport the ^ubsidiag of <he 
i-irer and the cooitruc^tioD of bontA, aa ihv pontoon bridge, left at Fall- 
ing WaUTB, hud been ])aruatly deotruyt-d. The cuviuj? had not yc{ 
Rliule hi* Mppmranr'- ; but, ad Iv; wa;< in romliijon to oblnin largo r«ii>* 
roroements, and our situation, for the reaaons above mentioned, wat 
beco(niit)j dail> more wtnbarraHsiug, it was deum^d adrisable to r'icroM 
the rivor. Pan of the pontoon bridge wa.i nicoverod, and now boat* 
built, so Lbal by the 13(h a good bridge was thrown over the river at 
Falling Water*. 

"The enemy in force reached our front on the 12th. A poidtioti had 
been prcviouely selerted to cover ibu Potomnc from WitUnnuport to 
Palling Waters, and an ntlaclt was awaited during tliatan<l tbtf ■ucceed 
Ing day. Thie did not lako place, though the Cwu amii<*H wvro iu close 
proximity, lh« enemy btin^ o<'Cupiod in furtifying his own linen. Our 
preparaiiont being completed, and the river, though aiill de«p, being 
pronounced fordable, the amiy commenced to wiilidniw to the MUlb 
tiiin on lh« night o( the ISth. 

" Swell's corpt fonled the river al WilltamAport, those of T^ngotreet 
and Ilill creased upon the bridge. Owing to the oondiiloo of the roadt. 
the troops did not reach the brLilgb until ullor daylight of the 14th, and 
the cnwBing was noi completed until 1 P. M., when the bridge was 
removed- The enemy oHerctl nu eerioua interruption, and the more- 
ment wa« attended witli no lowi of materia] except a lew dittabled wag- 
ons and tw» pinrtMi of artillery, which the homes were unable lo move 
through the dixp mud, U«lV>r«' fresh horses could be seat back fot 
them, the rear of the column had passod/' * 

Kilpatrick was astir at daybreak ; ho moved into Willianu- 
port. I accoiDpnnied his column. Tho Robds wero on tho 
VirgiDta hills, jubilant at thoir escape- There wei^ wagons in 
the river, floating down witli the current, wliich had been cap- 
nxed in tlie crossing. Rilpalrick putdied on to Falling Waters, 
fell upou Pottigrow's brigade, gtmrdiog the pontoons, captured 
tvo canuou and eight hundred men, in one of the most daritifi 




dashos of the var. It vas poor satisfaction, horevor, wheu 
contrasted wilIi vhat might haro been dono. Tho army VM 
chagrined. Loud were the denunciations of Meado. 

" Anothor campaign on the Rappahannock, bo^," said oma 
officer in my hearing. 

"We Bliall he in our old quarters in a few dajs," said 

General Moado has bocti EOTeroIy censured for not attacking 
on tho 13th. Loo had lost thirty tliousond men. Ho had 
Biiffercd a crushing defeat at Qcttysbui'g. Enthusiasm had 
diod out. nis 6oMior!> were less confident tlian they had boon. 
Bis ammunition was nearly exliau^tod. Ho was in a critioal 

Those voro reasons why ho should bo attacked ; but tliere 
were also reasons, which to Moado wore oonclu.'^iTo, tliat the 
attack should not bo mado till the 14th: the swollen rirer^ — 
tho belief that Leo hod uo means of crossing the Potomac, — 
and Uie expected reinforcements. The delay was not from lack 
of spirit or over caution ; but with tlio oxpoctatioa of striking a 
Mow which would destroy tho fiobul army. 

Lee went up tho ralley, while Meado pushed rapidly down 
the baso of the Blue Rldgo to Culpop^ior. liut ho was uot in 
oonditiou to tako Ihu olTunsive, so far from Iiia base ; aud the 
two armies sat down upou the banks of the Bapldau, to rtat 
■fler the bloody campaign. 







Tbe&e are few montlig in the calendar of centuries that will 
bave a more conspicuous place in history than the month of 
May, 1864. It Trill be remembered on account of the momeut- 
ous events vliioh took place iu one of the greati»t military 
campaigna of history. We are amazed, not by its magnitude 
merely, for thoro havo boon largor armies, hcaTier traius of 
artillery, greater preparations, io Enropoau varfare, — but by a 
■uccession of events unparalleled for rapidity. We cannot ftiUy 
comprehend the amount of endurauco, the porsisteucy, the liaid 
marching, the harder fighting, tho unwearied, cheerful onoi^ 
and offort which carried tho Army of the Potomac ftom the 
Rappaliannock to the Jamos in forty daya, against the stubborn 
opposition of an army of almost equal numbers. Tlioro was 
not a day of rest, — acarcoly an hour of quiot. Morning, noon, 
and midnight, the booming of cannon and the rattling ofmu^^ 
ketry echoed unceasingly through the WUdcnicns, around the 
hillocks of 8pott«yIrania, along the banks of tho North Anna, 
and among tho groves of Bcthosdo Church and Cold ITarbor. 

Thcro wore individual acts of valor, as heroic aud Roul-stirring 
as thoso of tho old Cavaliers renowned in story and Esong, wlioro 
all Uie energies of life wore centred iu ono momout. Thoro 
was the spirited advance of rugimeuts, the onget of brigades, 
aud the rosisllcsB charges of divisions, — scenes which stir the 
blood and firo tho soul; the hardihood, tho endurauco, tho 
cool, collected, rofiorved forco, abiduig tho timo, tho calm facing 
of death; the swift advance, Uie rush, the plunge into the 
thickest of tho fight, whoro hundreds of cannon, whore fiity 
thousand muskets, OUod the air with iron hail and leaden rain. 

Tlio army winlerud botwuon tlio Rappahannock and tho 
Eapidau. There liad been a reduction and rocunstruction of 
its corpa, — an incorporation of the First and Tliird with thfl 



Fifth nixi Sixlli, with roiiiforcemonbi added to the Second. 
Tho Rccoiid was coiDiuaiidod b; Major-Qenoral ITancock, the 
Fifth by Hajor-Gonorol Warron, the Siith by HajorCleneral 

These three corps, with tJiroe divisions of cavalry commauded 
by General Sheridan, composoU the Army of the Potomac, com 
maniiud by Majur-Oeuoral Muado. The Ninth Corps, com- 
manded by Major-Gocioral Burusido, was added when tho army 
took up its lino of ciiarch. 

Loo was behind Miiio Run, witli his head -quarters at Orange 
Courtrllouso, covering tho advance to Richmond from that 

There was concentration ovorywhore. Ooneral Oillmore, 
with what troops conld bo spared from tho Department of the 
SouLli, joined his forces to those on tho I*enin!^ula and al SuflbUc 
under General Butler ; Sigel commanded Eoveiul thout^aud in 
the Shenandoah ; Crook and Avoroll liad a small army in West- 
ern Virginia ; at Chattanooga, under Sherman and Tliomas, 
was gathered a largo army of Western troops ; while Bantu 
waa up the Rod River, moving towards Shrevoport. 

The dramatia persontx •woTQ kjiowii to tho public, but the part 
Assigned to each was kept profoundly secret. There was dis- 
cussioi and speculation whether Buriiside, from his encamp- 
ment at Aimapolis, would suddenly take transports and go to 
Wilmington, or up the Rappahannock, or the James, or the 
York. Would Meade movo directly acro&s tlie Rapidaa and 
attack Lee in front, with every passage, every hill and ravine 
enfiladed by Rebel cannon ? Or would he move his right flank 
along tho Blue Ridge, crowding Lee to the seaboard ? Would 
ho not make, rather, a sudden change of base to Fredericks- 
burg? None of the wise men, military or civil, in their speo- 
olations, indicated the line which General Grant adopted. The 
publlo accepted the disaster at Chancellorsville and the failure 
at Mine Run as conchisivc evidence that a successful advant e 
across tho Rapidan by the middle ford^ was impossible, or at 
least improbable. So well was Oie secret kept, that, aside from 
the corps commanders, none in or out of the army, except the 
President and Secretary of War, hod information of the line of 
march intended. 




Ooueral Qruot had a grand plan, — uot merely for the Army 
of tlio Potomac, t>ut for all of tho armies in the Uaion serrioe. 

Bauks vfts to take Shreveport, tlieo sail rapidly down the 
Hitiflifi$ippt and move upon Mobito, accompanied by the naval 
forco undfir Parrag^ut. Sherman was to push Johnston fitim 
his position near Cliattauooga. If Banks succeeded at Mobile, 
he waa to move up to Montgomery and cooperate with Sherman. 
Such a movement would compel the Rebel General Johnston to 
retiro from Atlanta. It would sever Alabama and Mississippi 
from tho other States of tho Confederacy. 

Butler was to move up the James and seize Riclimond, or 
oat tho railroads south of tho Appomattox. Sigol was to paaa 
up tho Hlioniuidoati, while tho troops in Western Virginia woni 
to Bovcr tho rnilroad loading 1o East Tennessee. 

The Army of tho Potomac was to move upon Richmoud,— 
or rather upon Loo's army. Tho policy of Qonaral Orant — ths 
idea upon which lie opened and conducted the campaign — miist 
be Ailjy comprehended Ijoforo the events can be clearly under- 

That idea is thus expressod in Oenoral Oraiit'i> oflUciaJ r^ 
pi»i: — 

" From an «arly period in the Rebellion I had been impressed with 
th« id{.'B tljftt active and continuous operations of lUI (be troopa that 
could be brought into ilio llold, rugardlesg of gotwon and wealher, were 
neoasiary tu r ipcedy icnuiuatiua of tbc wnr. TLo resounxsH of the 
enftmy, and h'm niinutricjil Hlri.-i>f;l)), were far iiiferiur to out* ; bttt u ma 
oflset to lliin, we hod a. vnfil temtor;, with a population hostile to tba 
govemnivnl, to gnrri.'oD, and long lines of river and railroRd commaDi- 
nalitmi to protect, to enable ui to supply the operating nrmirrii. 

"Tbe ariaies in ibe Ku^t and West actud indepi-ndi^ntly and without 
roncrrt, like a bnlky team, no two ervr pulling togi'thL-r, rfinliling the 
enemy to use to (*reat ndvnntage bis interior lio'Ci of comtnunicKlion for 
tranaporting troops from eiist to we?t, reinforcing ihe anny most vigoi* 
oaaly proadud, and to furlough large numbeni duiHnf; Aeaiona of inac- 
tivity on our jiart, to go lo ihcir homes, nod d'l Ihe wurk of prodacing 
lor the Dupport of their armies. It whs a quesiiou whetbLT our numer- 
ieal strength nnd resources were not more than balanced by thote disad- 
vnntagea and ilie eoemy'i^ superior position. 

" From the first, J war llrm io iho conviction that no peace enuld be 
Had that would be iishle and conducive to the hftppinrj* of the people, 




botb North and South, until the miU Lory power of the rebelUoD wis 
totintiy bru)c<^n. 

"I therefore deturraitu^, lirai, to uen ihu greace.41 number of troopt 
prmcticsble agaicLBt cb« urmcd force of the enutny ; preveotiag him ^m 
amag th« same force at (litTerent scaisoEiA agiuosi limi one and then 
another of oar armies, and the potwibilLty of repose for refitting and 
pr^udng Qecesuu7 BupjjIieB for carrying on reAiutance. liecoDd, to 
hammer oontinuouiily agaiiut the armed force of Lhe enemy and hi* 
reaoarces, until, by mere attrition, if in no other way, there should ba 
ooUimg left to him but an equal submiseioo with the loyal lectioo uf 
oar oommon country, lo the Conetitution and Uwa of the laod.** 

The Artuy of tlie Potomac had ao wmy Uslc to perform. 
Lee had the advauUgo of position. The Rapidau was his lliie. 
He had improved his old earthworks aiid thrown up uew oiiee. 
His ca&noD covered the fords. His armj was as large aa when 
he invaded rotiDsylvaiiia. Graut must cross iho Rapidou at 
some point. To attoiupt and fail would be disastrous. It was 
easf to say, Push oa ! but it wtus fttr differeot to meet the storm 
of leaden hail, — far dilTcrent to see a Hue waver, break, aud 
scatter to the rear, with utter loss of heart. Those were cou- 
tingencies and possibilitios to be taken iuto accoutit. 

It was (10 light afTair to supply aii army of one huudred and 
fifty thousand men, ovor a single lino of railway, — to accu- 
mtUate supplies in advance of the movement, — to cut looee 
from bis base of operations, and open a nev base ob occasion 
diould call. Every mile of advance increased OmutV diffi- 
culty, while every mile of retrograde movement carriod Lee 
nearer to his base of operations. 

All the spoculations in regard to Burnside's destiuation fell 
to the ground when, on the 3&th of April, the Ninth Corps 
pMfted through Wa.<;hington, and moved into Virginia. It was 
a sublime spectacle. The Xintli Corps achieved almost the 
first successes of tlic war in North Carolina. It had hastened 
to the Potomac in time Lo aid in roscuiug the capital when Ijee 
made his 6rst Northorn invasion. It won glory at South Moim- 
tain, and made the narrow l)ridge of Antietam forever historic. 
It had reachod Ketitttcky in season to aid in driving the Rebels 
from that Stale, and now. with recruited ranks, — with new 
regiments of as good Itlnml as ever was poured out in the cause 


lEE BOTS or '<t 


of right, with A new element which wu to make for itsdf • 
Dftmc aeror again to bo dc«pUod, the corp§ «aa Doarching 
Ifarougb the capital of the uation, possiiig m rariew befbr* 
Abraham Liu coin. The corps mardied down Fouitooctb Stre«t 
past Willord's Hotel, whore upon the balcony stood the Pre^ 
dent and General Bumnde. Behold the toeue ! Platoooa^ 
companies, battalions, regimenta, brigades, and dirisioas. The 
men are bronzed hj the rays of a Southern sun, and bj tb* 
March winds. The bright sunshine gleams from their baj- 
onets ; above tiiem wave their standards, tattered bj tb* 
winda, torn bj caunon-ball and rifle-shot. — stained with the 
Mood of dying heroes. They are priceless treasures, mora 
beloved than houses, land, riches, honor, case, comfort, wife 
or children. Ask them what is most dear of all earthly tltloga, 
there will be but one answer, — "Tlic flag! ilie dear old flag! " 
It is Uioir pillar of fire by night, of cloud by day, — the syirw 
bol of ererything worth Uring for, worth dying for ! 

Their banners boar the names of Bull Run, Ball's BluS^ 
Roauoko, Xcwijum, Gains's Mills, Mechonicsrillc, Seven Fines, 
Savago Station, Glendalo, Malrcrn, Fredericksburg, Chaucot- 
orsviUo, Antictam, South Mountain, Knoxville, Vicksburg, 
Port Uudson, Gettysburg, inscribed in golden characters. . 

The people of Washington havo turned out to see them. 
Senator!! have loft thoir Cltambor, and the House of Bepreaon- 
tatives has taken a recess lo gaze upon the dofoudors of their 
coainlry, as thoy pass through the city, — many of Uicm, alas! 
never to rotuni. 

TImro is the steady tramping of Uie tbousauds, — the deep, 
heavy jar of tlio guu-carriagea, — tlie olattoriiig of hoof^, the 
clanking of sabres, tho drum-boat, the bugle-call, and the music 
of the bauds. Pavomout, sidewalk, Hindows, and roofs are 
occupied by tlio {leoplo. A division of veterans pass, saluting 
tlie President and liieir commander with choors. And now 
with full ranks, platoons extending from sidewalk to sidewalk, 
are brigades wliioU never have been m battle, for the 0rst time 
shouldering arms for their country ; vlio till a year ago never 
had a coimtry, who even now are not Auiericau citizens, who 
are diHfrauchisod, — yet thoy are going out to fight for the 
(lag! Their country was (pven thera by ihe taU, pale, bonevo 




lent-hBarted man Btanding upoa the baloony. For the fint 
time the; behold their benefactor. Thoy uxc darker hued Uian 
their reteran oomrades ; but they cau choor as lustil/, " Hur- 
rah! Hurrah!" "Hurrah for Maasa Liiikum!" "Three 
cheers for the Prosidout ! " They swiug their caps, clap their 
hands, and shout their joy. Long, loud, and jubilant are the 
r^oicLngs of those radeomod sons of Airica. Begimont after 
regiment of Etalwart men, — slavoa once, but freemen now, — 
with steady step and ereu rank, pass down the street, moriug 
on to the Old Dominion. 

It was the first review of colored troops by the President. 
He gave them Ireedom, he recognized them as soldiers. Their 
brethren in arms of the same complexion had been murdered 
in cold blood, after surrender, at Fort Pillow and at Plymouth. 
And such would be their fate should tliey by chance beoome 
prisoners of war. 

The time had come for tlie great movement. 

On Tuesday afternoon, May 3d, the cavalry broke camp ou 
the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, and moved ea^ward,— 
General Gregg's dinsion towards Ely^a Ford, and Ociioral Wil- 
80D*e division towards Oormanna Ford, each having pontoons. 
At midnight tho Second Oorps, which had been encamped east 
of Culpepper, followed General Gregg. At daylight on the 
morning of the 4th of May, tlio Fiftli and Sixth Corps and the 
reserve artillery were moving towards Germanna Ford. The 
fupply-train — four thousand wagons — followed the Second 
Corps. Thoro wore but tlioso two available roads. 

Tho onomy was at Orange Court-Houso, watching, from hit 
elevated lookout on Clark's Mountain, for the first sign of 
change in the Union 6amp. In the light of tlio early dawn he 
saw that the encampmeuls at Culpepper were broken up, while 
the dust-cloud hanging over the forest toward the east was the 
euro indication of the movement. 

General Lee put his army in instant motion to strike the 
advancing colunms as they crossed the Rapidan. The move- 
ment of Grant was southeBst, that of Loe nortlieast, — linos of 
advance wtiich must produce coUision, unless Grant was far 
enoiigh forward to slip by the angle. There is reason to believe 
that Genera) Grant did not intend to fight Lee at Wilderness, 


THE BOrs OP dl. 


bnt that it wajs bis design to slip past that point and sviog 
round bj Spottsylvania^ and, ir possible, get between Leo and 
Riohmond. He boldly cut loose his connection with Washing- 
ton, and plunged into the Wildorucss, relying upon the abilitj 
of bis soldiers to open a now base for supplies whenever aeeded. 

In ttiis first day's movomont ho did not nncorer Washington. 
Bumsido was still lying on tho uortli bank of the Rappahan- 
nock. It was uiidoretood in tho army that tho \inth Corps 
was to bo a reaorre to protect the capital. So, perhaps, Lee 
understood it. But at nigliLfttll, on the 4th, the shelter-tents 
were folded, and the meii of the Xinth, with six days' rations 
In the':- faavoreacks, were on tlie march along the forestrroad, 
lighted only by tho stars, joining Ibo luaiii army at Oermanoa 
Pord on tho morning of tho 5tli. 

Tlie movement from tho Rapidan to Cold ITarbor was made 
in thirty days. It was a scrios of movements by tho loft flank, 
ui part to got between Lee and his southorn commimicationB, 
v)d in part to Ibrce him to abandon stroog positions. 

The movements were : — 

Krom Culjrtppor to Wildenicss. 

Krom WilderuoBB to Spottsylvania. 

F'tom Spottsylvania to tho XorOi Anna. 

Pi-om Uie North Anna to Cold Harbor. 

tVom Cold Harbor to Petersbuf^. 

It watt thirty days of continuous marching, or fighting, buUd 
tug dofoncoH and bridges, opening roads, ostublisbiug new bftsei 
of supplies, through a oounlry deosoly wooded, and crossing 
four largo rivers, besides numoroue smaller etroaius, to &nd 
always tho enomy upon the oUier side, prepared to give de» 
perate battle. 

It was early tii the morning on tiio 4th of May when the 
reveille sounded for the last time over the bills and dales of 
Culpoppor. Tlie last cups of coffee woro drunk, tho blanket* 
folded, and then the army, which through tho winter had lain 
ID Oftmp, moved away from tlio log liuts, where maiiy a jest had 
been spoken, many a story told, — whoro, throtigh rain and 
mud, and boat and cold, tho faitl'ful and tnie-heartod men had 
kept watch and ward throng)) tho long, weary montlifl, — where 
songs of praise and prayer to God liad boon raised by thousands 
who looked beyond the present Into the future life 




So rapid was tlto marcli that tho Second Corps reached Ohas* 
cellonmllo before night, having crossed tho Rupidon at Ely'a 
Ford. The Sixth and Fifth Corps crossed at Qermanna Ford, 
ritliout oppositiou, and before night tlie Army of iho Potumao 
was upon the southern side uf tlial stream, where it was juined 
by the Ninth Oorps tho noxt morning. 

General Grant's quarters for tlio ni){ht wore in an old house 
iioar the ford. Lights were to be put out at nine o*cloekr 
There wore the usual scones of a Uvuuac, aud one unusual to 
an army. Tho last boaras of daylight wore fading in tho west. 
Tho drummers wore beating the tattoo. Mingled with the cun- 
fitant rumbling uf tlio wagons across Uio pontoons, aud the un- 
c«aaiDg flow of tho river, was a chorus of voices, — a brigade 
singing a hymn of devotion. It was tho grand old choral of 
Luther, Old Hundred. 

" £tcm&l uv thy morciiw. Lord, 
Elemal truth •Iteaib thy word ; 
TI15 pniw shall Kiiud from ihore to ■Dora, 
HU >uiu thtli riso uid ret no more." 

Many soldierv in that army wore thinking of home, — not 
only of loved ones, and of associations full of sweet and tender 
memories, but of a bettor abiding-place, eternal in the heaveiu 
To thousands it was a last night on earth. 

Early in the morning of the 5tl) Oenorals Moade and Grant, 
with their staffs, after riding five milos Htjm Qermanna Ford, 
halted near on old mill in the Wilderness. General Sheridan'i 
cavalry had been pushing out south and west. Aides came 
back with despatches. 

^*They say tliat Lee intoads to fight us here," said General 
Moado, a» ho read tliem. 

" Yory well," was the quiet reply of General Grant. 

Th« two oommaudors retire a little from the crowd, and stand 
\jj the rottdside in earnest conversation. Grant is of medium 
•tature, yet has a well-developed j/h^siqut, sandy whiskers and 
moustache, blue eyes, earnest, thouglitful, and far-seeing, a 
cigar in his mouth, a knife in ouu hand, aud a stick in the 
otiier, which be is whittling to a point. He whittles slowly 
towards him. His thoughts are not yet crystallized. Hii 
words are few. Suddenly he commences upon the other end 




af tbo stick, and whittles onergeticallj from him. And now 
he is lesa reticent, — talks frobly. Qe is drousud in plain blue; 
■nd were it aot for the throe stara upou hia ahuulder, few 
would select biin as the Lieuteuant-Oeneral conunauding aO 
the ariuios of tbo Uuiou in the field. 

Hoade ia tall, thia, a tittle stooping in the shouldon, quick, 
oomprohouding tbo Bituatioa of ofihirs in an instant, energetic^ 
- au officer of excellent executive ability. 

Years ago, a turnpike was built from FrederiokBburg to 
Orange Court-House ; but in tbo days wbeu there was a mania 
for plank roads, another corporation constructed a plank road 
between the same places. A branch plank road, commencing 
two miles west of Ghancollorsville, crosses the Rapidan at 
Ocrmanna Ford, running to Stevensburg, north of iJiat stream. 
The turnpike runs nearly east and west, while tlio Steveusburg 
plank road runs northwest. Qenoral Grant has established hia 
head-quarters at the crossing of the turnpike and tlie Stereos 
burg rood, his flag waring from a knoll west of the road. A 
mile and a half out on tbo turnpike, on a ridge, is Parker'i 
store, where, early in tUo morning, I saw long lines of Rebel 
intkntry, the stinligbt gleaming from bayonet and gun-barrel. 

Before the contest begins, lot us go up to the old Wildorneas 
taTom, which stands on the Stevonsburg plank road, and take 
a view of a portion of tlio battlc-ficld. It wilt t»e a limited view, 
for tliore are few open spacos tn tbo Wildurnoss. 

From tho tavern you look west. At your feet is a brook, 
flowing frnm tlio southwest, and another small stream from the 
Dorthwest, joining tliour waters at tho crossing of tlio turnpike 
and tho plank road. The turnpike rises over a ridge between 
the two streamti. On the soulli slope is tho house of Major 
Lacy, owner of a house at Falmouth, used by our soldiers a(W 
the battle of Fredericksburg. It ia a beautiful view, — a smooth 
lawn iu front of tlio house, meadows green with tlic verdure of 
spring ; beyond tho meadows are hills ttiickly wooded, — tall 
oaks, and pine and cedar thickota. On the right band side of 
the turnpike tho ridge is more broken, and also tliickly set with 
small trcoa and buslms. A mile and a half out from the croai*- 
ing of the two roads the ridge breaks down into a ravine. 
Oeueral Loe hae possession of the western bank, Grant tbt 




Mttont. It is such a mixture of woods, uuderbrush, thicketB, 
ranncs, liilh, lioUowe, aud kiioUs, that oae is bowildered in 
passing tlirough it, and to attempt to describe would bo a cont* 
fdeto bowildoroicnt to writer and reador. 

But GoQoral Grant ban boon compelled to make thia ridge 
bis rigbt line of battlo. He must protect liis trains, wliicb are 
still coming in on the Qermanna road. 

The Sixth Corps, commanded by Qcnoral Sedgwick, holds 
the right, covering tho road to Gormauna Ford. The loft of 
the Tlilrd Division reaches the turnpike, whero it connecte 
with tlie Fifth Corps, Warren's. Before the arrival of Bum- 
sido's force, ono division of the Fifth is placed in position 
south of Iho turnpike. Now leaving a wide gap, jou walk 
through the woods towards the southeast, and two miles from 
head-quarters jou find the Second Corps, under Hancock, a 
long lino of men in. the tliiok forest, on both sides of the 
Orange plank road. 

Tlie forenoon of the 6th instant was devoted to taking por- 
tions. Engineers rode over the ground and examined the 
ebaractei of the country. A small party pushed out to Par- 
ker's store, but encountered a Rebel columu advancing ; but 
the kuowlodgo thus obtained of the ground in that direction 
was of great value. 

Word was sent to General Hancock, who had orders to move 
tn direction of Spottsylvania ; that Leo was taking positions. 
He hastened to make connection witli the other corps. Had he 
not moved rapidly, Leo would have obtained possession of the 
forli of the two plank roads, tliu Stevonsburg and the Orange 
road, which would have been a serious mishap. The Rebel 
advance was not more thau a mile distant when Hancock 
secured it. No sooner had tlio pickets boon thrown out, than 
the rattling of musketry commenced all along the lino. About 
four in the aflonioon, each commander began to feel the po- 
sition of the otlier by advancing brigades on tlje right, left, and 
centre. An oxchange of a few volloys would seemingly t»atisfj 
the parties. 

It had br^en the practice of General Lee to begin aud close a 
day witli a grand fusilade. In this battle he adhered to hu 
former tactics, by advancing a heavy force upon our right, and 


THE BOYS Of '91 


then, vhen tho contast wiu at its height in that directioD, 
attacked on tlic loft. Tlio rolls of musketry were very bearj 
and eoDtiniioas for an hour. There was but little opportn- 
nitj to ciiargo lia^onot. It waa a _clo90 contest In a thick 
wood, on land which yean ago was turned hj tlio plough, but 
which, having by thrinioss culture incident to tho cjistenco of 
Borvilii IalK)r, boon woni out, now bears the smallest oaks, 
hoEcls, BasBofraB, and briorB. 

UusUlilJOB coasod at night. Each commauder learned enough 
of t)io utbor's operutiuiis to make dispositions fur the following 
day. Grant liad no alterations to make. Ijce had forced him 
to aooopt battle tlioro, and ho must do tlie best he could. U«ig' 
ftreet arrived in the nit(ht, and was placed against IIatici>ck, on 
the Rebel right, or rathor on tho right coiitre, orcrlapping tlio 
Second and coming against a portion of the Ninth Corps, whicl) 
waaaaoignod to the lofl centre. Thus tlicso two cor[isand their 
two oommaoders met again in deadly conflict, liuving fought at 
the first and second Bull Ron, South Mountain, Antietam, and 

Goneral Alexis Hays, tu the frout lino, findiug that be was 
outuumbored, seat word to Hancock tliat he muat hare reiii* 

" Toll liui," said Hancock to the aide, " tliat he shall hava • 
freah brigade iu twenty minutM.** 

Twenty uiinulos! An age to tho«e who «M tlioir comrades 
falling, — their lines growing tUuiner. Before the limo hud 
upirod. General Hays waa carried back a corpse ; but though 
tho braro man had fallen, the troope held their ground. 

Night closed over the scene. Everybody knew that tho COD- 
iMt would >« renewed iu tho morning. I<60 began tho attack 
OD the 6th, falling like a thuiidorholt on the flank of Grant, but 
made no Impression on the Union linos, — not moring tbem 
an inch from their chosen positions- 
Grant resolved to take tlie tnitintiTo on tho morning of the 
6th, and orders woro accordingly iflsuod for a general attack al 

Bcdgwick was to oooimonco on the right at five o'clock, but 
IjOo saved him tho trouble. A. P. Hill forestallod ttie moTo- 
nvml >iy udvancitig at half past four. The Robot batteries b^ 




Parker's Etoro soDt a half-ilozcu shots into the Uuiou lines as a 
rigiiol for the begiimmg of the contest. Then camo a sitgbk 
ripple ofmuskolry, tliou a roll, — lottg, deep, heavy, — aud the 
crash, — iudoscribable, fearful to hear, torriblo to think of. 
[iHfty Lliousaud musketa vere flashing, with occasional cannon- 
sliotfi, mingled with shouts, chcors, aud hurrahs Irom the LTuion 
tines, aud yells like the war-whoop of ladiauEi, — wild, savage 
howb from the depths of the taugled jungle. The sun risui 
upon a cloudless sky. The air becomes siJtry. Tlie blood of 
the combatants is at fever heat. There are bayouet-charges. 
mrgiugs to and fro of the opposing lines, a mooting and com 
miugliiig, like waves of the ocean, sudden upspriugings from 
the underbrush of divisions stealthily advanced. There is a 
continuous rattle, with iuterveniug rolls deepening mto long, 
heavy swells, the crescendo and the diminuendo of a terrible 
symphony, rising lo tbimder-tooefr, to crasli and roar iade- 

The Nintli Corps during tlie day was brought bonvcon the 
S^ftli and Second. Divisions wore moved to tlie right, to the 
left, and to tlic centre, during the two days' fight, but tho po- 
sitious of tho corps remained unchanged, and stood as repr«- 
iODtod in the diagram. 








Through all thoae long hours of confliot there was patient 
Bndurance in front of the enemy. There were temporary fcto- 




otmtt and rorersm on both sides, la onlj a single instanoe 
WW tliero pormaiiont advantage to Lou, and that he had not 
tlio powor to improve. It was at the cloee of die contest ou 
the 6th. Tlio sun had gone down, and twili^cht van do«!])eniiig 
Into night. Tho woaried men of Rickott's division of Uio Siztli 
Corps, in tlio front lino of battle on tho right, liad tlirowu tliom- 
sclvcs upon tho ground. Suddenly thoro was a rush Ufjon tliotr 
Uank. Tlioro was musketry, blinding flaslics from cajmon, and 
explosions of shuUs. Tho line which had stood firmly Uirough 
the duy gave way, not hocuuHO it was ovorpowured, hut l>ecauae 
it was surprised. Ouneral Soymour and a portion of bis brigade 
were taken prisoners. Tliore was a partial panic, which soon 
subsided. Tlio socond lino remained firm, Uie enemy ww 
drirou back, and tho disaster repaired by swinging tho Sixth 
Oorpe round to a now position, covorod liy tho rosorre artillery. 

On tliB morning of tho 7th tho pickola rojiorted that I^o had 
fallen back. Reconnoitring parties said that he was throwing 
up en^vnclunonta. Grant was thoughtful through the day. 
Ho said hut little. Uo had a cigar in his mouth from morotag 
till night. I baw him many times during Uio day, deeply 
absorbed in thought. Ho rode along the centre, and exam- 
ined tlio Rebel linos towards Parker's store. At times a shell 
or solid shut camo frum the Rubul batteries through the thick 
forest growtli, but otlier tlian tliis tliore was but little fighting. 
Grant dclurmined to make a push for Spotbiylvauia, and put 
his army hotwoon Loo and Richmond. By noon the trains 
were in motion, baring boon procodod by Hhoridan with the 
OftTilry, fr^lowod by the Ninth Corps, and then tho Fifth on a 
puoUol road. But Lee had tlio Bhortest lino. Ho was on the 
alert, and thero was a simultaneous movement of tho Rebel 
army on a shorter line. 

The Second, Fifth, and Sixth Corps took the Block road, 
wbilo the Ninth, with the trains, moved by OhaQCellonmlle, 
over ttie bttttk^gnjuiid of tlm preceding summer, wliere the 
bones of those who fell in tliat strugglo were bleaching un- 
buried in the summer air. 

It was eleven P. M. on Saturday evening, Uay 7tli, when 
Generals Grant and Moade, accompanied by their cavalry e»- 
oortii, left the Wtldemoss hoad-quarto'*-' of General Hancock, 




for a ride to Todd's Tavern, a place of two or tliroe houses, 
«zhH}itinK the usual degree of thritllcssuBBS which charactei^ 
ised tlic Old DonuDton. Twice during the ride we ran into the 
Relwl pickets, and were compelled to take by-paths through 
tietdfi and thickets. Goiioral Grant rodo at a break-neck Bpocd. 
How exciting ! The sudden flashing of Rebel musketa in front, 
the whiz of the minnie projectile over our heads, the quick 
holt and right about face, — our horses stumbling orer fallen 
timber and stumps, the clanking of sabres, the clattering of 
hoofs, the plunge into brambles, the tension of every nerve, the 
strain upon all the souses, the feeling of relief when wo are 
ouoo more in the road, and then the gallop along the narrow 
way, beneath the dark pines of the forest, till brought to a halt 
by tlie sudden challenge from our own sentinel ! It is a fiist 
life that one leads at such a time. When tlio reaction sets in 
tlio system is aa limp as a wilted cabbage-loaf. 

" Wliere are you going ? " waa the question of a oavalryman 
as we lialted a moment. 

" To Spottsylvania." 

" I reckon you will have a scrimmage before you get there.** 
said he. 

" Why ? " 

" Well, nothing in particular, except there are forty or fafty 
thousand Bebs in front of you. Sliondan has had a tough 
time of it, and I reckon thero is more work to bo done." 

We pushed on and reached Todd's at one o'clock on Sunday 
morning. The roads were full of cavalry, also the fields and 
woods. Sheridan had boon fighting several hours, with Fiti 
Loe. The wounded were being brought in. Surgeons were 
at work, lu the field, a short distance from tlie spot, the pickets 
were still firing shots. Tlio Rebels were retiring, and Sheri- 
dan's men, having won the field, were throwing themselves upon 
tliQ ground and dropping off to sleep as nncouoeraedly as when 
seeking rest in the calm repose and silence of their far-distant 

Fastening our horses to the front-yard fence of Todd's, 
making a pillow of our paddles, wrenching off tbo palings for 
a bod to keep our bones from the ground, wrapping our blan- 
kets around u£, we w^re sound asleep in three minutr«, undi*- 


THR nOTS OP '«!• 


tiirbod by the tramping of the pawing trocps, the (ar of the 
utillery, (be nimble of the ammunitton wagons, the shouts of 
the soldiort, the shrieks of the wounded, and groans of the 

At sanrise tlio hoad-quarten of the arm; were removed to 
Pinoy Opoto Churcli. No boll called the worshippom of the 
parisli to its portal on that Sabbatli roonung, but other tones 
were nbrating tlie air. Tlie FifUi Corps had como in collision 
with ^e Hobels, and while the roar-giiard of tlie army were 
firing tlieir last shots in t)io Wildonicss, the cannonade was 
reopening at Spottsylvania. 

Tlie day was intensely hot. I waa wearied by tlic events of 
tfie week, — tlio hani riding, the want of sleep, the series 
of hattlcB, — and instead of riding out to the fidd. enjoyed liii- 
arioufi repose beneath the apple-trees, fhigrant witli blossoms, 
and listened to tlie strange Habbath symphony, tito humming 
oS bees, the songs of die birds, the roll of musketry, and tlie 

Tlie woond division, Robinson's, and tlie fourth, Cutler's 
(after the loee of Wadsworth, killed at the Wilderness), were 
engaged. Baxter's brigade of Robinson's division was thrown 
ftwirard to ascertain the position of the enemy. Tlioir advance 
brought on tlie battle. The Siitli Corjw was moved to tlie left 
of Warren*!! on tJie Pinoy Church road, and was jtlaeed in 
mpp'^rting distance. In (his first engagoment Rol)in80n was 
badly wounded in the leg. 

The Second Corps having filed through the woods, after a 
hot and du^y march, came up behind the Fifth and Sixth. I 
took a ride along the lines late in the afternoon. The Fifth 
was moving slowly forward over undulations and through pine 
tliickotfi, — a lonp lino of men in blue, picking their way, now 
through dense nnderbnisli, tn a forest of moaning pines, now 
stepping over a sluggish stream, witli briora, hazel, thom-biishos, 
and aldors impeding every stop, and now emerging into an old 
field whore the thriftless farmers had turned the shallow soil 
for spring planting. 

Tliore had boen a lull in Uie cannonade, Inil it commcncod 
again. It was as before, a spirited contest, which lasted half 
u hour. Warmn pressed steadily on and drove Uie Rebels 




from their adrancod poeition, forcing thom to retire acroei 
the crook, but lomng several hundred mon before he dift- 
lodged tliom. 

Reaching an opening in t)ie forest, I came upou Hart's plau- 
tatiou, a collection of negro huts and farm buildings, — a 
lovelj spot, where the spring irheat was already rolling in 
green waveA in the passing breeze. Looking south over Po 
Greek, T could see tlie Catharpon road lined with horse and 
footmen, and could licar in tlie intervals of silence the rumble 
of wagons. A cloud of dust rose abore the forest. Were cho 
Rebels retreating, or were thej reoeivir^ reinforcements ? Gen- 
eral Grant came down and looked at them. Tlie Rebel artil- 
lerists near tho court-house must have discovered us, for a 
hal^doSBn cannon-shot came ringing through the air, plunging 
into flie newly ploughed oom-Beld and the clover-land, knee 
deep with luxuriant grass. 

On Monday morning it was found that Lee^s whole army was 
at l^pottsylvania ; and as our skirmishers were deployed to 
ascertun the potiictoii of tlie enemy, it was discovered that Reb- 
eU occupied all t)io ground in front. General Grant did nut al 
first tliink Lee would make a detour of his whole force from a 
direct line to Richmond ; he thought it must be only detacli- 
ments of men which had been thrown in his way ; but when he 
discovered what Leo's intentions wore, be prepared to accept 
bftttle. Word was sent to General BuruRide to take position on 
the extreme lofi. Tho Second Corps, which hod been in rear of 
the Fifth, was swung to the right, while the Sixth was deflected 
toward ttie Ninth. Wliile these dispositions were being made, 
tho skirmialiing and cannonade were never intermitted for an 
inataut. A pontoon train was sent around to tho right, to be 
used by Hancuuk. A battery was placed in position at Hart's 
plantation, aud its riQe shot and shells interrupted the tide of 
travel uu the Catliarpen road. Riding down to the front of 
Haiioock's corps, I fotuid Bimeyi who witli the Third Division 
held the extreme right, and had already pushed far over toward 
the Catliar|)eii road. 

Gibbon's division was in tho centre, and Barlow's was on the 
left, occupying, in part, ground which the FiAli had held tho 
tiigbt previous. It wab nearly night, and tho couflict ww 



deepoiiing. Tlio daj bad boeu iutousoly hot. but, a« the cn> !• 
uetsa of evouiug come ou, botli parties addnwiwd thomsclvee 
to the ODCOUutor. Barlow marched over uudulatiug pasturo- 
lauds, through (Huges of forest, iuto a meadow, across it, aud 
iuto the d&rk pines beyond. Takiug a favorable stand iioar 
a deserted farm-house, \>y the riaey Church road, 1 could 
see the dark lines move steadily ou. Below me, ou a hillock, 
were Ilaucock aud stAfT directing mot'omeuts. A half-dozeu 
batteries were in position close by. One — the Third Massa- 
chusetts — waa sending its shells over the heads of cm- men 
into the woods beyond the meadow. Mounting the breast- 
works which had boeu thrown up at tliis spot, 1 could see the 
orchard whore tlie Rebel riflemen wore Ijnug. There was tli» 
sharp, shrill ringhig of the miunie bullets whistling through the 
air, and at times a lurid sheet of flame from a brigade pouring 
in its volleys. There was the Hash, the cloud of dust wherever 
the ragged iron tore its way, and the deafeniug report. I gladly 
availed myself of wliatever protection tlie breastwork afforded, 
although a solid shot would have passed through the slight 
embaukuiout as readily ae a etone could be litu-led through 
ohaff. The cbaacos were as one to several thousand of my 
being hit, but it it; the one chance which makes a person wish 
be were somewhere else. Tlie Second Corps was smartly m> 
B^led, but stood their ground and bocamo assailants in turn, 
— not because tliey obeyed orders, but from tlie impulse of 
the men, who needed no urging. It was a rcLnarkable fea- 
ture. The men in that contest fought because they wanted to. 
Gibbons and Biruey swung like a doublo-hingcd door upon 
Longstreet's loft flank and obtained possession of the ground 
which the Rebels occupied at tlie l>egiiming of the engagement. 
It bocamo evident on Tuesday morning that General I>oe liad 
chosen Spottayhauia as a place for a trial of strength. Prepara- 
tions were accordingly made for the work. General Grant's 
wounded impeded his movements. Fie decided to send them 
to Fredericksburg. All who could walk were started ou foot. 
Thoee who could not, but who did not need ambulances, were 
pkoed in empty wagons. The long procossion took its wind- 
ing way, and other thousands of mangled forms were brought 
In to fill the empty places. It was a sad sight. It made 




mo sick at heart, and weary of war, aiid how muob more slob 
uid weary when I thought of tbo groat iniquity which liad 
caused it. 

At daybreak the cacnoaado roconuueuoed, Grant's gum 
oomiug first iutu play. The Rebels for a while remaiuod in 
silent indiiferuiice ; but as continued teasiug rouses a wild 
beast's augor, eo at lougth they ropHod. 

TtiQ air was calm, and tho rovorboratJoii rolled far over the 
forest. There was constant skinuishing through the forenoon. 
General Grant rode along tho liuoe, inspected the position, and 
issued ordors for a general advance at five o'clock ; but Lee 
took the initiative, and through tlie afternoon the battle raged 
with exceeding fierceness. 

There was nothing at Spottaylvauia worthy of contontioa, — 
no muunUiin-paas or deep-running liver ; but General Grant 
being on his way to Riclunoud, adversary, like Apollyon 
assaulting Chrietian, bad come out to meet him on tliat spot- 
Lee bad the advantage of position and was able to concentrate 
his forcoB. It was about one o'clock when Ijongstroot began to 
press Ilaacock. There was a hot engagement for an hour, 
principally by Bumey's division ; but failing to more Bimey, an 
attempt was made to pry opou still wider the joint between the 
Second and Fifth Corps. 

Tlie relative positions of tho two armies will be seen from the 
following diagram. 

The battle was fought in the forest, — in the marshes along 





tho Ky, — in rarinos, — in pfne-tbickeU densely Bhtded with 
the dark ovcrfp-ocns that slmt out the rajs of the nooadaj 
tUD, — in opcu fields, whore B«bol batteries had full sweep aod 
play — with shell, and grape, and oanistor — from iDtrencb«| 
posltiouB on tlio hills. 

During a lull in tlie ntrifo I Tinted the hoflpitals. Suddouly 
tho battle rcconimouced in greater Airy. Tho wounded l>egao 
to coma ill at a fearful rate. Tho battle was drawing nearer. 
fihells wore Btreamiug post the hoepitala. Thore wore signs of 

'* Are they driring us ? " was the eager inquiry of tha 

While tho Rtorm was at its height, a stalwart soldier who bad 
just risen from tho amputatiug-tablo, whoro his left arm, torn 
to shreds hy a cannon-shot, had boon soTorod above the elbow, 
leaning against the tont-polo, sang the song ho often had sung 
in camp, — 

■* The Union IbroTcr I nanmh, boyv 1 bmrmli t 
DoWQ witb tho tnJtor, up witb thv itar ; 
While w« rally ronad tke lUg, bo7<, rally oaoe igaia, 
Shoutiiig the hattle-^ry of Preedom 1 ' 

flis wounded comrades hoard it, and joined in the cboras, 
raising their arms, swinging their cape, and ohooring the flag 
thoy lOTod. It is one of memory's fadeless pictures. Is it a 
wonder that tlie recollection of that scene sometimes fills my 
eyes wiUi tears ? 

Tlie contest all along the lino was terrific. Even now, orer 
all tho intorvoning time and distauce, I seem to hear tho un- 
ceasing rattle and roll of musketry and cannon, the cheer 
of the combatants, the tramping of horses, Uie explosion of 
•hells, the shriek of tlie rifled projectile, the crash througli the 
ireee. It goes on hour after hour. Tho ranks are thinning. 
Tho men with stretchers bring in their bleeding hardens, and 
lay them gently upon tho ground. 

It is past Bovon o'clock. The shados of evening are falling. 
Tho bilUide in front of the Sixth Oorp« is aflame. While the 
uproar is wildent there is a choer, shar[>cr and louder than the 
din of tho conflict. U is not the savage war^ty of tho enemy, 
bnt ft buoyant shout. Into tlie storm sweeps the VorfiiOQl 




brigade, witl) bayonets Qrmlf 60t, leaping over Uie Rebel works, 
and ghilioriug liuudrcds of prisouors from Dale's brigade of 
Robols. Evoll povirod iu roiiiforcomouts to strougttiou his lioe 
uid regaio his lost work, which was stiibbonily held by the 
Second Vermont. Far in advance of tlio main lino lay that 
regiment, itouriiig a doadly firo ujwn tho enemy. Gonoral 
Wriglit (m commaud aft^r Sedgwick's death) aont to have 
tlio regiment withdrawu. 

" Wo don't waiit to go bacb! Otre wb rationa and ammn* 
oitiou, and wo 'It hold it for six mouths if you want us to," 
was tho reply. 

Qviiurul Wright rode to General Grant '* What shoU 1 
do ? " he asked. 

" Pile in the mou atid hold it ! '* was the answer. 

Gonoral Wright returned, hut meanwhile a 8ul>ordiDato offi- 
cer had ordered them to retire. They were loath to give up 
what they had won bo gloriously. 

Gonoral Rico, commandhig a brigade in the Fiflh Corps, was 
wounded, and borne to tho roar. Tho surgeon laid down lus 
knife after removing tho shattorcd Hmh, and suiud l>06ide 
him to Boothc with tender words in tlie last droad hour 
which was coming on agmoe. Tho snflbror could hear tho 
swelling tide of battle, tho dcoiieniiig rolls liko waves upon 
the ocoau sliora. His eyes wore closing. Ho was approaching 
that ocean which has no shore. His pain was intonso. 

'* Turn mo ovor," said ho, faintly. 

" Which way ? " 

" Let me die witli my faco to the onomy ! " 

They wore his lost words. A short stmgglo and all was 
ended. A Christian patriot had finished his work on earth, 
and was numbered with tlio horoio dead. 

The early dawn of TImrsday, the 12tli, bohold the Second 
Corps in motion, — not to flank the enomy, but moving, witlj 
'ixod bayonets, straight on towards his in trench ments. Bar- 
low's and Uimey's divisions in columns of battalions, doubled 
on the centre, to give strength and firmness, lod the assault. 
They move silonlly through tlio forest, — tlirough the ravine 
in front of tliem, up to tlioir own Bkirmisti-lino, — post it, — 
D3 longer marching, but running now, — dashing on with en- 


THE Bors 6p~^ir 


tbusiasm thrilUng ereiy nerre. Thojr svoep ava; the Robei 
pickeMino aa if it wore a cobweb. On ! iuto tho intrench- 
monta witb a liurrah whicli Bturtles the soldiers of both armiei 
tfom their momiug slumbers. M^jor-Ooneral Johuson and 
Brigadicr-Ooiioral Stewart, and throe tliousnnd men of Ewell's 
division are taken prisouers, eighteen cannon, and twoutj-two 
standards captured. 

It was tho work of fire minntes, — as sudden as the swoop 
of an eagle. Theu the uproar of tho day began. The second 
lino of the enemj's workn was asfiaiilted ; but, exaaperated 
by their losses, tlie Rebels fought fiercely. Tlio Ninth Corpi 
was moved up from tho left to support tlie Second. Long- 
street, on the other hand, was brought over to help Kwell. 
Tho Fiilh and Sixth became partially engaged. There were 
ohargcs and counter-charges. Positions wore gained and lost. 
From morning till night tho contest raged on tho right, in the 
centre, and on tho loft, swaying to and fro ovor tlio unduly 
tiouB and through the ravines. It was a battle of fourteen 
hoxirs' duration, — in aeverit;, in iinflinching determination, 
in obstinacy, not exocedod by any during the war. Between 
forty and fitly pieces of artiUory wore at one time in tho hands 
of General Hanoook ; but owing to tho difBculties of romoval, 
and the efforts of tlie enemy, be could secure only eighteen. 
During tlio day Grant advanced his lines a mile towards tlie 
oourt-bouse^ and repulsed Lee in all his counter-attacks. 

During tho lull in the strife at Spottsylvania 1 spent a day iu 
PVoderickshurg, visiting the hospitals. 

Tho city is a vast hospital ; churchos, public buildings, pri* 
vato dwellings, stores, obambors, attics, hosomonts, all full. 
There aro thousands upon the eiidownlk. All day long tlie 
ambulances have been arriving from the field. There are but 
few wounded lod at the front, tbose only whom to remove would 
t>e certain death. 

A rod flag bos boon flung out at the Sanitary Commission 
rooms, — a wliito one at tho rooms of tho Christian CommiiH 
aion. Thorooro tlxroo hundred volunteer nurses in attendance. 
The Sanitary Commission have fourteen wagons bringing sup 
pUes from Belle Plain. The Christian Commission has less 
tnuisportation facilities, but in devotion, in hard work, in 



patient eflTort, !t is the oompeor of ita more bountifully rap 
jilied neighbor. The nurses aro divided into dotaile, BOme foi 
day Ewrrice, aomo for night work. Each State has its Boliof 

How pationt tho brave fellows are ! Not a word of com- 
plaint, but thanks for tho slightest favor. Tliere was a Isok 
of cmtohes. I saw an old soldier of the Oalilbmia regiment, 
vbo fought with the lamented Baker at Bail's Bluff, and who 
had been in more than twenty battles^ hobbluig about with the 
arms of a settee nailed to strips of board. His regiment was 
on its way home, its tbroe yoars of service having expired. It 
was reduced to a score or two of weatlier-boaten, battle-scarred 
veterans. The disabled comrade could hardly koop back the 
tears as he saw them pass down tho titroot. '* Few of us left. 
The bones of the boys are on every battlc-fiold whore tlie Army 
of the Potomac has fought," said ho. 

There was tho sound of tho pick and spade in the church- 
yard, a hcaving-up of new earth, — a digging of tronclios, not 
for defence against the enemy, but for the last roating-plaoe of 
departed heroes. There they He, each wrapped in his blanket, 
tite last bivouac! For them there is no more war, — no 
charges into the thick, leaden rain-drops, — no more hurrahs, 
no more cheering for tlic dear old flag ! They have fallen, but 
the victory is th^rs, — tlieirs the roll of eternal honor. Side 
by side, — men from Massachusetts, from PennBytvania, and 
IVom Wisconsin, — from all tlio States, resting in one oommou 
grave. Peace to them ! blessings on the dear ones, — wives, 
mothers, clnldrou whom they have lefl behind. 

Qo into Uio hospitals; — armless, legless men, wounds of 
every description. Men on the Qoor, ou the hard seats of 
churoh-pewB, lying in one position all day, unalile to move till 
the nurse, going the rounds, gives them aid. Thuy must wait 
till their food comes. Some must be fed with a spoon, for they 
are as lielploss as little clitldreu. 

" O that wo could get some straw for the brave fellows," 
said the Rev. Mr, Kimball, of the Christian Commission. He 
had wandorod about town, seartjfaing for the article. 

" There is none to bo had. We shall have to send to Wael^ 
bigton Air it," said the surgeon in char^. 




" Strav ! I remember two stacKs, four miios out on the 
RpottsyLvauia road. I saw them last night as I galloped in 
trom the front." 

Armed with a requisition from the Provost Marshal to snze 
two stacks of straw, witli two wagons driven by freedmon, u> 
companied by four Christian Commission delegates, away we 
went across the battle-field of Decemlwr, fording Hazel Run 
gaining the heights, and reaching the straw stacks owned b] 
Rov. Mr. Owen, a bitter Rebel. 

" By whoso authority do you take my property f " 

"Tlio Provost Marshal, sir." 

** Are you going to pay mo for it T " 

" You must see the Provost Marshal, sir. If you are a loyal 
man, and will take the uatli of allegiance, doubtless you will 
get your pay when we have put down the Rebellion." 

** It is pretty hard. My cldldren arc just ready to starve. I 
have nothing for them to eat, and you come to take my prop- 
er^ without paying for it." 

" Yes, sir, war is hard. You must remember, sir, that there 
are thousauda of wounded meu, — your Rebel wounded as well 
as ours. If your olnldren are on the point of starving, those 
meu are on the point of dying. We must hare the straw for 
thorn. What we don't take to-night we will get in the morning. 
Meanwhile, sir, if anybody attempts to take it, please say to 
them that it ie for the hospital, and they can't have it." 

Thus with wagons stuffed, wo leave Rev. Mr. Owen and re- 
turn to make glad the hearts of sovoral thousand men. how 
tliey thank us ! 

" Did you got it for mo V God bless you, air." 

It is evening. Thousands of Boldlore just arrived from Waab- 
ingtoii have passed througli the town to take their places in the 
front. Tlio liills around ore white with iunumerahle touts. 

A baud is playing lively airs to cheer the wouudod in the 
hospitals. I have been looking in to see the suDerers. Two 
or three hare gone to their long homo. They will need no 
more attention. A surgeon is at work upon a ghastly wound, 
taking up the artcrios. An attendant is puunng cold water 
upon a swollen limb. In the Episcopal church a nurse w 
bolstering up a wounded officer in tlio area behind the altar. 




Men ore Ijing in tho powB, on the seata, on the floor, on boftrdt 
on top of tha pews. 

Two caudloB tn the spiioious bulldiDg throw their feeble rap 
Into tlie daric recesses, fatntly disclosing the rectunbent fbrnu. 
There is heavy, stifled breathmg, as ofooiistant effort to sup- 
press cries extorted bj acutost pain. 

Passing into tho street you see a group of women, talking 
about our wounded, — Rebel wounded, who are receiWng their 
especial devotion. The Provost Marshal's patrol is going its 
rounds to preserve order. 

Starting down the street, jou reach tho rooms of the Ghristiau 
Commission. Some ot the men aro writing letters for the sol 
diers, some eating thoir night-rations, some dispeuBiug supplies 
Passing through the rooms, you gain tho grounds in the roar, 
— a beautiful garden ouce, — not uaattractive now. Tha air 
is redolent witli honeysuckle and locust blossoms. The pnmi- 
folia is unfolding ita delicate milk-white petals ; roses are open- 
ing their tinted leaves. 

Fifty men are gathered round a summer-house, — warm 
hearted mou, who have been all day in the hospitals. Their 
hearts have been wrung by the scenes of sufleriiig, in the exer 
oise of Christian charity, imitating the example of ttie Redeemer 
of men. They have dispensed food for the body and nourish- 
ment for the soul. They have given cups of cold water in the 
name of Jesus, and prayed with those departing to the Silent 
Land. The moonlight sliimment through the leaves of tha 
locusla, as they meet at that evening hour to worship Qod 

The little congregation breaks into singing, — 

■' Cume, thou fount of eviiiy blening." 

After the hymu, a chaplain says, " Brethren, I had sorrice 
tills afternoon in tho First Divigion hospital of the Second Corps. 
Tho surgeon in charge, before prayer, asked all who desired to 
be prayed for to raise their hands, and nearly every man who 
had a hand raised it. Let us remember them in oar prayers 

A man in the summer-house, so &r off that I oumot dis- 
tioguish him, says, — 

" Every man in the Sooond Division of the Sixth Corpe hoe- 
pital raised his hand for prayers to-night." 


THE BOYS 01' '6U 


Tboro vro eoruest supplicatious that Qod vill blosj them; 
tluit tbo5 majr liavo pattoucc ; that Jesus will pilluw tboir hoada 
upon hii breast, relieve their sufieriiigs, sootho their Bonowk, 
vipo Awaj all their tcars^ heat their wouuda ; that he iriU 
remember the vidow auU iIjo falhcrlcM, far awaj, moauing 
for the loTe<l and lost. 

Another hfmu, — 

" Jwiif, lover of my kkiI, 
Lm mfl to ihy boaon Ay' 

and the delegates return to thoir work of moroy 

At Spot tfi/i van ia there woro couslaat skirmisluDg and artll' 
lerj-firiug through tlie Idth, and a moriug of (ho armj Irom 
the Dortlt to the cast of the Oourt-Uouso. A raiu-etonn set in. 
Tlie roads hccamc heavy, and a cout^iuplatod moTemout— -a 
suddoo flank attack — was nocoBsarilj abaudoaod. 

Tliero was a severe skirmish on tlio I4th, inoeesant picket* 
firing on llio liith, and on the IGth another engagomont all 
along the lino, — not fought with the florcoiioM of lliat of the 
12th, but huting tlirough the forenoon, and resulting in thn 
lalbiig of a lino of ri^o-pits from the cuom;. 

Od Wednesday, the IBtb, tlioro was an assault upon Loe'i 
outer lino of works. Two lines of rifle-pits wore carried ; but 
an impassable ahatis pruvouted farther advance, and after a six 
houn* struggle the troops yrore withdrawn. 

On the afternoon of the 19lh Ewell gained the rear of Grant's 
right flank, nnd came suddenly upoti Tyler's division of heavy 
artillery, armed ns infantry, just arrived upon tlie field. Tliough 
surprised, tlicy held tlio enemy in clieck, fbrcod him back, and 
with aid from the Socond Corps coni]ielIod him to reirent with 
groat loss. This attack was mode to cover Loo's wiilidrawal to 
the North Anna. Uis troops were already on the march. 

Grant was swift to follow. 

It is a two days' march from Spotteylvauta tu the North 
Ajiua. The crossings of the Maltapony were hold by Rebel 
cavalry, which was quickly driven. Thori came the gallant 
crossing of tho FIAh Corps at Jericho Ford, the irrcsistibia 
charge of Birnoyand Barlow of the Second Corps at Taylor's 
Bridge, tlie sweoping-in of five hundred prisoners, the severe 
ongagements lasting three days, — all uiumoruble events, worthy 
of prominence in a full history of tlie campaign. 




^6 North Anna is a rapid stream, vith high banlu. Ea«t of 
Taylor'8 bridge, towards Sextoifs Juoctiou, there ie au exteo- 
rivo Kvamp, but westward the c»uutry is rolling. It was sup- 
posed that Leo would make a stubborn remtauce at the cross- 
ings, but at Jericho Wju-roQ found ouly a few picteta upon the 
Muthoni bank. A pontoon was laid and two divisions sent 
over ; but moving towards the r&ilroad a mile, they encoun- 
tered Hood's and Pickett's divisions of Ewell's corps. The 
cannonade was heavj and the musketrj eharp, mainly l>etween 
Cutler's command and Ewell's, lasting till dark. 

It is about two miles from Jericho crossing to the railroad, 
the point for wbich Uie right wing was aiming. 

" I reckon that our troops did n't expect you to come this 
way," said Mr. Quarles, a ciUzun residing ou tlie north bank, 
with whom I found accommodation for the uiglit. 

" I suppose you did n't expect Grant to get this side of the 
Wildomoss ? " 

" We heard that he was retreating towards Predoricksburg,** 
was tlie response. 

He was the owner of a saw-mill. Timlwr was wanted for the 
construction of a bridge. Uis mill was out of repair, but ther« 
were men in Uie Union army accustomed to run saw-mills, and 
an hour was sunHcient to put the machinery in order for the 
manufacture of lumber. It was amusing to soo the soldiers 
lay down their guns, take up tlio crowbar, roll the logs into the 
mill, adjust the saw, hoist the gate, and sit upon the log while 




ai« Mv was cutting its way. The owuor of the mill looked od 
in disgust, ae bia lumber v&s thus fr&olj bandied 

In the first advanoe from Jericho bridge, the foroe wu r^ 
pulsed. The Hobels of Swell's commaud came on witli con- 
fidence, to drive the retreating troops into tbe rivor ; bnt 
Warren bad taken the precaution to place hia smootlk-bore gum 
on a hillock, south of the etroam, while his rifled piocus were on 
the north side, in position, to ^ve a cross-Qre with the timouth- 
bores. When tlie Rebels came within reach of this conoentnted 
fire thej were almost instantly choekod. It waa no Ume to 
rush on, or to stand stiil and dutUwrale; thej fled, uucoTering 
the milroad, to which the SixUi adranced, tearing up the track 
tod burning tlio depot. In the centre, tbe Ninth Oorps had a 
•erore fight, roaulting in considerable loss. 

It is two miles from Joricbo bridge to Cormel Church, which 
stands in a beautiful grove of oaks. While the troops were 
resting beneath tlie troos, waiting for the order to movo,a cha^h 
lain entered the church and proposed to hold religious service 

The soldiers manifested their pleasure, kneeled roverentlj 
during the prajer, and listenod with tearful eyes to the ex 
hortations which followed. 

Tc was inspiring to boar them sing, 

** Come, ling to mA of heftvea, 
\Vl]«n I 'm about to die ; 
Bing MOQg* of boly ucataaj, 
To waft my loul on btgfa." 

At dark on the evening of the 25th of May, I rode along thii 
lines of the Second Corps lo take a look at the Rebels. There 
VE9 a Btoadj flro of artillcrj. One battery of the Rebels had 
taW sweep of the plain, and the shells were flying merrily. A 
thunder-storm waa rising. The lightning was vivid and inces- 
sant. My hoad-qnartors for tlio night wore to !« with a sur 
geon attached to the First Division of tlie Xintti Corps, several 
miles distant. The dense block clouds riffing in tlio woFft made 
the night intensely dark, except when the lightning-floAhM 
gleamed along the sky. It was a scone of sublime grandeur : 
heaven's artillery in play, — llio heavy peals of thunder, min- 
gling with the roar of the battle-field ! Ailor an hour's ride 
through pine thickets, over old corn-fields, Imir-bliuded by the 



lightning, I roatsiiod the quarters uf my frioiid Uio BurgooD, 
whoso tent was just theu being packod into tho wagon for a 
night Euiirch to a new position. Tlio storm wa^ close at hand. 
and together we fled fur sheltor to a neighboring cabin. I had 
barely time to fasten my horse ajid ontor the door before tlte 
storm was upou us. 

Tlie house was built of logs, chiukod with mud, contained 
two rooms about firtooa foot square, and was occupied hy a col- 
ored family. 

Others had flod for shelter to the hospitable roof. J found 
oongrogatod there for the night nine surgeons, throe hospital 
nurses, a delegate of the Christiau Oommissiou, two ^Idiors, 
two colored women, a colored man, throo ctiildreu. The colored 
people had taken their only pig into the house, to save the 
animal from boing killed by the soldiers, and hud tied it to 
the bed-post. Their poultry — half a dozen fowlii — was im- 
prisoned imder a basket. The rain fell in torrents tlu-ougbont 
the night. Finding a place under the table for my head, witli 
my overcoat for a pillow, and tlu*ustiug my logs under the bed 
which was occupied by ttireo surgeons, I passed the night, and 
Uiought myself much more highly favored than thu forty or filty 
who came to the door, but only to fuid a full hotel. 

Listoad of tryuig to walk over the obstacle in his path, Onwt 
decided to go rouud it. Stealing a march upou Lee, he moved 
suddenly southeast, crossed the Pumunkoy at Hanover Town, 
opened a now base of supplies at Wlute IIoueo, furdug Lee to 
fall back on tlie Chickahominy. 

On Sunday, the 29tlt, a great cavalry engagomcnt took place 
at Uawes's ehop, west of Hanover Town, in which Shoridau 
drove the Rebels back upon lietltosda Cliurch. Tlie army 
came into position ou the SOth, its right towards Hanover 
Uourt-House. Lee was already m position, and during the 
day there was firing all along the line. All tho oorpe were 
engaged. The Second Corps by tlie Shelton House, by a bayo 
oet-charge pushed tlio enemy from Uio outer Lno of works 
which he had thrown up, while tlie Fifth Corps rolled back, 
with terrible slaughter, the mass of men which camo upon its 
fiauk and front at Botliesda Church. At Cold Harbor, Itie 
6Uth, joined by the Eighteenth Army Corps, under M^jon 




General W. F. Smith, from Bormuda Hiindred, met Longatrool 
and Urockouridgc, and troops from Boaurogard. Sheridan had 
seized this important point, — important because of tlio juuo* 
tiou of roads, — aud Imld it agaiubt cavalry and iufaiiLry till 
tho arrival uf the FilUi aud EiglituunUi. Tiio point seuurod, 
a new line uT battle was formed ou the Ist of June The 
Ninth held the right of Bethosdu Oliurch ; the Fifth was suutli 
of the churutt, joining the Eightoojith; Q\o Sixth bold Uio road 
from Gold Harbor to C^aiiiCH's Mills ; wliilo tho Second was 
Uirowii out ou the loft, ou the road leading to Despatch Sta- 
tion and the Cliickahominy. 

In the campaign of 1862, Cold Ilarbor was Oouorol McClel- 
lau's hoad-quartere while ho was ou tho north bank of the 
ChickaUominy, and Jackson, when ho adrancod to attack Fitx 
John Porter, marched down the road over whioh Qraut movod, 
to that locality. It is a place of ono house, — an old tavern 
Etanding at a cros&iug of roads, twelve miles from Riulmiond. 
The most diroct route to the city runs post Qaiuos's Mills, when 
tlie first of the serio^ of battled was fought before Richmond, in 
tho sevou days' contest. Jackson's headK^uartors were at Oold 
Harbor during that eugagomeut, 

Tho general position of tho two ai-mies in Grant's battlee at 
Cold Harbor is indicated by tho accompanying diagram. 




A hugo cataljm stands in IVout of tite old tavem. where is 
the peaceful days of tlio Old Dommiou travellers rested theii 
horses beneath the grateful shade^ while thej drank their todd; 
at the tavorti bar. Two great battles were fought there bj 
Grant, Itie first in the oTening of the 1st of June, the second 
on tlie evening of the 3d. 

There is a line of breafitworks west of tlie honso, a few rodf 
distant, Iwhuid whicli Ruseeire division of tlie Sixth Corps it 
Ijring. The rond to Despatch Station runs duo soutli ; tlie road 
to New Gold Harbor southwest, tlio road to Bethosda Church 
oorthwoHt. lu tlto battlo fought on the 1st Instant, Neil wai 
east of the road leading to Despatch Station, Russell west of 
the house, and Uickotts northwcb-t. 

Paaaoog toward the right one mile, we come to the house of 
Oaiiiel Woody, which is in rear of the right of the line of the 
Eighteenth. It is the head-quarters of Oeueral Martindale, 
who commands the right division of the lino. Next is Brooks's 
dirision in the contra, with Deveus on the left, connecting with 
Rickotts's on the right of the Sixth. 

There is a clear space west of Woody'e house, a oom-fiehl 
lately^ planted, but now trodden by the feet of Martiudale'i 
men. In front of Brooks there is a gentle swell of land, 
wooded with pines. On the crest of the hill there is a line of 
Rebel riSo-pits. In front of Dovons the swell is smoothed to a 
plain, or rather thoro is a depression, as if the hillock had been 
scooped out of the plain. Tliis also is wooded. The belt of 
timber stretches over tlie plain, crossing the road to Oainee't 
Hill, about half a mile from the tavern, — a dark strip of green 
twenty or thirty rods in width. Beyond the belt toward Rich- 
mond is a smooth field, half a mile in width, boonded on the 
Airther edge, under the shadow of another belt of green, bj 
the line of Reauregard's breastworks. Tlie line of Rebel d& 
fence runs diagonally to the road, the distance being lesf 
between Rickclts and the work than on tlio loft in fW>nt of 
Neil. This plain is vwept by Rebel cannon and thousands 
of rifles and muskets. 

It was po^ six o'clock — nearly seven — before the troopc 
were in position to move upon the enemy's works. The) 
marched through the woods, emerged upon the open Gold 


Ttl£ BOYS OF '61 


Tlie Reliel ImltoHos opened with rodoublod furj^ bm the line 
adrancod staadJl^r. Doveiis found the depression in front of 
tdin almost a marsli, with troos foiled, forming an abatis; but 
his mot) i^assod Ihrougli, and again eamo into lino. Bum- 
ham's brigade, of Brooks's division, containing tho Tenth and 
Tliirteenth Now Hampshire, Eighth Connocticxit, and One 
Hundred and Eighteenth New York, charged up tho hill i» 
front, and took tlio riflo-pitii above them. Rickotts, having lorn 
distance to ndvniico than tho other divisions of Iho Sixth, was 
Booncnt in the ftght, Rwcoptng all bcforo him. Rcforo the Rebels 
could reload their piceos after tho first voUcj the bayonets of the 
advancing columns, glooming in tho light of the sotting suo, 
wore at their throats. Half a brifrado was taken prisonem, 
while the rest of the RoIiuIb in frunt of Rickotts fled in disorder. 

Russell moving along thu road roocivcd an enfilading fire 
from artillery and miiskolry. Tho Robol:< Iinving roeovered 
from their panic, held un with 6.tul)bonmes6. Tho broad plain 
over which Russell moved wafl fringed with firo. From dark 
till past ton o'clock Brockonridgo triod in vain to recover wtut 
ho had lost. 

Tlio loss was iiovore to us in killod and woundod. But it 
was a victory, 6o signal that a congratulatory order was issuod 
by General Meade to tho Sixth <>or{ts. 

Lying bonoath tho over-moaning pines, with tho stor-Ut 
heavens for a tent, I listened to tho sounds of the battlo, — 
steady, monotonous, like tho surf on tho boach. An hour's 
■locp, and still it was rolling in. Rut all things must have an 
end. Near midnight it died away, and thero was only tlie 
oliirpiiig of the cricket, tho unvarying note of Uio whijhpoor 
will, and the wind swaying Uie etatoly trees around me. 
PeaeoM all around ; but ah ! l>cyond tlioso forest bolts were 
tho sunbring heroes, i>archod with thirst, fovorod with tlie 
fight, blooding for their country. IIow sliall wo thank tlu>ui? 
How hliail we reward them ? What csllmato shall we placo 
upon thoir work? O friends, as you recall this Bacrifico, lei 
your hearts worm with devotion to your country. Do honor 
to the noble doad, and forget not tlie living, — thowidcwaud 
the fatherloBH. 

Tlio battle of the 3d of Juno was obetinato and bloody, and 




recuJted in great loss to Graut. Tlio artUlor; firing; wna oon- 
itant Uirougli tlio forouoou, but Lee was too etroiigl; eu- 
treucli&d to bo dhveu. 

As soon as there was a UUl in the roar of l»tttle, I improred 
tbd Ojipoftmuty to visit the hospitals. Tlicre were loug liuea 
of amljulajic&s bringing in the wounded, who wore laid beaeatb 
tbo trees. Unconscious men were U|K>n the tables, helploH 
in the hands of the surgeons, — to wiUco from a dreamlesf 
sleep with a limb gune, a bleeding stump of a leg or arm. 
Horrid tlie gaslies whoro jagged iron bad cut Uirough the fleshy 
severbig arteries and tendons in an instant. Beads, bauds, legs, 
and arms mangled mid dripping with blood, — human blood! 
There were moans, low murmurings, wrenched from the men 
against their wills. Men were babbling, in tlieir delirium, of 
other scones, — dim recollection s, which were momentary re- 
alities. To bo with titcm and not da for thorn, — to sec suffer- 
ing without power to alleviate, — gives painful tension to nerve*, 
even though one maj be familiar with scenes of carnage. 

I turnod from tlie scene all but ready to say, " Anything to 
stay this terrible doBtruction of human life." But Uiero wore 
other thoughts, — of retributive justice, — of sighs and groans, 
scourged backs, broken iicarts, partings of motliers from their 
children, — the eoffle train, and thu various borrors of the 
acoorsed system of slavery, the cause of all this '* wounding 
and hurt." I remembered tliat it was a contest liotwocn 
eternal right and infernal wrong; that He who is of infinite 
love and tendernoss in Flis war against rebellion, spared not bis 
ouly begotten Son; — and thus consoled imd strengthened, I 
could wish the contest to go on till victory should crown our 
ctTorts, and a permanent peace bo the inhoriianoo of our cliit 

At Cold Harbor the abilities of Lee, McCloUaii, and Grsui 
as commandere have been exhibited. Leo's head-qimrtors 
during the battle of Gaines's Mills were at New Cold Harbor, 
but during the aHonioon he rude over to tlie old tavern and 
had a talk with Jackson That battle was won by Lee aAer a 
hard struggle, not through any lack of courage on the port of 
the Unioo troops, but through McClolIau's want of general- 
■hip HoClellan was ever taking counsel of hta fean. He 





aiiiriyra)]7 overestimated tlio numhors of tho enemy. Wheo 
IjOO advancod to Mimson's Bill, ncnr Aloiandria, in October, 
1661, his army did not oxcocd sixty thouBond, but McClcUau 
oetimatod it at " ono himdrod and fitly thousand, well drilled, 
equipped, ably commanded, and strongly entrenched." • In 
March, 1862, when Loo orocuatcd Manassas, his estimate of 
the Rebel army was one hundred and fifteen Uiousand, while 
tho actual Btrength was losa than fifty thousand. "It seenw 
clear tliat I shall have the wliolo force of tho enemy on my 
bauds, probably nut lees than one huudrod thousand, and prob- 
ably more," wrote McClollaii to the Secretary of War upon his 
arrival at Yorktown. 

Hogrudor commanded tlio Robelfi at Yorktown. " My whole 
foroQ,*' eayg ho, " was loss tlian olovon tlioiisand." f 

Tlio day boforo llio battle of Cold Harhor, McClcllan's esti- 
mate of Lee's army was two hnndrcd tliougand.} Uis own 
force, sick and well, on the 20th, was one hundred and seveD- 
teou thousand. He had present and fit for duty on tliu day of 
battle from one hundred to one hundred and fivo tliousaud. 
Lee's force was two or Uiroe tlioiiKand less. 

McClull»n knew very little of Iahi's army. He intrusted 
ttie management of the ecerct serviee to two French princes, 
who, howoTor oetuuaUlo they miglit be as individuals, had ft 
superficial acquaintance with the English language, who knew 
but little of America or jVmcricans. — whose geographical 
kuowlodge of the country in which the war was being carried 
on was less than that of tho scholars of a New England gram- 
mar scliool, — who were wanting in tho lawyer-like qualifica- 
tioas Deoessary to separating the true from tlio false in the 
stories of deserters, scuuU>, and spies. So inefHciont was the 
secret service that McClellun had no information of Lee's 
movements or intentions till Jackson was at Asldand, within 
a few hours' march of Cold Harbor. When ho saw that he 
was to he attacked, ho moved his own head-quarters to the 
south side, making no effort to win the battle, thinking only of 
a retreat to the James. 

A general who wins a battle through the blundering of an 

• HeClelUD'i Report, p. 46. 

t UaKruikr'i Report. 

I Mcadlan'i Bflpon, p, : 




inefficient opponent cannot be callod, ou ttiat accouut alone, m 
great commander. There must be geuiuii iu movemouts, in 
making use of positions aud forcoa, so that rictory is wrenched 
from a ekilM foe, to entitle a oommandor to wear the baj 
leaves upon his brow. 

HcCl^llan's arm/ was dividod b; tho Cbickahominf. He 
had about ttiirtj tliouKaiid mou on tho north bank and eevunly 
fire tiioueaud on tho soutit eidc. Loo submitted a plan to Jeff 
Daris, which was accoptod, hy which he hoped to destroy thai 
portion of McCIoUan's force ou tho nortli bank. Whiting's 
and Ewell'B dirisiouB woro put on board tho cars and aent up 
the Vii^ia Central Railroad to Oordonsrille, as if to join 
Jackson in the Shenandoah, or for a march on Washington, 
but JackMin was on his way towards Riclimond. lie com- 
manded the united force, amoutitiiig to tliirtj tliousand. He 
mored down to Ashland. A deserter iuformod McClcllan at 
Cold Harbor tliat Jackson would attack him on the 28th.* 
Negroes came in on the next daj who said tliat Jackson was 
at Hanover Com-lrllouse. McOlellan's hno waa twenty mile* 
long. His extremo right was nortli of Richmond, at Mcchajh 
icBville ; his left was soutlieost of the city, resting on Wlnte 
Oak Swamp. McCloUau could hare reinforced Porter, and 
defeated Ijoo, or he could have withdrawn him to tho south 
bank, and pushed Into Richmond, hut ho led Porter to contend 
with Lee's entire army, except Magnidor's command of about 
twenty thousand meu,f while he burned his supplies, destroyed 
the railroad, and made ready to marcli to tlie James. Porter 
held his ground till nearly night, calling for reinforcementa. 
Had a division been sent him at tho right time, T^e would have 
luifercd a terrible defeat. Slocum, of Franklin's corps, was 
sent oTer when too late to be of essential sorvico. Jacknon 
extended his left south from tho old tavorn, and fell upon 
Porter's right flank, and drove tho Union troops, but every- 
where else Loo was repulsed willi groat loss. His entire loss 
in that battle was about nine thousand aud &ve hundred, 
UcClellan's about four thousand. 

Lee moved out (yom Riclmioud when Jaoksou was at Han- 

• IfcCleUma'* Rvport- 

r Pollwd, Pint Tuu, p. 8». 




oTttr Oourt-Uoiise. Branch's dirision marohed up tho Brooke 
tumpiko, A. P. Hill moved over tlio MoclinnicBTillo lurupike, 
Longstreot and D. H. HUl hy the Now Bridge road. McOlol- 
lau was iufurmed of the movement, Huru was his goldcu 
opjwrtuuity. By tlirowiug uearly his entire ariav uorth of 
the Chick ahomiuy, ho could havo mot Lee outside of his on 
tronchiucnts, or he could havo withdr&wu Forlor and mode a 
rush upon the city. Lee expected to moot the whole Union 
army at Cold Harbor, and iu tlio battle suppoficd he was 6ght- 
Ing McCltillau's maiu force. 

" The principal port of the enemy was on the north side," 
Baya Lee iii liis report. It is evident that in his plan he calcu- 
lated tJiat McCtoUan would not risk a battle with a divided 
army, and he thoroforo left but a small force to hold Ricli- 
motid. Magrudcr on the other hand, saw the danger to the 
city. Jioys Magnider ; — 

" Frotn iht) tim« at wliicb tbe enemy withdrew bijt forcw to thia side 
of tbB Chickaliuminy, and destroyed the bridges, lo ibe motuent of bis 
eTBcuauan, — tli«t Lb, from Friday night uiilil Sunday uioming,^l 
coiindered tlie iituntiuii of our army eztreuiely uriliciil and porilou*. 
Thf larger portion of it wu on oiUier Bide of the Otiickalioininy, ibe 
bridgee liad nil tjcea destroyed, and but oQu was rvbuilt, tbe New 
Bridge, whicli whs fully cumiikanded by ibe enemy's guoa at (joUling'i ; 
and thert! were but twenty-live ihousand men between hU army and 
Richmond. Irecoivedreiivnied instructions during Saturduy nigbt from 
(•uucral L«e'f hondMiuurivia, onjuining upon my comiuand ibo utmost 
TJgilance, directing the moo to sleep on thoir arms to be prepared for 
whatever might occur. I paaed the uight without sleep, and io tbe 
•uperintendenoe of llieir execution. Elnd McClellan massed tiis whoU 
force in column, and advanced il against any point of our line of bat- 
Ue, aa was iluuo at Auaterlitz by tbe gruatLs^t captain uf any age, thoug;h 
ihe hi-HiI of Lis column would have suSered greatly, ilx raumentum 
would have insured him sucoess, and the occupation of our works about 
Richmond, and conwquenlly the city luiglii huve boon bi*i reward. Our 
n^lief was ihttrefore great wheci infurintition rencbed us that th<T enemy 
bad evar-ualud bin works and wiu retreating."* 

Magrudur, in the above gtatomeut, unintentionally oxpoeei 
tli« faultiuew of Lee'a plui, whioh, bad MoClelkn iraprov»d 

* Murniiler'i Report, )>■ 1^1- 




hU oppottuiiitj, would have been tlic loss of ttic Rel)cl capital, 
tlic rout aud di-sorpanization of Lee's army, and a liistoric page 
whollj" diOcrciit from tliat now on rccoi'^l. 

In contrast is Orant's plan of operations. His secret-eeirio* 
deportment was managed vith rare ability, by men acquaiuted 
with the Kiiglisli laii|Q:uagc, who were adepts in tJie art of sifliug 
tnith from falsehood. Grant was well informed a« to Loe't 
..umaers, l!ie reinforcements at his disposal, aud his move 
ments. Ho took counsel of his courage, never of his fear. Id 
his plan of tlic Wilderness campaigns, the series of movements 
from ttie Rapidan to the James, were duly considered before 
cho orders for the advance were given. When he saw tliat he 
could not roach Richmond from the north, he decided to sweep 
roimd to the James, but not till he had made it impos.sible for 
Leo to move upon Washington, by breaking up the Virginia 
Central and Fredericksburg Railroad. McClcIlan complained 
that ho was deprived of the control of McDowell's force at 
Fredericksburg, wliicli was retained by the President to corer 
Washington ; but the railroad from Richmond to Alanassas was 
then in running order, with the exception of tlie bridge aerosB 
the Rappahannock. Grant's prudence in eocuring Washington 
was as marked as his tenacity of purpose to push on toward? 

The transfer of the Bighteonih Corps from Bermuda Htin- 
drod to seize Cold Harbor, — the order for which was given 
bofore the army crossed the Pnmunkcy, — was a conception ae 
brilliaut as that of Loo's in the transfer of Jackson from the 
Shenandoali in '62. 'Hie march of tlie army to the south side 
of the Jamee, which will be narrated in another chapter, was 
the most striking movement of the campaign, exhibiting the 
(^me quality of genius which bad l>oun exhibited at YickFburg. 
and which lias no parallel in the uiovomouts of any of the Rebel 
commanders during the war. 

There was a season of rest while Grant was preparing for 
the march to the James. The army needed it. A month 
had passed, the most terriblo of all the montlis of the war. 
Thore had been scarcely an hour of quiet from tho moment 
when the army broke camp at Culpepper till it reached Cold 
Harbor. It never can be known how many were killed aud 



[J II 119 

wounded In that mouth of battle. The lioepltals uf Wa^liiug- 
ton wore crowded. Thousands of slightly wounded were 
granted Icavo of absence. RolnfofoemontB were hurried od 
to fill u]i the wasted ranks. Leo's loss was nearly as heary 
a» (trant's. Ricbmuud was ororlluwing with wounded ; all 
central Virginia was a hoBpita). HoUi armic!) wore becoming 

Lee was the attacking party at the Wildoruuss, but it wa^ 
hio last oSbnsiTO movoment, except as tbo gauge uf battle was 
pTcn by Grant. 

The march fhim 8pott£ylrauia to Cold Oarbor was through a 
eoctjon never bcfori? visited by Union troops. At the crossing 
of the Ny I found quarters at a farm-liouso owned by a foeble, 
foroelufcs, gray-lwardod, black-eyed man. There was oonstitu- 
tionaily a want of starch in his pliysical organization. He was 
free and frank, but shifllosb. lie owned eighty acres of land, twn 
nt^roes, an old horse, and a rickety cart. His house wat> mean, 
but it was cliarmjiigly located, overlooking the broad valley 
of the Mattapony, and surrounded by locusts and magnolias. 
Nature bad done a groat deal towards making it a paradise, 
but the owner had been au indiOereut steward. Lying upon 
ttie grass beneath the trees, I fell into converwUou with the 

"Tliis is Caroline County, I believe." 

" Yes, sir, this is old Caroline, — a county which has sold 
mora negroes down south than any other in Virginia." 

" I was not aware of that ; but I remember now a negro song 
which I used to hear. The burden of it was, 

' I wiftb I wu b4ck iiL old CsroliDO.' ~ 

" Quite likely, for the great business of the county has been 
uiggtir- raising, and it has been our curse. I never owned only 
old Peter and his wife, I wish I did n'l own them, for ibey 
are old and I have got to support them ; but how in the world 
I am to do it I don't know, for the soldiers have stripped mo of 

" Do you mean the Union soldiers ? " 

"Tee, and ours (Rebels) also. First, my boys were con 
wripted. I kept thom out as long as I could, but they wer* 




oMitmd tu go. Tlicu tboy took my lionies. Then your cavalry 
cam-.' aiiU took all my com and stolo my meat, rausackod the 
house. Boizod my flour, killed my pigs aud cliickene, and hvr* 
I am, stri^fKjii of ovorytluug." 
" It is pretty bard, f>ut your leaders would hare it ao.'' 
" 1 know it, sir. and we are getting our pay for it." 
It was fraukly t^>okuu, luid was the Grst admiiKfiou I had 
heard from ^ouihern lips that the Soutli ims sutferiug rethbu- 
tioD for the crime of Secessiou. It probably did not 6ot«r hi» 
head that iho »oUiug of slaves, the breaking up of families, the 
euudoring of hcart-etrings, the cries aud tears and prayers of 
falhors and mothers, the outrages, the whippings, scourgings, 
branding wit!) hot irons, wero alt^o crimes in the sight of 
Heaven. Broken heartji wore nothing to him, — not that he 
was naturally worse than other men, but because slavery hod 
blunted sensibility. 

During the march the next day towards the North Anna, 1 
halted at a farm-house. Tho owner had fled to Richmond in 
advance of tho army, leaving his overseer, a stout, burly, red- 
faced, tobaoco-chewiug man. There wero a score of old build- 
ings on the premises. It had been a notable plantation, yield- 
ing luxuriant harvcets of whoat, but tho proprietor had turned 
his attontiou to tho culture of tolmcco and the breeding of 
negroes. He sold annually a crop of human hoings for the 
Routheni market. Tho day before our arrival, hearing that the 
Vankoos were coming, ho hurriod forty or fifty souls to Rich- 
mond. He intondod to toko all, — forty or fifty more, — but 
the nogrooH fled to the woods. Tho overseer did his beet 
to ooUect tliom, but in vain. Tho proprietor raved, and 
stormed, and became violent in his language and betiavior, 
throatenitig terrible puniglmieut on all the niiiawaya, hut the 
appearance of a body of Union cavalry put an end to malodio 
tiouti. Ho had a gang of men and women chtuned together, 
and hurried them toward Richmond. 

Tho runaways como out from tlieir hiding-places when they 
bow the Yankeett, and advanced fearlessly with open couo 
teoauces. Tlio Hret pleasure of the negroes was to smile from 
wir to ear, the second to give everybody a drink of water or a 
piece of hoe-cake, the third to pock up Uieir bundles and be in 
readiness to join the anny. 




" Are you not afhud of as ? " 

"Afrnid! Why, boss, I 'a bcon prajrlng for yor to oodu; 

and now yor is hero, thank de I^rd." 

" Aro you not afVaid that we shall sell you ? " 

*'No. boas, I is n't. Tlie overs&or snid you would sell us off 
to Cuba, to work in the sugar-mill, but we did n't IwlieTo him.** 

Among tlio son-nnts was a briglit mulatto f^rl, v^^o woa dotk- 
uing. singing, and manifesting hor joy in violont domonstr&doD. 

" What makes you so happy ? " I asked. 

" Because you Yankees hare come. I can go borne now." 

•* Is not tliis your borne ? " 

" No. 1 come from Williamspwri in Maryland." 

" Wlien did you eomo from thero ? " 

"Last year. Maxtor sold me. I s|H)ct my brother b 'Iohr 
with the anuy. Ho ran away last year. Maxtor was afraid 
that I should run away, ojid ho sold mo." 

Tlio negroes came from nil llio surrounding plantations. Old 
men with venorablo beards, liomy hoiids, crippled with hard 
work and harder usage ; a;7ed women, tootldofis. almost blind. 
steadying their stops with titicks ; litLlo u(^ro boys, driving n 
tnam of skeleton stoors, — muru l>oncsand tendons covered wiUi 
hide. — or w&U-eyed horses, spuvined, foundered, and lame, at- 
taclied to rickety carta and wagons, piled with beds, tables, chairs, 
patfi and kettles, lions, turkeys, ducks, women witli infants in 
tlieir arms, and a sable cloud of children trotting by their side. 

" Where are you going! '* I said to a short, tliick-eot, gray- 
bearded <Ad man, sliufTling along the rood ; liis toes bulging from 
bis old boots, and a tattered straw hat on Itis head, — his gray 
wool protruding from tlie crown. 

" i do'no. boss, whore I 's going, but I reckon I '11 go where 
the army goes." 

" And leave your old homo, your old master, and the plaof 
wh«« you have lived all your days ? " 

"Yes, boss; master, he 's gone. He wont to Richmond. 
Reckon he wont mighty sudden, boss, when he heard you was 
oomtrig. Tliought I 'd like to go alonj; with you." 

His lace streamed with perspiration. Ho had boon sorely 
afflicted with the rheumatism, and it was with difficulty that he 
k^t up with the column , but it wob not a hard matter to 




read die emutious of liis heart. lie was marchiug lowardu 
Q*eedom. Suddenly a liglit had shiticd upon him. Hope had 
quickened in liis soul. He had a vague idea of what was bo- 
forei him. Ho had broken looi^e from all which ho had boop 
accuKtomcd to call his own, — his cabin, a mud-chiukod struo* 
ture, witli tlio ground for a floor, his garden patch, — to go out, 
in his old age, wholly unprovided for, jot tnistiug in Qod that 
tboro would be food and raiment oii tlie otiior aid* of Jordan. 

It was a Jordan to thorn. It was tlie Sabbath-day, — bright, 
olear, calm, and delightful. There was a crowd of eovoral hun- 
dred colored people at a deserted farm-houso. 

** Will it (^turb you if we hare a littlo singing ? You see 
we feel so tiappy to-day that wo would like to pruso tho Lord." 

It was the request of a middlo-iiged woman. 

" Not in the least. I should like to hoar you." 

In a few moments a crowd had assomhlod in one of tbe 
rooms. A stout young man, black, bright^jycd, thiok-wooled, 
took the oentro of tho room. TIio women and girls, dressed m 
their best clotlios, which thoy had put on to maico their oxodua 
(torn bondage in the best possiblo mannor, stood in oirdos rouud 
him. The young man began to danoo. He jumped up, clapped 
his hands, ehippod his thiglis, whirled round, stamped upon the 

" Sifitors, lot us bless tlio Lord. Sisters, join Lu the ohoniB," 
he said, and led 00* with a kind of recitative, improvised as the 
4xcitomout garo him utterance. From my not<>-UM>k I select a 
few liuee : — 


" W« ara going to th« oUier nde of Jordto * 


"Sogludr fogladi 
Bton I'hR Lord fnr freodom. 

So gU^b : 00 glnd 1 
We are going on our way, 

Uogbull •oglii'I! 
To ttie oUier vide of Jonlaa, 

So glad I eo glad ! 
Siatcr*, won't you fullovV 

9o gUd ! M gUd I 
Brotbern. won't vnii follow?* 


T8E BOTS or *«. 


And w is vast od for > halMtoor, vnooat o<mtiott. all 
ihnfMgj fffappng tfwir lunis, toanng tbeir httd*. It ww Um 
aeftuf of ftcdoo. It vu & joy not to be uttered, bat d»- 
maoaamted. The old honao partook of tbeir rejoicing. It nog 
vith their jabilant ihoata, and riuok in til its joints. 

I stood an interested spectator. One woman, vol! dresKd, 
latefli^ent, refined in her deportmaot, modeet in her manner, 
taid, " It i« one way in which we Tonhip, sir. It u our &ral 
day of freedom.** 

The first djij of freedom ! Behind her weir rotrs oS cii0br^ 
ing, hardship, unreqallod toil, honrtaclies, darkness, no hope of 
nwompeaao or of Ught in this life, bnt a changeless ftiture. 
Death, aforetime, was their only dolirerer. For them there 
was hope only lu the graro. But siiddctily Ilnpc liad advanced 
from eternity into lime. Hioy need not wait for death ; iu life 
tfaey oould be free. Is it a wonder that they oihihitod eitrav* 
agant joy? 

Apart from the dancers was a woman with Ught hair, 
basel eyes, and Fair comploxioo. She sat upon the broad 
Bfeepe of the piazza, and looked out upon tlie Gelds, or rather 
into the air, unmindftil of the crowd, the dance, or the shonv 
ing. Her features wore eo nearly of the Anglo-Saion type that 
It required a socoud look lo assure oue that there was African 
blood in her veins. She alone of all tlic crowd watt aad in 
spirit. Hhe eTidoutly had no heart to join in the jieneral 

*» Where did you come from ? " 1 asked. 

" Prom Caroline County." 

Almoet erery one else would bare said, " Pram old Caroline." 
There was no trace of the negro dialj^ot, more than you heai 
frt)m all classes in the South, for slavery has left its taint upoa 
the langnage ; it spares nothing, but is remorselass iu its oor 
ruptiug influences. 

" Tou do not join in the song and danoe/* I aaid. 

» No, sir." 

Host of them would have said '* master '* or " bosa." 

'* I should tliink you would want to daiioe on your ftrat nighi 
of freedom, if ever." 

" I don't dance, sir, in that way." 




'* Was your master kind to you ? " 

" Yes, sir ; but ho sold my husUuid and cliildron down South." 

The soorot of her sadness was out. 

" Where ore you going ? or where do you expect to go T " 

" I don't kiiow, air, and I don't care whore I go." 

The coaTorsation ran on for some minutes. She mauifosted 
00 animation, and did not once raise her eyes, but kept tliem 
&xed on vacancy- Ilushaiid and children sold, gono forever,— 
there was nothing in life to charm hor. Even the prospect of 
freedom, with its undefined joys and pleasures, its soul-stirring 
expoctations, raising the hopes of thcwe around her, movod 
lior not. 

Life was a blank. Sho had lircd hi hor master's family, and 
was iiitolligont. Sho was tho daughter of hor master. Bhe 
was iiigli-toiiod in hor feelings. TIio dancing and shouting of 
those around her wore distasteful. It was to hor more barbaric 
than Christian. Slie was alone amoug them. Sho folt her 
(lijgradation. Freedom could not give bora birthrlghl among 
the froo. Tlio daughter of her master ! It was gall and worm- 
wood ; and he, her fatlicr. had sold her husband and his grand- 
ohildren ! 

I had road of such ihliigs. But ouo needs to comu iu 
contact witli slavery, to fool how utterly loathsome and hate- 
ful it is. Tlioro was tho brokon-hoartod victim, so bruised thai 
not froodom itself, neither Uie ecstasy of those around hor, could 
awaken an emotion of joy. Hour alVir hour the festivities went 
on, but there she sat upon tho step, looking down tJie desolate 
years gone by, or into a dreamless, hopeless future. 

It was lato at night before the dancers ocased, and then tliey 
stopped, not i>uc^use of a surfeit of Joy, but because the time 
had come for sllunco iu the camp. It was tlicir first Sabbath of 
freedom, and like the groat king of Israel, upon tho recovery of 
the ark of Ood, they danced before the T>ord with all their niiglit. 

Wo liad a hard, dusty ride frum the onoampmont at Hongo- 
hick to the Pamunkoy. It was glorious, however, iji tho early 
morning to tweop along tho winding fonisi-road, with tho head- 
quarters' fiag l[i adfonco. Wherever ita silkon folds were un 
hirled, there the two commanders might be found, — General 
Heade, commanding the Army of Uie Potomac, and Ooneral 


T8B 80TS or '«1. 


Ortint, the oommaDdcr of all the foroei of U» Union in the 
field. Wa panod tbc long Hue of tnxipi, crossed the Pamunkoy 
upon ft pcmtooD bridge, rode a mile or two acroM the Tordant 
intorralc, and Laltcd hcnoatli Uio oalu, magnolias, and buttao- 
wooda of au old Vjrgiuia mansiuu. The udiQcc wu.> reared a 
century ago. It was of voodf statelj and substantial. How 
Inxttriotu tbo surrounding bliodc ; Uia smooth lavn, llio rolled 
palhwftTii bordered bj Ikix, wiih uioaB-roMSi lionofsuclcle, and 
jawamtnes aoontiug tho air^ and tbo daisies dotting the groeo- 
tward ! Tlio sweep of oi>ca loud, — riouing it Irom tbo wida 
portico ; Uio long reach of cultiTotod grounds ; acres of irhoat 
rolling in Uie breeze, Ukc wave* of tlio oco&a ; meadov-lauda. 
smooth and fair; distant grorofi and woodlands, — how oufp> 
aif)<;«nt! It was ati old ciitate, iuboritod hy sucoewire genei^ 
tions, — bj those whose pride it had been to keep the paternal 
acres in tbo lamilf name. But the sons had all gono. Adaugfa* 
ter was tlie latit heir. Sbo gave her band, and heart, and tfaa 
old lioaiestMd, — sheep, boraes, a great stock of lx)Tine8, and 
a hundred uegroe« or more, — to her husband. The familj 
aamo l)ocamo oxtinct, and th« homestead of se^ca or eight 
gMMntioDs passed into the hands of one bearing anotlier 

Wlinti McClollan was on tlio Peninsula, the shadow of the 
war-cloud swept pa^t tJio place. One or two negrooa ran away, 
but ft! (hat time they wore not tolerated in camp. Tlie 
campaign of 1862 left the estate unharmed. But Sberidaji'a 
cavalrj, followed bj the Kixtli Corps, in itfl magnificent march 
fW>m tlio North Anna, had niddenlj and unozpectodly disturb^ 
the socuritj of tho old pUntation. There was a rattling fire 
lh>m carbines, a fioroe fight, men wounded and dead, broken 
feuoes, trodden Golds of wheat and clover; ransacked stablee, 
uoni-bins, meat-houses, and a swift disappearing of Ure stock 
of every description. 

But to go back a tittle. Tlie proprietor of this estate ardcntlj 
espoused Seoeaslon. His wife was as earnest as be. They hated 
the N'ortli. They loved the institutions and (irincipliss of the 
Uouth. They sold their surplus negroes in the Kicbmoiid mar- 
ket. Titoy parted husbands and wives, tore children from the 
ann* of thoir mothers, and separated them forever. They lived 




on unrequited labor, aud grew rich through the broedLifi of 
human flesh for the market. 

Wlian the war commeDced, the owner of this magnifioeni 
estate enlisted in tlie army and was mode a Colonel of cavalry. 
rii! furnished eupplios atid kopt opou house for \m onmradet in 
ar^iB ; but he fell iii a cavalry ongagemoiit on tho Rapjiolioiinock, 
in October^ 1868, loaving a wife aud three young children. 
The advaoco uf the army, its sudden appearunoo on the Pamuu- 

key, lyfl Mrs. no lime Ui rumovo her personal estato, or w 

send her negroes to Richmond for safe keeping. Eltz-Hu^ 
Lee disputed Shoridaa's adranco. The fightiiiK began on this 
estate. Charges hy equadrous aud regimeote wore made tlirough 
the corn-fields. Uorses, cattle, hogB^ sheep, were seixed by tha 
caraLrymon. The garden, filled with young regetables, was 
spoiled. In an hour there waa complote desolation. The 
hundred negroes — cook, steward, chambermaid, house aud 
field hands, old and young — alt left their work aud fbUowed 

the army. Mrs. was left to do her own work. The par 

lors of the stately mansion wore taken hy the surgeons for a 

hospital. Tho change which Mrs. experienced was from 

affluence to abject poverty, fVom power to sudden holplessnoH. 

Passini! by ono of tho negro cabins on the estate, I «i>w * 
middle-aged colored woman packing a btuidle. 

" you going to move ? " 1 asked. ^ 

" Yo-s, sir ; I am going to follow the army." 

" Wliat for ? Where will you ro ? " 

" I want to go to Waaliington, to find my husband. He ran 
away awhile ago, and ia at work in Washington." 

'* Do you think it right, auutio, to loavo your mistreea, who 
has taken care of you so long ? " 

Slie had boon busy with her buudle, but stopped mw and 
stood erect before mo, hor hands on her hips. Her black eyes 

" Taken care of me ! What did she ever do for me ! Have n't 
i been her oook for more tlian thirty years? Have n't 1 oot^ed 
everr meal she ever ate in tliat house? Wliat had she done for 
me ill return } She has sold my cluldren down South, one aftet 
another. She has whipped me when I cried for them. SId- 
baa treatod me liko a bo([, sir ! Yes, sir, like a hog ' " 




She resumed her work of proporadoD for learicK- That 
night she and her romaining children joined Uio thousands of 
oolored people who had already taken suddeo leave of their 

Roiuming to the mansion to see the voiuidod, I met Mn. 

in the hall. Sho was tall, robust, dignified. She eridentlT 

did not A1II5 realize the great cliango which tmd taken place in 
her affairs. The change was not complete at that moment. 
The colored etoward was Ihoro, hat in hand ; obsequious, l>ow- 
Ing politely, aud obeying all commands. A half-hour before I 
had scoti him in the cook's cabin, making arrangements for 
leaving tlid promises, and a half-hour later ho was on his way 
toward IVoodom. 

" [ wish I had gone 10 Richmond." said the lady. "This 
is terriblo, terrible! They liaro takou all my provisions, all 
my horses aud cattle. My scrvant-s arc going. What shall I 
do? " SI10 sank upon the sofa, and for a moment gave way to 
her fbolings. 

" You ore better off here than you would 1^ there, with the 
eity fuU of wounded, and scant supplies in the market." I re- 

" You are right, sir. What could I do with my three little 
ehildren there ? Yet how I am to live hero I don't know. 
When will this lerrihlo war come to an end ? " 

Bat enough of this scone. I h&vo introduced it becaxue it 
is real, and because it is but one of many. Tliore are himdreds 
of Southern homes where the change has been equally great. 
Secession is not what thoy who started it thought it would be. 
The penalties for crime always como, sooner or later. God's 
scales ore oorroctly balanced. Ho makes all tilings oven. For 
every tear wrung from the bUto by injustice, for every hrokeo 
hearty for the wooping and wailing of mother? for their babes 
mid to the far-off South, for every wroDg there is retributioo 

■* noagfa tbo aullj of God grind ilowlj, 
Tet thej gnn^ ezr«eding tmftll : 
nHQgtt vith pktJence h« BUod* v&iiinf^, 
With «KK^ui gnndi t» lil." 






Qbnxbal OaANT had triod to break loco's linos at Cold Harbor, 
■nd had boon roptilBod witli great loss. The Ricbmoiid news* 
papers wero jubilant. " Ho is flouiidcriiig in tlie swamps of 
Ohickahominj. Ho has rcocliod tlie graveyard of Tankoe 
unuos," said thof. 

Tlio ncwBpapera opposed to tUo war and in sympathy with 
the Rebellion, to tbo North, mado Gold Harhor an ocoatiiou for 
glorifying Oeuoral McGlellaii, tlioir candidate for tho Pres- 

*' Grant ia a butcher. Ho has sacrificed a hundred tliou 
«and lives. Ho acta under Lincoln'B orders. Elect McCIollaii, 
uid we shall hare peace." 

The army was dojoctod^ but did not ioee heart. It had bcwu 
repulsed, hod lost many brave men, but it had pufhed Lee &t>ni 
tho Wilderness to Richmond. 

I conversed freely with the soldiers, aud rarely found oue 
vho had not full oorifldenco iu tlio ability of Qoiioral Grant. 
Bound their bivouac fires the history of the Army of the 
Fotomao was fteely discussed. The old Boldiors, who had 
fought in tho first Gold Harbor battlo, romombered how twenty- 
seven thousand men held Lee at bay on tiiat ground through 
the long hours of the first oi the seven days' fight in front ot 
Richmond ; how McOlellaii kept sixty thousand men on tho 
south bank of the Ghickahomiuy, iuactivo, — sending a brigade 
to their aid when too late to be of use. They recalled the 
Keoes of those terrible demoralizing days, — how McClellan 
kept out of harm's way. When the battle was raging on the 
north bank of the Ghickahomiuy he was south of it; when 
Sumner was holding Savage Station. McClellan was acroM 
White Oak Swnmp; when Glendalo was fought, and tho Bebeli 
onder Hill routed, McGlcllan was at Malvern, and wliilo Ma 


THE Bors (V "Si. 


^idor was madly pushiug liis tro(>|>s ou to be BUugtitcrod Bt 
Halveru, McClellau was ou board a guuboat; bow iu tlio iiigfat 
tlie wboLe armj was ordered away from a victorious field, from 
an imprognablo jto^tlon, while Leo wa$ ficoiiig towards Ricb- 
(DOud ! Soldiers who had come later into the service re> 
oembered the failure at Frcderic£»burg and Uio retreat frou 
CbaiicoUorsville.and iu contract saw that Grant had pluck. Il 
8 a quality of character which soldiers admire. Thoy could 
tlso see that thorp was system in bis movomeute. Ttiey some- 
timea spoke of him a^ tlie Grand Flaukor. " He 'II flank t>ee 
out of Richmond yet ; soo if he don't," said a soldier. 

If Grant bad failed to move IjOO from his position in a direct 
attack, Loo also had fuilnd to driro Grant from the junction 
of the roads at old Cold Harbor, — an important point, as, 
by opening the railroad from White House, he could easily 
bring up bis Bupplios, His army was intact, — not divided, 
as McCIellau's had boon by tiie daxk and sluggish Chicka 

'* Wliat will Oratit dn ? " was a question often discus<<ed 
arouud the moss-tahlos of brigadiers, colonels, and captains, — by 
men who were liound to obey all orders, but who noTorttieloss 
bad their own idoa^ as to the best mctliod of conducting the 
campaign. Tho Ijicutonant-Ocneral had the whole plan of 
operations sottlod for him many timoe. It was amusing to see 
the strategic points indicatod on the maps. 

" Bo can swing in north of tho city upon the high lauds. 
The Chickaliominy swamps don't oxtond above Mcuhanicsrille." 
■aid onu. 

*' But how will ho got his suppUos?" 

* Often the Fredericksburg road. It is open now from Aquia 
Orcek to the Rap[iahaunock.'* 

But (^raitt, iiistoad of opening the road, determined to broak 
it up completely, also the Virginia Central, which runs to 
Oordonsvillo, to prevent Lee from moving upon Washington. 
Cp to this time all of las movements, wUUe tlioy wore upon 
Leo's flank, had not uncovered tliat city ; but now Wasliington 
would take care of itself. 

The plan of the campaign liad boon well matured by Qm 
♦ral Grant before he rtarted (torn Culpepper. He says ■ — 

J 664.] 



** Sly idMi firom the it&rt htui bt.-en lo t>eAt tLi? enomj' north of Bieb> 
moud U* poHsibl^. Then aAer (lu.-i]\)^ing his lioe^ of oommuoicacion 
iwrtb or ibe Jutocti River, to tnnhrvr Ui« army to tlie ikhiUi eiiile, kod 
bfiiege Tjpe in Bichmoml, or follow him noutli if he should retreat." • 

Grant iras uot williug to sacrifice his men. llo resolved lo 
trausfor his army soulh of iliu James, aud uui Ijbo's commiuu- 
cations. OrGgg was seut iu advance, with ihv cnralry belong- 
iiii; bo the Army of Uio Potumac, crussiug tlio Cliioknhomioj, 
aii'l making a rapid movement by tho lefi tlank. 

liC«! evideiiUy did not mistrust Oraiit'ti inmtiiion, — judging 
fW>ni iho di»|Ki&itioii ho mado of liis troops, and the tardiiiBin 
irilh which ho marched to couutoraut iho uovomoiit. The 
trant'rL'r of tho Ei^htcoiitli Corps from Bormuda Hundred to 
Cold Ildrbor undoubtedly had its effect up«)ii Lee's calculation. 
It was nil indicatiou ttmt Urant iiitcudod to keep Wasliingtou 

iluuter Bt this time was adrancuig from the West. Sbmdaii, 
irho had boeu guarding the road to While Douse, was with- 
drawn, aud sent witii two divisions of his cavalry up the Vii^iia 
Central road to Gordonsville, hoping to meet Uuiitor at Char- 
lottesvillo ; but Hunter had moved on Lynchburg, aud the 
union of the forces waa not effected. Sheridan's movement, 
however, threw dust in the eyes of Lou. 

Grant knew that Potorsburg was held by a handful of Rebel 
troops, — Wise'b Logioii. The citizens had been orgaiiizod inu> 
a battalion, but the ploco could bo taken by mirprtso. Sirong 
earthworks had been thrown up around the city early iu the 
war, but the troops iu the city wore not sufficient to man Uiem. 
Oraut believed that the place could bo Foized without diffi- 
culty; and taking a steamer at White House went to Bermuda 
Hundred, held a conference with Butler, who sent Gillmoro 
with thirty-live hundred men across the Appomattox, near 
the Point of Rocki<, to attack tlie oity from the east. At the 
same time, Kaulz's divi«lon of cavalry waa seut, by a long de- 
tour, across the Norfolk Railroad, to enter tlie town from the 
south. Having made thc«e arrangements, Grant returned to 
his army, which had boon lying l>eluud it« introncbmeuta at 
Cold Harbor. 


• OraDt'a Oflkiftl B«pacl- 


BOYS OF ■«!. 


Preparations liad been quietly making for a rapid march. 
Tbe Second Corps had booji moved down towards the Cldck 
alioininj. TIic Fifth was sont to Di:&[»atch Station. Gregg 
and Torbott, with thoir divisions of cavalry, were placed 
at Bottom's Bridgo. Tho Robol pickets were tliore on watch. 
Mcauwhilo workmen wore busily engaged in opoaiug tho rail- 
road. Leo mUBt have known tliat Oraut had a new movemeut 
liidor way, tho precise uature of which it was difficult to undei^ 

The moTomoiil of Qillraoro was a disgraceful failure. Ho 
crossed tlio Ap[>omattox on tho evening of tlio 10th of June, 
witliout molestation, marched up within sight of the city spires, 
discovered a formidable line of breastworks, and witliout 
making ou attack, turned about and retired to Bermuda Hun- 
dred. Rautz, on tho contrary, aftor a rapid muvcmont, entered 
tho city from tho south, but Gillmore Iiaving retreated, could 
not hold it, and was obliged to retire. 

Grant was justly indignant when ho hoard of tho failure. 
It was a golden opportunity lost. Gillmore and Kaut?. could 
have taken and lield tho placo till tho arrival of roiuforcements. 
Gillmore was wholly responsible fur the failure. Grant once 
more hurried to Homiuda Ilundred, to superintend in a second 
movement, louvitig Mcado to conduct the army from Culd Har- 
bor to the JameB. 

The grand movement from tho north of Richmond, by which 
the wholo army was placed south of tliat city, was begun on 
tho 12th, in tho evening. Wilson's division of cavalry was 
thrown across tho Chickahominy, and sent to seize Long 
Bridge in Wliito Oak Swamj>. Tbe Fifth Corps followed. 
Tlio Rebels struck the Fifth Corps in Hank, but Crawford re- 
pulsed them. Tho Second Corps followed tlie FifUi. The 
Sixth and Ninth crossed at Jones's Bridgo, while the fifty miles 
of wagon trains swung far to tlio oast and crossed tbo swamp 
Gfloeii miles bolnw. Gregg covered tho flank of the army with 
his cavalry, concealing tlio movement. TIte men had a haid 
time, being attacked constantly by the Rebel cavalry and in- 
fantty. It waa of the utmost importance to Lee to know where 
Grant intooded to strike, wLetlier north of the James, by the 
Charles City and New Market roads, or across the James at 


TO prTERSBima. 


Dutch Oftp, joining his forces with BuUof'b, or whether hii 
movement was directly upon Potorslmr^. 

Lee ranvod on the iunor circle witli great caution. 

The Kightoonth Corps took water transportation IWhd White 
Uouse, ajid arrived at Bermuda Hundred at niidniglit on the 
14tb. Grant was there. lie ordered General Smillj to pro- 
ooed at once against Fotorshurg. If succossAit in the seizure 
of that place, Leo would ho compelled to leave Riclimond. It 
was in tlio lino of liis direct cutnmunicatioD with the South. 
Losing that place, lio would liavo outy tlie Danville road, and 
Grant would Boon deprive him of that. The Appomattox 
would bo Grant's lino uf defence. Seizing it Grant could bido 
his time. Ho oould bocomo a patioiit watcher, and Loc would 
bo a victim to circumstances. 

Grant was quick to bco the advantagos to be gained. Lee 
was Blower in arriving at a perception of the fatal cousoquen- 
cos to himself which would result from tho loss of the place ; 
but wheu awakened to a sotisc of liis danger, acted with great 
energy. Ou the other hand, f^mith, who was intrusted with 
tho execution of tho enterprise, was dilatory in the execution. 
Bimey in part is to be held responsible for tlio delay iu the 
execution of the order. 

" Push on and capture tho place at all hazarila ! Tou shall 
havo tlio wliolo army to roinforco you," said Grant to Smith. 
Grant was in such ha^te to hare Smith move, that ho did not 
stop to write tho order. Ho boliovod that Smith could reach 
Petersburg before Loo could make his detour through Rich* 

A. P. Hill had already boon thrown south of Richmond, and 
wta in front of Butler. Tlie Ecouts up the Appomattox re- 
ported the rumbling of heavy trains along tho Richmond and 
Petersburg railroad. Loo was putting his troops into tho cars. 
Tho dash of Kautz, and the movement of Oillmoro up to the 
entrenchments, and his retirement without an attack, had re* 
suited in tlie maiming of tho Petersburg batteries. A brigade 
had been thrown down towards City Point, five miles from 
Petersburg. Soon after daylight tlie cavalry came upon the 
Rebel pickets, by tlie City Point railroad, beyond which they 
found the Reliols witli two cannon beh'ud riJlo-pits, in th« 
centre of an oi>en field on Bailey's farm. 


TKE BOYS or '61 


iiiiiks'i dmsion of Uio Eighteouth Corps was oompuwd of 
oolorod troops, wlio bad uevor bcou under firo. Would thoj 
figlic ? That was the importaut question. After u rocounoU- 
•uic« of the position hy General Hinks, the troopa wore formed 
for fui assault. The Rebel cannon opened. The B011& of Africti 
did not flinch, but took their positions with deliberation. Thoy 
had been elarce ; thoy stood (aoQ to face witit tlieir former du»- 
icrs, or with ihoir represetitatires. The flag in front of them 
waring in the morning broc:co was tlio omblom of oppression; 
tlie banner above thorn was the flag of tlio froo. Would an 
abject, sorv'ilo raco, ko))t in chains four tliousaud foam. asnert 
thoir mauliood '! Intorosiing the problem. Their brotliera had 
given the he to the asBorliuu of the white man, that negroes 
would n't fight, at Wagner and Port Hudson. Would they 
falter V 

The Bebola were on a knoll in tlie field, and had a clear 
sweep of all tlio approaches. The advancing troops must come 
out IVom the woods, rush up the slope, and carry it at the point 
of the bayonet, recoiviug the touipost of niuekotry and canister. 

(links dcploj-od his lino. At the word of command the 
colored niiju stopped out from Mie woods, and stood liefore tbe 
enemy. Tliey gave a volley, and rocoivod one in return. Sliells 
crashod through tliom, but, uuhocding the storm, with a yoM 
they started up tho sloj)c upon tlio run. Thoy rocoivod one 
charge of oauistor, one scathing volley of musketry. HeTonty 
nf thoir uumber went down, but the living biuidreds msbcd 
nn. The Kui^cls did nut wait their coming, but fled towarde. 
Petersburg, leaving one of the pioces of artillery ui tlie handt 
of thtiir assailaiiu:, who leaped ovor the works, turnod it iu a 
twiukliiig, but were not ublo to lire \i\mu tbe retreating foe 
Qeoing in oonsteniation towards the main lino of ontrouchme 
two miles aast of tlio city. 

The oolorod troops wore wild with joy. They embraced 
captured cannon with affectionate outliusiasm, patting it w 
it were animatft, and could appreciate tlie ondearment. 

•* Every soldior of Uio colored division was two inches tallef 
for that achievement," said an officer describing it. These 
regimotttB were Uie Filth and Tweiity-i^und Ciuted .Statef 
oolorod troops, who deserve lionorablu meutiuu in history. 


..D r£TL£SBttBO. 


Brooks's dirisioD now mofed iiji, Martmdale was approach- 
ing Potersburg by tlio river road. Bj uoon tbe whole corps 
was ill front of Uie main line of works. Martindale was on 
Ui€ right, hf tli6 river, Brooks ia the ceutre, Hiuks on the 
Soft, with K&utz's dirifiion of cavalry sweeping down to tlio 
Jiirusalem road, which outers Petersburg from the southeast. 

South delayed unaccountably to make the attack. It wan 
a priceless moment. A rocotuioissance fhuwi^l a line of atroug 
works, in which were eighteen pieces of field artillery. Tlie 
forts were well built, and connected with breastworks, but the 
Rebels had not soldiers enough to man Uiou]. The citizens of 
Petersburg had l>oon called out to hold the town. It is ovi- 
dent that Smith might just as well have accomplished at one 
o'clock what was achieved at sunset. He was a brave officer, 
fearless in battle, an engineer of ability, reckless of danger, 
but failed to see tlie necessity of impetuous action. The value 
of time was loft, out of his calculations. 

General Grant tlius speaks of Smitli's operations : — 

■■ Genpfal Smilh got off a» direcled, ami ron(ronred the enprnv « pin* 
ett near Pelcmburg before daylight next moming, but for some n-ttmu 
that I hftve never been ftble to satutfarttorily andcrsUnd, did not gel 
ready to assault hta main Hiisb until near Rundown. Th«n, witit ■ part 
of bis ooiomuid only, hv made tbe aasault, aiid carried lb« liTfx nonb- 
Mut of Pct«rBbDrg from tbe Appomtttioz River, for a distance of over 
two and a half miles, capturing tiAeou pieoes of artillery and thret 
hundred priaoners. This waa about raven P. M" * 

The main road leading east from Petersburg ascends a hill 
two miles out, upon the top of which stands the house of Mr. 
Dunn. Tlio house is a few rods south of tlie road. In front 
of it is a fort ; another south ; a tliird north, and other works, 
wiUi heavy ombankmonti and deep ditches. The woods in 
ftxmt of the house of Mr. Ihinn woro cut down in 1862, 
wher. HcClcllan was on the Peninsula, and the trunks of 'Uie 
trees, blackened hy lire, are lying there still, formiug an abatis. 
The ground is nearly level, and the lielwl riflemen have a 
fair view of the entire field. It u three hundred and sizty 
paces from tbe forts to the woods, in the edge of which Hinks's 

* Oiui'i Raporl. 




dmsiou of colored troops are Ijiug. The guos in the forts by 
Lite liouee of Mr. Duuu give a direct fruut fire, while those b; 
Che house o( Mr. Osboru ou the uorth oulilade tlie line. Brooks 
ia in positiou to more upou the batteries by Osbora's house, 
while Martiiidale is to odvaucc up the railroad. 

The troo])G wore placed in line for tlio attack not for from 
one o'clock. Tlioy wore expoeed to the fire of the artillery. 
Ilinks iiupatiuutly waited for orders. Two o'clock passed. 
The shells from the Bobel batteries wen* doing damage. 

" Lie down I " said ho to his men. They obeyed, and were 
somewhat shelterod. 

Three o'clock ! four o'clock, — five, — still no orders. Duo- 
cau's brigade was lying ou both sides of the road, a sliort 
distance north of Bufiiuu's house. 

At length the word was given. Duncan threw forward a 
cloud of skirmisliers. The Rebels opened with renewed vigor 
fh>m the baiterios ; and tlie infantry, resting tlioir muskets 
over tlie breastworks, dred at will and witti great accuracy 
of aim. Men dropped from tlio atlvancing ranks. It was of 
Uttlo use to fire in retuni. " Ou ! push on ! " was the order. 
Hiuks and Duncan both entered heartily into tho movement. 
They had chafed all tho aftcriJioou at the delay ; but had been 
adniiring obsorvors of the conduct of tlie tioops under the fire 
of shells. 

The skirmishers advanced quickly within close range, fol 
lowed by the main line, moving more slowly over tlio fallen 
timber. Tho skirmishers gave a yoU and pushed ou, without 
waiting for the main body. They leaped into the ditches in 
Troiit of tho breatitworks, and climbed on their hands and kuoes 
up the steep embankments. Tho Rebels above fired into their 
faces, and many a brave fellow rolled back dead to the bottom. 

The column, (loreciving the advance of thoir comrades, and 
catching tho enthusiasm, broke into a nm, rushing upon the 
forts, sweeping round the curtains, scaling the bi-oastworks, 
and dashmg madty at the Reljcls, who fled towards Petersburg. 
Brooks's men at the same moment swai-med over tlie embank* 
ments by Osboni's, while Mnrtindalo advanced along the rail* 
road. Fifteen pieces and three himdred men were captured, 
of which two thirds of the prisoners and nine rannon wert 

»M I 



taken t^ the colored troope, who wheelod the guiu iust&ntlj 
upon the euemjr, aud tliou, soiziug the Bpades and Bhovels 
vbich the Itcbcls hod left behind^ reversed the fortifications 
and made them a stronghold. 

Through the niontlis which followed the colored troope 
looked back to this exploit with pride. They never were weary 
of talking about it, — how they advanced, how thej leaped 
over the iutreuchment«, how the Rebels went down the hill 
upon Uie run. 

South had possession of tlto fortificatioas at 7 P. K. He 
ought to have moved on. Tliore were no other works betweeo 
him and Petorshurg. Not a brigade f^om Leo had reached the 
citj.aiid the disaster was calculated to demoralize the Rebel 
soldiers. The Second Corps had arriTed. Biruey, who had 
the advance of that corps, ought to have been on the ground 
by mid-allernoon, and Smith had delayed the assault on his 
account Die expected Biruey to appear on his left, and attack 
by the Jcnisalem plank-road ; but that officer, by taking the 
wrong rood, went several miles out of his way. Had he been 
in pcjsition at tlic time f^mitli expected him, the attack would 
have beeu made at 3 o'clock instead of at 7. 

Smith's delay to follow up the advantage gained was au error.., 
General Grant says : — 

" Belween tlie line liiiia cHpliired hiuI Putentl^urg there were ao otbw 
works, and Uinra waa no cvidenre tliat the enemy had reioforced Petciv 
burg with a lungle brigade from any aouroe. The night wu clear, -^ 
the mooii Bhininj* brigliCly, — and fsvornible to further operations. G«li- 
ero. Hancock, with two divisions of iho Second Corpa, had r«ftc)i«d 
Oeoeral Smith just after dark, uud offered the aurvice of these troops 
M he (Smitli) might wish, waiving rank to (he named commander, who, 
be nalumlly supixwed. knew beet the position of affaira. But instead 
of taking tlie«(< troops and pushing OQ at once into Petonburg, ho r&- 
qviesced General ITancock to relieve a part of his IJne in the captttred 
works, woich was done twfors midnigbt " * 

Not till tlio Rebel outpost on Bailey's farm fell into the liauds 
of tho colored troope did Leo fully comprehend Oranfs moT»- 
ment. Then there were lively movements in the Rebel ranks. 
All of the railroad cars in Richmond wore put upon the road. 



Brigades were hurried through the etreeta, [nled into the ran, 
and sent whirling towards Petersburg. 

While Lee was watcliing Uie Charles Citj aud Kewmarkat 
nads, north of tlie James, expecting Grant iu that direction, 
Butler sent Gcnonil Tony, with a portion of the Tenth Corps, 
ou a reoonuoissaiice in front of Bermuda Huudrcd. Torrjr es»- 
cotmtered the Rebel picket!', drore them in, .reached the main 
line, attacked vigorouslj-, broke through, canjing all bcfora 
him. and pushed ou to the railroad at Port Walthall Junctioo, 
out down the telegrapli, atid tore up the track. 

Thi» was an advantage not expected hj Grant, who at moe 
ordered two diTisions of the Sixth Corps, under Wright, to 
report to Butler at Bermuda Biindrod ; Imt tliat oflicer, instead 
of moving rapidly, advanced leisnrelj. and even luJtod aufhile 

Terry was attacked by A. P, Flill and obliged to fall l»ack. 
Orant had the mortirication of learning in ilie evening that, 
through the dilatory movements of t)ie troops under Smith 
and Wright, his plans had failed. 

In tho counsels ol ihu Almighty the time for final victory 
bad not come. God reigns, but men act froely noTertlicless. 
There have boon numerous instances during the war wher« 
great cvoDts hung on little things. An interesting chapter 
mlglit ho written of tho occasions where the scales were seem- 
ingly evenly balanced, and where, to the eye of faith, tlic breath 
of the Almighty turned them for the time. 

At Bull Run the victory was tost to tho Union arms through 
tho mistake of Captain Harry.* AtPitt^hurglMinding.iTJohn- 
■ton had attacked (Vom the nortliwcst instead of tho southweet, 
— if he had deflected his army a milo, — far different, in &U 
human probability, would have been tlie result of that battle. 

Was tho arrival of the Monitor in Il&mpton Roads on tliat 
morning, after the havoc made by the Mcrrimac, accidental ? 
How providoiUial ratlier ! How singular, if not a providence, 
that tho wind should blow so wildly from iJic southwest on thai 
night of the withdrawal of the army from Fredericksburg, waft- 
ing th« rumMing of Bumsido's artillery and the tramp of a 
houdrcd thousand men away fh)m tho listening ears of th« 

• 8« " U 7 O'J* "Bd I'lStiM 00 iheB«itlt>KWd"; aIk. icntmonj of Ccpuis 
lkk«W kBd Capttia Griflii. U Report of ComniiiWe m COodact of Um Ww. 




onemy within dose muskct-shot ! Events vhich turn the tcaloa 
according to our desires wo oro inclined to count u special 
proTidcnc&s : but ilic disaster at Bull Run, the sitthig down of 
McClcUan iu tlio mud at Yorktown : tho lost opportunitios for 
moving upon Richmond aftor U''illii].msburg and Fair Oaks; 
also, while tlio battle was raging; at Giiincs*s Mills and at Gleii> 
dale ; tho pusillanimous retreat from Malvern ; the inaction at 
Antiotom; Hookor's rctroat from ChaiicoUorsi-illo, — from Ijoe, 
who also was in retreat, — aro inox|ilicabb ovonts. Moado'f 
waiting at Boousboro, Loe's escape, Gillmoro's unexplained 
turning hack from Petersburg, Wright's hailing when every- 
thing dcpondod ou haste, Smith's delay, r^ all of iheso aro mys* 
t«rious providences to us, iliuugh to tlie Roliels thoy were at the 
time plaiu interpositions of Ciod. God's system is reciprocal ; 
ererytliiiig has its use, ovorything is for a purpose. We read 
blindly, hut lo reason and faith there can bo but one result, — 
the establishment of justice and righteousness between man 
and man and his Maker. There must bo a righting of every 
wrong, an atonement for every crime. 

"Tb* U<n cr«liiin^'lc«f juatice bind 
Oppressor with o)iptea»«(l ; 
Afid, doM u sin ftml niOcring jotoeil. 
We KATL-h lo fMe abrBasc" 

It must have l>eeu evident to most observers, that as the war 
progressed men wero brought to a recognition of Ood, as an 
OTBiTuling power in Ihu miglity couOict. In the firet uprising 
of ihe people there was pure, intense patriotism. Tlie battle of 
Bull Riui slung tho loyal masses of tho North, and filled Lliem 
with a determination to redeem tlicir tarnished honor. The 
failure of the PeDUtfiular campaigns, tho terrible disaston in 
1862, crushed and bruised men's spirits. They began to talk 
of giving freedom to tho slave as welt as of the restoration of 
the Union. 

" My paramount object is to save tho Union, and not either 
to save or destroy slavery," wrote President Lincoln to Horace 
Oreeley, August 22d, 1862, reflecting doubtless the feelings of 
neariy a majority of tho people. Wliittier had already ex- 
pressed, in the lines quoted on pages 41, 42, tho feelings of thoM 
who saw tliat slavery or the nation must die. 




Two jflars passed, a»d Abra!tam Ijincoln gave uttenuiod to 
other aentments in bis secoiia inaugural address to Uie peo{>le. 
Disaster, suB^ring, a view of Gettyitburg hattlo-lield, the eooae- 
cration of Uiat comctory as tlio hallowod resting-place of th« 
patriotic dead, had g;iTon him a clear insight of God's truth. 
Tims spoke ho from the stops of tlio Capitol ; — 

"Tlw Alniigbtj hM his own purpoM«L Woe unto th« world becaoM 
of offbaeoji I for it maM Qeed» be thut otTenret* comet ; but woe to ihat 
man hy whom the ofience cometh 1 If we Bball eupporc that Americaa 
iiMrtry u one of these ofl«n«M, which in Oto proriiieDoa of God moM 
nccdd come, bu[ wluoh. Laving continued through bis a[q>oiated tioio, he 
DOW wills to rt>mnre, nnd that h« giveii to both North and South this 
tnrrililo war m the woe tluu to thoiM] hy whom llm ufieooe camr, »hall 
we discern therein any d«p«rtur« from tho«c Divine attribotv* wbi<di 
the beliovcrs in t livinff God nlwiyi ucribe to him ? Fooifiy do we 
hope, TorTontly do we prny, ihnt the mighty scourge of war may Apeed- 
Qy puH Rway. Yet if God wills that it conlitiU(> until all th4> wenltb 
piled by the bondman's two hundred aud fifty yran of unrequited toil 
•ball be sunk, and until every dmp of bluod drawn with Ibe laah shall 
be paid by auother drawn by th« sword, mn wai said thr«« thoosaikd 
yean ago, m utill must it bo snicL the judgments of the Lord are troe 
and righteous altojc^ilier." 

It was the recognition of tliese prmciples tliat made the peo- 
ple patient under tlie eevere aflliotious, tlie disasterB, tlie faO 
ures. Fatliurs and moUiurti, woeping for tboir (sons Blatn in bat* 
tie, said to llioir hearts, '' Bo still ! " for tlmy saw that God mi 
leading tlio people, tlirough euflbring, to rocoguizo justice and 
rightcnutnoss as tho Republic, — that thus be woe Earing the 
uatiou from perdition. 

The heroism of the colored soldiers, and their splendid 
achiovemeuts, won the respect of the army. Tlieir patriotism 
was as suliHmo, their courage as noble, as tliat of Uioir whiter- 
hued comrades boasting Anglo-Saxon blood, nurtured and r^ 
fined by centuries of civilization. 

On tho iuoruiug afler the battle, au officer, passing through 
the hospital, came upon a colored soldier wbo had lost his left 

'* Well, mj boy, I boo that you have Icct a leg for glory," 
■aid the a^cer. 




** No, nr ; I havt^ not lott U for glory, hut /or (he fievation of 

It WW a r^; worthjr of historic record, to be road, throu^ 
the comiDg centuries, by oTory sable son of Africa, and by overy 
mail, of wliatevor lineage or olime, etruggliug to better hie 

Ttio negroes manifested their humanity as well as their pa 

'* While the battle waa raging/* said Qeueral Qinks, " I saw 
two wounded negroes helping a Rebel prisonor, who was more 
■everoly wounded, to the rear." 

'* Oire tba water to my BuQbriug soldiers," said Uio wounded 
Philip Sidney. Tlie ijicident stands upon the historic page, 
and has been roboarsod in story and song, as wortliy of ad- 
minttiuu. Sliall not this act of two unknown colored raldiers 
aliM) have a placo in history ? 

l*he time, we truet, will come when men will be rated for 
what they are wortli. — when superiority will couaist, not iu 
brute force, but iu moral qualities. Tlie slaveholders of the 
South, at the b^giniimg of the war, estoemed tUomselvea supe- 
rior to the men of the North, and immoasurably above their 
slaves; but iu contrast, — to the shame of the slaveholders, — 
ktauds tlio massacro at Fort Pillow and tlie humanity of the 
colored soldiers in front of Petersburg. 

On tho night of the 16th, Burusido arrived with the Ninth 
Corps. Notll'fl divitdon of ttie Sixth also arrived. Bum- 
side attacked the Rebels, but wa^ repulsed. Tlio lines were 
recoDuoitrod, and it was determined to make a second aa- 

About half a mile south of the house of Mr. Dunn was the 
reddonce of Mr. Shand, held by the Rebels. During the can- 
nonade which preceded tlio assault, a Rebel officer entered the 
house and sat down to play a piano. Suddenly ho found him- 
self sitting on tlio Qoor, tho alool having boon knocked away by 
M solid shot, witliout injuiy to himself. 

Tlie house was a largo two-story atructur«, fronting oast, 
painted white, with groat chimneys at cither ond, shaded by 
buttonwoods and gum-trees, with a peach-orchard in rear. 
Fi/ly paces fW>m tlie front-door was a narrow ravine, fifteen 


TBI »ors or '«L 


or trentf fcec 6etp, widi a brook, fed by ipniigK, trieUbac 
Dorthvard. Wect of the hoaae. shoot the wine distznos, wm 
uuNher brook, the two joining about tventf rods Donb of tibe 
hooM. A Bebel brigade held Ihli loogue of bnd. vtth fovr 
gmu beoeatfa tlie peacb-traee. Hieir main Bne of breastvorfa 
waa along the edge of tlie ravine east of the booae. Soatfa, and 
en hif^ber groiuid, vai a redan, — a strong work wMi tm 
gunt, which enfiladed the rarine. Tct Oenerml Btamm&B 
tbon^t that if be oould get his troope into poritioa, onpar- 
eefved, be eonld take the tongue of land, which would laiat 
the Rebel line and eompel tbem to eracuate the redan. Sefoni 
attempta ttad been made bf the Second Corps to break the Ubb 
fiuth^ north, bat without avail. Thb movanuBt, if am ruo- 
oearfnl, would be attended with great kMa; MiwrthwlHia, is waa 
detenniued to make the aasault. 

It wa^ past fflklu^ when Oeoeral Fotter M Ua ill i Win 
of the Ninth down tnto the raTine. The aoUers Ihnv uide 
tb^ knapeadu, haveraackfi, tin platei and cape, and nMrred 
itealthUj. Noiawordwasipokeu. Tiie watches of tha offieats 
ID «w*tnMiid bad beeo aet to a aeeood' Thej nmcsbtd dm xmham 
where Ote piofceAa wen elatiooed, and inoTed fouih, keepiot! 
close uji'lur IIm bank. Above tliem. not fifleen pacaa daiani, 
werv the Bebel pkketa, tjring IjeUmd a bank of sand. 

If their listening ears caught the eound of a movement in 
the i&rine, tfaejr gave no alarm, and the troopa unk their po«- 
tiooi undistnxbed. The moon was fuli lught dondi 6cietBd 
in the skj. Kol a eooad, aave the distant nudbJe of wagons, 
Qg IB oocanmal aboi from the pickets, broke the aileoee of the 
ni^t The atTafking ooltUBn was computed of Orifl&n's and 
Otutin's brigades, — Griffin on the right. He had the Serea- 
teeoth Termont aud Rl^eoth Vew Hampshire in hit front 
tine, aii<l the Ninth New Ilamfi^tnre aud Thirtj-Seoo&d Madne 
ta theseoood. Onrtio had six rcgimeots, — the TIurt]r-:NxU> 
Uassacfausettii, and the Fortj-FUth and Fu^-fiigfath Fennel- 
vsiiia, in ht* fr<nit line ; the Seventh Rhode Island, TweiAh 
New York, and Plftj-Eighth Massachusetts in his seootid lias- 

T\w "oldiars were worn with hard nr.«fwhmg gnd "^fliartm 
riglitiiig, and hod but jufit arrived from Citf Point, jet dHj 
took their positions without flinching The oflBeen gaMd ai 



the h&iids of their watchoe 
in Uie moontiglit, and saw 
thorn move on to tlio hp- 
pointed time, — lidecn min- 
utes past thi-ee. Twcuty 
pactis, — ft epriug U]> tho 
8te«p bank would carry the 
men to llw Rebel picket* ; 
lUtj paces to the muzzle* 
of the enemy's g;mis. 

" All ready ! " was whis- 
pered fh>m man to man. 
They rose from the ground 
eriiot. Not a gim-lock 
clicked. The bayonet was to do the work. 

"Hurrah ! " Tlic lines rise tike wares of the sea. There u« 
itraggling shots fh)m tho Robol pickets, four fioshoB of light 
ttam tho Rebel cannon by tho house, two more from the redan, 
one ToUoy from the infantry, wildly aimed, doing little damage. 
On, — up to the breastworks I Orer them, seizing tho guns ! k 
minute has passed. Four gun?, six hundred and fifty pri«)a< 
ers, fidoon hundred muskets, and four stands of colors are the 
trophies. Tlie Rebel Hue is broken. Tho great pouit is gained, 
oompelling Lee to abandon tlie ground whicli be has held bo 

In the Fifly-ScTciith Massachusetts was a soldier named 
Edward M. Sclineidcr. Wlicn tlio regiment was formed he 
was a student in I'lnllips Academy, Andorer. From motives 
of patriotism, agniiiKt the wisbes of friends, he lefl tho literature 
of the andonts and tlio history of tlic past, to become an actor 
In tlio present and to do what he could for fUture good. Ois 
father is tlic well-known mi&sionary of the American Board at 
Aintab, Turkoy. 

On tho march from Annapolis, though but sorontoon years 
old, and unacouBtomed to hardship, he kept his place in tlie 
ranks, from tho encampment by the waters of tlie Chesapeake 
to the North Anna, where ho was slightly wounded. Tho sur 
geons sent him to Port Royal for transportation to Washington, 
out of his own aocord he returned to his regiment, joining it at 


CDUHafinr. What|Hfii^farfl»< 
vorb, oa tha 17th ivtet, W aid to tkm 

" 1 inteiM) to be tbe 6zst ooa to etUcr tbur fanwtvorfcs.** 

Tb« bnvft yooog loUier tried to make good hb wocdbi 
leading die diarg«. 

Do TU aliaoet tbere* — Doi quite: aloxnt tumr enoui^ 
lo ieei tbe hot OaA U the Rebel musfceOy in fab bm; 
•odogfa to be oorered with mlphunKU ckNidi bom tbe 
vfaan be fetU abot through tho bodj. 

He WW cvriod to the hieptial. with six hundrvd and filtf of 
bii dirisioa oomrades; but Ujr all night with his wound nu- 
dreeied, waitiug bi« turn witluntt • murxnor. Hm "^^p***" 
looked al his vound. 

" Wliatdo you Oiink of itT" 

Seeing that it warn mortal^ tbo cltapUm was are P BOMe with 
emotion. Qe romembenxi the last injuiicSiou of the young 
•olditir's sister: "I commit him to jour cars." 

Tbe jrouug hcru interpruted ttie meauiug of tbe tuars, — that 
there was no bopo. 

" Do not wocp," said ho ; '* it is Ooda will. I wish jou to 
write to mj father, and tell him that I liavu tried to do taj dutjr 
to my oouDtry and Co Ood." 

He disposed of bis fuw elTecte, giving ten doUan to tbe 
Cliristiau Commiifrion, twcntjr dollars (o the American Board, 
and trifles to bis (riends. Then, iu tlio simpLicity of bu bcart, 
•aid, — 

" 1 bare a good many IHoiids, sdioolmatee, and companioos. 
Tlioy will want to know where 1 am, — bow I am gotting on. 
Tou can let them know that X am gone, and Uiat I die content. 
And, diaplaiu, tbe boys iu llio regimeut, — I want you to teU 
thorn to stand by the dear old flag! And tliere is my brother 
in tiio navy, — write to him and tell bim to stand by the flag 
and cling to Uio cross of Clirist ! " 

Tlie stirgeon examined the wound. 

" It is my duty to tell you tliat you will soon go borne," 
said bu. 

" Ton, doctor, I am going home. I am not afireid to die. 1 
don't know Ik>w the valley will bo when I get to it, but it is all 
tiright DOW." 




Then, gathering up his waiiing Htrength, iiu repoatod the 
ferae often suug by tlio Roldiors, who, amid all tho whir] ajid 
axcitinneiit of Uio camp and ImtUo-fiold, uovor forgot thoee 
whom the/ have loft bohiod them, — mother, sister, father, 
brother. CaUoljr, clt»irljr, distiuctlf ha repeated the Unei,- 
the clioi-u8 of tlie song: 

" Soon witb u^ttlt I Tl be marclutifr. 
With bright Uurola on my brow : 
I }mV9 for my <'ountrv tUlea, — 
Who will cara for ristcr now ? " 

The night wore awa/. Death stole on. He suffered in- 
teiise pain, but not a murmur escaped his ]ips. Sabbftth 
meiuing dawned, and with tlio coming of tho light bo ptMod 

'* I die content," said Wolfe, at Quebec, whon told that tho 
Fronch wore fiooiug. 

" Stand up for Jesue," eaid Dudley Tyug, iu Im laet hpuri : 
vords which Iiave warmed and moved thousands of Oirirtian 

"Let me die with my face to the enemy," was tho last 
request of Qeneral Rice, Christian, soldier, and patriot, at 
Spoltsylvania ; but equally worthy of remembrance aro the 
words of Edward M. Schneider, — boy, student, youthful loader 
of the desperate charge at PcterBburg. Tliey arc the esscuoe 
of all that Woife and Tyug and Rico uttered in thoir last mo- 
ments, flii) grave is near the roadside, marked hy a rude 
paling. The summer breozo swoops through tlio sighing pines 
above the hcarod-up mound. Mournful, yet swoot, tho music 
of tlie wind-harp ; — mournful, in that one bo young, so fUll 
of life and hope aud promiso, should go so soon ; swoct, in 
lliat ho did his work so nobly. Uad he Hvod a century he 
could not havo completed it more thoroughly or faithfully. 
His was a short soldier's life, extending only from tlio [joace- 
ful sliAdes of AudoTcr to tlie ijt trench meuts of Petersburg; 
but 0, how ftill ! 

Will the tree of Liberty prematurely decay, if nourished by 
such Life-giving blood ? It is costly, but Uio fruit ts precious. 
For pain aud auguiiih, waste and desolation, wo have such riuD 
reoompeuse as this, — such examples of patriotic ardor, heroic 




daring, md Christian fbrtitvile. tliat make mtrn nobler, aatioof 
graato*, aod the worid better b; their eootemplation. 

I hare stood bjr tlie honored dust of those whose mmrrt an 
great in hiatory^ wfaon deeds aod rirtaes are n o nnoe mon t aA 
in bran and marble, who were reueratod whOe Uving aad 
mourned wlien dead ; bat Dover haTe I felt a profonnder rer* 
orence for departed worth than for this young Christian eol* 
disT, uncofhned. uiisliniudtxl. wrapped ouly in hi* hhtnkei, 
and sleeping sereuelj boiieoth tlio oTergreen puios. 

His last words — Uie meGsages to his comradoe, to bb btber, 
and his brother — arc wortlijr to Uto so long as the fiag of our 
eonntry shall wave or tiie cross of Christ endure. 

** Stand up for tbo dear old flag and cUug to the cross erf 
Christ ! " They arc the emblems of all our hopes for time and 
flteraitf . Sliort, full, rounded, complete hit life. Triumphant, 
^rious his death ! 

Grant determined to assault all along the line on the morning 
of the 18th, as nearly the entire army had arriTcd. Lioc, how* 
ever, fell back daring the night to a new position nearer the citf . 

f — i^:;;;; x — ir - ■ But tho attack waa made. The 

^™£?n*3i» fcighteenth, Second, and i;ixth Corps 

^ gained no advantage ; but tlie Xlnlh 
and Piflfa drove the Rebels across the 
Norfolk Roilroud, and reached tlie Je- 
rusalem plonk-road. The position ol 
tiie besieging arm; is shown bj the 
ocoompanTing diagram. 

On the 21st of June Grant attempt- 
ed to take the Weldon Railroad with 
the Secfflid and Sixth Corpe. but was 
opposed bj the Bebels on Oaris's farm, bejrond the Jerusalem 
road, and a battle ensue<I. 

Tho ongogemont was renewed the next daj. There was a gap 
ill the lines, of which A. P. Hill took adraatage, and attacked 
Barjuw's dirisiou in flank. A severe struggle followed, in 
which Gtbbuu's dirisiou lost four guus. The l<attle was contin- 
Md on tlio 23d, hut no farther progress was made. The troops 
bad been ftgltting. marchinit. or building breastworks fo<- fortr 




suron days, without mterruptiou. Daily and nightly, from the 
Rapidati to tho Weldon rood, they had beon in constant acCioD 
The troops were exhaustod. Grant liad lost soTen^ thousand. 
The reinforcements which had reached him wore inexperi- 
enced. Men when physically prostrated are indifferent to com- 
mands. Diecipliue becomes lax. Hundreds of efiicient ofRcora 
had fallen during the campaign. Brigades were commnnded 
by majors, regimonta by captains, companies by corporals. Tlie 
army needed thorough reorganization. The right of the lin* 
was sufficiently near to Petersburg to commence aiepi opera- 
tions. Intrcnehmcnt.1 wore accordingly thrown up and giina 
mounted, and iJio army enjoyed comparatiro rest. But it was ■ 
rest undor firo, day and night, the Ninth and Eighteenth Corpe 
especially being constantly harassed by the enemy, who wore 
bitterly opposed to the employment of colored troops. It was 
systematic hostility, — ingrained, revongofUl, relentless. They 
would not recognize or treat tliom aa prisoners of war. Slavery 
long Iwforo had proclaimed that black men tiad no rights which 
white men wore bound to respect. For thorn was no mercy ; 
only the fate of their compatriots at Fort Pillow awaited them, 
if taken in arms against thoir former masters, though woanng 
the uniform of the republic which had giren them freedom and 
sent them to battle. 

Thuro was a t^Lclt understanding betweeu the Eoldiera of Uie 
bHfth and the uiiomy in ft-ont of them that there should bo no 
picket-firing. They Qllod thoir canteens at the «ame spring 
and had friendly conversations. But not so m front of tlie 
Ninth, in which thirty were wounded or killed CTory twouty- 
four hours. Such was the unnecessary sacrifice of life to thii 
Moloch of our generation ! Tliere were those in the army, aa 
well as out of it, who were not willing that the colored soldier 
should be recognized as a man. 

*' The negroes ought not to he allowed to fight," said a Massa 
ehusotts captAin to me. 

" Why not, eir ? " 

" Because the Rebels hato us for making them sotdicrs," wa» 
the reply ; and adding, dubiously, " I don't know but that the 
negroes hare souls ; but I look upon them as a lower order of 
beings than ourselves." 




Tlio old prcjiidico romnincd. We wero not willing to do*] 
rtirlj. Wo asked tlio nc^o to help Rght our battles, but v« 
vere willing to paj him onl; linjf a soldier's irages, as if w« 
reared tiits simple act of jue^tico tniglil Ito construed as aii uy 
knowledgmoiit of liis social or wull an civil L'tjuality. 

Through all the woary mouths of fighting and oipostiro the 
iraiit^ of tlio Boldiors woro flatly relieved by the Sanitary tiid 
Climtian CommissiouB. Tbo wurm-Iiuartod poopio in the North 
never ooaaed thoir oontribuiions. Tho machiuory of boih those 
excelloot oi^aiiizatiou» was so [lorfect that the soldiers had quick 

The power of ouy force — moriU and religious as well us me- 
chaoic^ — is in proportion to tlie dircctnoss of its application. 
I recall, in this couiioction, u hot, dry, eultry day. Tlio suo 
shoDO from a brazen sky. Tlio grass and shrubs woro scorched, 
withered, and powdored wiUi dust, which rose in clouds boliiud 
erory passing wagon. Even tho aspens wore motionless, and 
there was cot air enough to Mir tho long, litlto needles of the 
pinoa. Tho birds of tho forest sought tlic deepest shade, and 
bushed eren their twittor. It was difficult for men in robust 
health to breathe, and they pickod out tho coolest places and 
garo tliomsoKes up to tho languor of the hour. It required an 
eomost oflbrt to do anything. Yet through this blazing duy 
men crouched in tJio trenchoB from monitug till night, or lay 
lu tiioir shallow Hflo-pita, watching Uio onomy, — parched, 
broiled, burned, uot daring to raiso thoir heads or liil their 
bonds. To do so was to BuiTbi dcatli or wounds. 

Tlio hospital tont.fl, though pitched in tlio woods, wera like 
ovens, alisorbing and holduii; the boat of the sun, whose rmji 
the branohes of the trees but partially excluded. Upon the 
ground la; the sick and wounded, fovcrod and soro, witli ooe^ 
gioH ezliauBted, porspiratioit oozing from their fooos, oorTos 
quiTering and Iramblmg, pulses faint and feeble, and life ebb- 
ing away. Tlioir beds wero pine boughs. They lay us they 
came from the battle-field, wearing their eoilod, torn, and 
bloodj garments, and tantalizrd by myriads of flies. 

The surgoouB in charge wore kiud-hoarted and attentiTe. 
Thoy used all means iu thoir power to make their patients oom* 
(brtable. Was this the place whore the sick wore to r«|^ 




their health, far from home and friends ! With uothtng to 
cbeur thorn, hope was dying out, and doepoitdeuoy RottJDg in ; 
aud memory, over bu&y, was pictiiriug the dear old homo sceuea, 
HO painfully in cuntro&t with their dismal prudent. 

It was the Sabbatli, and tlieru were many among tlie suf- 
foring tliousandE who had been accustomed to ul>»orvo tlie day 
u one of worship and rest fVom toil and care. In imagination 
tlicy hoard the pealing of church-bolls, tho grand and solemn 
music of the organ, or the hum of children's voices in the Sab 
batli school. 

Titore wore no clouds to t$tiut out the suu, but the brazou 
dome of tlio 6ky glowed witli steady beat. The GhrisUau Com- 
miflsion tent had been besiogod all day by Boldiers. who wantod 
onious, pickles, Icmonii, oranges, — anything sour, auytliing to 
tomj)! tlic taste. A box of onmgcs had been brought from City 
Point tJie [light before. It was suggested that they be dis- 
tributed at once to tho »ick and wouuded. " Certainly, by all 
means," was the unanimous voico of ttie Commission. I toIuq- 
toored lo l>o the distributor. 

Qo witli mo through the touta of the sufferers. Some oro 
lying down, irith eyes closed, faces palo, and cheeks simken. 
The paleness underlies tho bronze which tho sun has burned 
upon them. Some are half reclining on their elbows, bolsiorcd 
by knapsacks, and looking into vacancy, — thinking, porhapSv 
of home and kin, and wondering if tlioy will ever see ttiom 
Again. Others are reading papers which delegates of tlio Com- 
mission have diiftributod. Some of the poor fellows havo but 
one log ; othors but tho stump of a thigh or an arm, witli the 
Ughtost possible dressing to keep down tlie fover. Tcstordaj 
thoeo man, ui the full tide of liie, stood in tho trenches con- 
fronting Uie onemy. Now they are shattered wrecks, having, 
perhaps, wife and children or parents dependent upon tbom ; 
witlt no certainty of support for themselves even but tlio small 
bounty of government, winch tliey have earned at such foarl\i] 
sacrifice. But their future will be brigbtonod with the proud 
eonsciousnoBS of duty done and country saved, — the surviving 
soldier's chief rocomponso for all tho toil and suSbriug aad 
privation of tho camp and fiold. 

As wo enter tho tent they catch a st^t of the golden fruit- 


IBS BOY.s or 'tl. 


Tliere lb a commotion. Those balf asleep rub their eyva, those 
partiall; rocliiuug sit up, those Ifing wtUi their backs toward 
us turu orer to soo what is going on, those so feeble that tliey 
cauaot move ask what is the matter. Thoj gaze wistf^iUj at 
our luscious burden. Thoir cjaa gleam, but not one of them 
asks for an orange. They wait. Tlirough the stem discipline 
of war tbef bftre leanied to bo patient, to endure, to remain in 
mspenae, to etand still and b« torn to pieces. Thoj ore tm* 

" Would yoo like an or&nge, sir f " 

" Thank you." 

It is all he can say. Ho is lying upon his back. A. minnie 
bullet has passed through his body, and he cauuot be moTcd. 
Ho has a nohlo brow, a manly couuienanoe. Tears moisten his 
eyes and roll down his sunken cheeks as ho tokos it from my 

" It is a p(i of tlio Chiistian CommisKion, and I accept your 
thanks for those who made tho contribution." 

" Bully for tho Christian Commission," shouts a wide-awaka, 
jolly soldier, near by, with on ugly wound in his left arm. 

« Thank you," " God bless the Commission," " I say, BUI, 
are n't they bully*" arc the expres-'ions 1 hear behuid me. 

In one of the wards I camo upon a soldier who had lo«t his 
leg the day before. Ho was lying upon his side; he was n> 
bust, healthy, strong, and brave. The hours dragged heavily. 
I stood before him, and yot he did not see rae. He wo^ stalv 
biug his knife into a chip, with nervous energy, trying to forigel 
the pain, to bridge over the lonely hours, and shut the gloom 
out of the future- I touched his el))0w ; ho looked up. 

" Would you like an orange ? " 

*^ By jingo ! that is worth a hundred dollars ! " 

Ho grasped it as a drowning man clutches a chip. 

" Whore did this come from ? " 

■' Tlio Christian Commission bad a box arrive last night." 

*' The Christian Commission ? My wife belongs to that. She 
wrote to me about it last week, — that they met to make shirts 
Ibr the Commission." 

" Then you have a wife ? " 

" Yes, sir. and three children." 




His Toioo faltered All ! the soldier uovor forgott. home. 
He dasliud awajr a tear, took in a loug breath, and wan siroiig 

'' Wliere do you Iiail from, soldier ? " 

" From old Maasachutietta. I had a snug little homo upon 
the banks of the Connecticitt ; but I told mj wifb that I did n't 
(oel just right to stay thero, when I was iioodod out here, and 
8o 1 oame, and horc I am. I stiall write home, and tell Mary 
about tlie Olmstian Commission. I hare been vishing all day 
that 1 had an onuigo ; I knew it was no use to wish. I did n't 
supputjc lliere was one in cump : besides, here I am^ notable to 
moTO a pog. I Uiauk you, sir, for brining it. I shall toll my 
wife all about it." 

Those oxprcssioiis of gratitudo vero not indifierout utteran- 
ces of courtesy, but came from full hoorts. Thoso sun-buruod 
eufibren! rocoguizod tlie religion of Jesus in tlie gift. The 
Christian religion, Uius uxemplLfiud, was nut a cold abstracUou, 
but a reality, providing for Uio heaitli of the body as well as 
the eoul. It was easy to convorso with Utoso men concoruing 
thoir oterual well-being. They could not oppose a Ctiribtianity 
that manifested such regard for their bodily comfort. Such a 
religion couunended itself to tlieir hearts and luideretoji dings. 
Thus the Oommissiou become a great missionary ontorpriso- 
Farina, oranges, lemons, onions, pickles, comfort-bags, shirts, 
towels, gireu and distributed in the name of Jesus, though do- 
signed for the body, gave strength to the soul. To tl)0 quick- 
ened senses of a wounded soldier parched with fcrer, far fW>m 
home and friends, au onion was a stronger argument for the re- 
ligion which bestowed it than the subtle reasoning of Ronan, 
and a pickle sharper than the keenest logic of Colonso! 

Visiting Washington one day, I passed tlirough sororal of 
the hospitals, and was present when the dologatOB come to the 
head-quarters of the CommiB.*{ion and norratod their experiences 
of the day. About fifty were present. Their work was wash- 
ing and dressing wounds, aiding tlie sick and wounded in enerj 
way possible, distributing reading matter, writing letters for 
those unable to write, with religious exorcises and conversation. 
No delegate was allowed to give jellies or wines oh food, or to 
hold meetings in any ward, without permission of the surgooo 


THE ttOrs OF '«)- 


\a charge, which usuallj was graulod. It was k rule of tho 
Coomussioii, and uul of llio Medical DuparUnenL The dd&Igii 
was to do overythiug possible for the good of the meo, and 
tiuthiug for their hurt. One delegate said that he fouud fuUj 
ODO llurd of the men iu his wards professing Chrietiaue. Tlie/ 
were glad to see him, oad rejoiced to obtain religious reading. 
A few dafs before he hod given an old man a book entitled the 
" Blood of JesuB." 

** hare found Jesus, and 0, be is so precious ! ** nid the 
old soldier. 

Another delegato said : " I found among tho ]>ationt» a min- 
ister who enlisted as a private. Ho has been iu the hospi- 
tal sixteen montlis, and has maintained his Christian character 
through all the trials of camp and hospital life. I found some 
convalescents plnving cards. 

" ' My boys, you don't play cards on Sunday, do you 'f ' 

"'It isn't Sunday, is it? Why, h»ng it all. chapluiii, W9 
can't keep track of the days in the army.' 

"I talked to tliem of home and of thoir mothers, Tho tean 
rolled down their checks. They put up tlioir cards, and road 
tho papers I gave tJiem." 

" I noTor saw men so ready to receive religious instruction," 
said another delegate, •* or who were so easily impressed with 
its trutlis. 1 am satisfied that this is u golden opportunity to 
the Christian Clinrch. I found a young man to^lay who said, 
* I want you, chaplain, to tell mo just what I have to do to be 
a Christian. I will do just what you say. I want to be a Obri»> 
tian.' It was a sincere desire. I find that tlio Catholics are 
just as eager to hare religious instructioii as othors.'* 

" 1 found a sergeant from MaBsaclmBotta, very low, but he 
met mo with a smilo. ' It is all right, 1 am happy, and I die 
content. Tell my friends so,* " reported another. 

'* I Imro been over the river to see ijomc detached regi 
meiits," said a chaplain. " I asked one ooblo-lookiug soldiei 
If ho loved Jesus ? 

" ' No, 1 don't.* 

" * Aro you married ? * 

** * No ; but I have a sister. She is n*t a Christian, hut she 
rrote to me that she wanted me to t>eoome one, and 1 wroU 




10 hor that I vanted ber to be ono ; and I guosB, chaplain, tbal 
ovorybody who believes Iho Bibtc feols just bo. U tboy ain't 
good tbemsehos, they wont Uioir friends to be.' 

'^ I found another soldier writing a letter on a UtUe bit of 
paper. I gave him a full sheet and on envelope. 

" ' Are you a Christian Oomiuission man ? ' 


" ' You are a d — good sot of follows.' 
' *■ ■ Hold on, soldier, not quite so hard.' 

" * T bog your pardon, chaplain, I did n't mean to swear, bui, 
darn it all, I have got into the habit out hero in the army, and 
it oonies right out before I think.' 
■ • Won't you try to leave it off? ' 

" ' Vo8, chaplain, I will.' " 

Said anoUier dologate ; " 1 wont among Uie men, and they 
all gathered round mo with ^reat eagerness. Tliey were a li^ 
Uo disapiHjintod, howercr, when they saw that 1 waD a dologate 
of tbe Coiumission. They took me to bo the paymaster. 

'* But I have eomctliin^ that is better than gold." 

'* * Oire nic some of it/ said ono, who was the sou of a Baptist 
minister, a toudor-hoartcd Christian.'* 

One, jubt returned from tho army at Petersburg, said : "I 
came across a drummer-boy of ono of the Massachusetts rogi* 
ment«, a member of the Sabbath school at home, who loet bis 
Bible during the campaign, but ho lias written the lieods of 
his drum all over with texts of Scripture from memory. 
□o beat5 a Oospol drum." 

An liuur was passed with such narration interspersed witb 
deTolional exercises. Glorious their work ! Sweet the musk 
of tboir parting hymn : — 

•' Ne*«r, my (!<yl, to eh««, 

Xeuvr to thee ; 
E'en though it be n cro* thnl raiMth MM, 
Still ilU mr aoog ihall be. 
Vnsvr, my God, to thes, 

K«w«r to tlkea." 






Th8 Norfolk Railroad enters PotorBburR through a rsvlno. 
In tbu uttaok upon the onomy's linos, on tbo 18th of June, the 
bollow was gainod and hold b; Buraside's troops, tboir most 
adranoed poeitiou boing about four huudred foot from tJie Rebel 

liieuteuaut-Colonel Hour/ Ploasanta, commauding tlie Forty- 
Eighth PonnsylvaiiiaRoglinout, a practical minor, coiicoivod the 
idea of excavating a tunnel under tlio Rchol works and oxplod- 
ing a mine. Ho submitted tho plan to Burusido, who approved 
it. GeDoral Meadu i^aid it could not be dono. Major Duauo, 
of tho Engineers, laiighod at Lho idou. Other officers, of liigb 
rank, scouted tlio project. Colonel Pleasants was fuWy otn 
vincod of its practicability, and sot his men to work. 

lie made application ut liead-quarters for u tlioodolito to 
make a triangulatiuu of the distauco, btit was refused ita use. 
He was obliged to send to Wasbington to obtaiu one. No favil 
tties were granted bim. Ho could noiUior obtain boards, lum- 
ber, or mining-picks. But liis regiment, numbering four buD- 
drcd men, wore raostlr miners, and bo was confident of suocosa. 
Work woa uucordiugly commenced ou the 2-Oth of Juno, at noon. 
No wheelbarrows being provided, tlio men wore obliged to make 
hand-barrows of crackor-boxes. But tbuy wei'e at home in the 
earth, and not easily discouraged by dillieultios or want of 
proper tools to work witli, and piishod forward the gallery, 
wbicb vraa about four and a half foot high and the same in 
widUi, with great zeal. The oarth brought out was coroiud 
with bushee, to conceal it from the Rebels, who by its IVesb 
ap{)caraiicu might suspect whore tbo miue was being sunk, as 
it wa» kiiuwii tlirougbout the army that mining operations had 
bMu commenced, and tho Rebels had beard of it. Tbc Ricb 




moud papers published the nows, aud it was beraldud Uiruuglt 
Uie North. 

At every discharge of Uie Rebel artillery there wa« dougut 
of the caving iu of the ourth ; but Pleaeauts* during Imrrow- 
ere crept steadily forwai-d, till tho noise overhead, as well aa 
prenous measuremeate, courinoed them tlial they wore irnnw- 
diately iinder the Rebel workt>. Tho main gallory wm Gve 
huudred and ten feet iu length, bosido which were two lateral 
EtUerieSt one thirty-eoTeu and tlio other tbirty-eight feet in 

A stiort distance from Uie entrance, inside uf the Duiou for 
tificatiotis, a vortical shaft was sunk, in wliich a fire was kupt 
constantly buniuig, to produce ventilation. Ei^ht magaziuo« 
were placed in tho lateral gallerios, char|;od with four loiw of 
powder, strongly tamped, and coiuiocted by fuses. The mine 
waA completed on the 23d of July. 

Grant planned an assault upon tlio Rebel lino, iudepeudeutly 
of the explosion of tho mine. Ho sent two divisions of the 
Second CorjMJ, with two divisions of Shoridan's cavalry, to tho 
Arm; of tlio James, at Deep Bottom, where an attack was 
made, four guns captured, and tlic lino extended from Deep 
Bottom to the New Market road. Loo attempted to recover 
his lotit ground, but failed. Gnmt, iu this ezpodiUou, em- 
ployed an iuunonse train of empty baggage-wagouti, whiclt, 
passing in sight of tho Rebel iiickots, made tho movement an 
enigma lo Lioq. The Robob in ttio fortifications had com- 
menced a countor-mino, but suspondod labor. 

OoucnU Burnsido wished that the colored troops of his dins- 
Ion, under Getteral Ferrcro, should load iu tho assault after the 
mine was exploded ; and tho troope wore drilled with that 
special object in view. Ho betievod that tlioy would make a 
Buccestiful charge. Tliey were fre^li, had token but httle port 
in the campolgu, aud wore deeiruus of emulating the exam- 
ple of their comrades of tlie Eighteonth Corps. Tho white 
troops were worn with hard nmrchijig, fighting, aud oxposure 
in the trenches in front of Potorsbnrg, whoro they hiul boon 
on tho watch day aud utght. The Imos wero so near to the 
Rebeltj that a man could not show liis head above ihc para]>ot 
without being ebot. They had acquired the habit of taking 



tf te 

m Ik 


■Ml M«pi is fton.* r 

Qwnnl llanii M> had tlnw t K i w iu iM of wfaiM noo^; m 
i m v«r« r e — o ni for Maipin^ dther of ilte dircBoaa to lead 
Om UMuit, loU were cue, and the da^r feO npoo Oeoenl 

BarntidQ «u directed by Moade to form his troops duriuf 
dw nli^it, and bo read; to assault at darliglit on tlio 30tb. Hi| 
ptonoari wero to be equipped to destroy tho encuuj's abatis. 
TntronnliiiiK tools wore provided, W that if successful in brcak- 
lnf( tliu Robol linoft, tlio position might bo quickly Eocurod. 

I'ortionii of tho PiUh and EigUtcontli Corps were brought up 
to fiupiMirt iho Xiiitli. 

Thu (lold artillury was to bo honiosscd for immediate use 
Hio slogo artillory was to opou a hoary firo. Tbe SeofHid 
C(ir|iii, ul Deep Bottom^ wok to movo lo llio rear of thu Eigh- 
tuiMitb, Olid bo ready for any omcrgcncy. Sheridan, with 
tlio cuTulry, was ordered to attack bouUi and oast of Potara^ 
burg. Tbu Kugineon wero to haro sandbags, gabions, and faa 

* Aiiiwk OR IWnlniij;, RcpoR of Committee on Condon of the Wtr, p if. 
I thld., p &, 




oinos in readiness. Tlie nuuo was to bo fired at half \ A&t throe, 
uid simaltauoously with tlio explosion Oio assaulting colnmn 
was to rush into the gap. 

" Promptitude, rapidity of oxocutiou, and cordial co-operation 
aro O8sontial to success,** wrote Goneral Meade, iu liis oonclud 
ing orders. 

The movomonts and preparations wore completed before tlirot 
o'clock. 1'lic moon vas ahining brightly, but the RobolH made 
DO diECovory of the change of position and ma-sstng of troops 
m rear of tho Ninth Corps. Tlio heights near tlic hospitaLs wore 
covered by teamsters, ambulance driver?, surgeons, and civil- 
ians, waiting vHli intense interest for the expected upheaval. 

Hair past throe came, and tho fuse was lighted, A stream of 
firo ran quickLy along the gallery, but no explosion followed. 
Had the fuse failed? Ucutonant Douty and Sorgoant Rcoee 
wont boldly in to ascertain, and found tho fire had goiio out 
one hundred feet from tho ontraitco. Tlio fuse wrr relighted, 
but it was almost Gvo o'clocli, and the anxious spectators 
began to speculate aa to the cause of the delay. 

Grant and Meade wore at tho front. The troops thought the 
whole thing a failuro, and began to ridicule tho FeimsylTanU 

{■lemiug's Rebel brigade, composed of the Seventeenth, Eigh- 
teenth, and Twenty-iSocond North Can^inians, waa asleep over 
tho mine. Tlio pickets only were awake. Pegram'u battenr 
was also in the redoubt. 

Finally tlicrc came a trembling of tho earth, then a bursting 
forth of volcanic flames and rolling up of dense clouds of smoke. 
A. mountain of rubbish rose in tho air. Earth, men, planks, 
timbers, cannon, shot and shell, were hxirlod upward and out- 
ward ! The sight was terribly grand. To add to tho fright- 
fulness of the eruption and the grandeur of llie spoctaclo, one 
bmidrod guns instantly beldied forth their tliundors. The 
Rebels were surprised and ponio-strickcn for Uio momunl, and 
ran to escape the falling earth and timbers, leaving their artil- 
lery silent. A huge gap had boon made in tho Rebel works, 
four or five hundred foot iu length and twenty feet in depth. 

Success doftended upon tho immediate occupation of the 
faroaota. Ton minutes passed before Ijedlie movodt nnd tlieo 


THE aors OF '«]. 


lio only advttiicfld to the crater. Tlie Rebels offered no oppo 
■itioD. Tlio importaut point to bo gained and hold was a ridge 
bur hundrod /ardii beyond. Lcdlio slill halted in the excs- 
fation. Wilcox and Pottur sonn followed him, and the three 
diviaioua booomo Uitormixcd, and general confusion prerailed. 
An hour of procious time woa lofit. Lodlio made no attompt 
lo movn in or out, and Potter and Wilcox could not go for 
ward while ho blocked the way. 

T)io niiuniy gradually rocuvored from tholr stupor, and begoD 
to lire from tlio hills, and buttorios of artillery wore brought up 
ou the right and loft to cnfilado t}io orator : but not a cannon- 
•hot wai Qrod by the Rebels till nflor soreu o'clock. The sup- 
porting brigadon Diuanwliih; were crowding upon thotte in front. 
The colorocl troopa woru ordered forward. They also outorad 
tbo orator, which only added to the conftuion. Potter succoed- 
od in fVueiuK hia troops from lvodlio*s, and pushed on toward 
the orest, but being unsupported, ho was obliged to retire, 
driron book by tlie canister which thn enemy pourod into bis 
ranks (h)ni tlio now position thoy had taken on Oomotery Hill. 
Thd Kul^el firo incrotuiod. Eight, nine, Uiu o'clock passed; tboir 
butteries woro tlirowing a ooiicoutratod fire ol shells and solid 
ihot into the mingled human mmn. Mahone's and Ransom's 
divisions of inftihtry woro hurried to tbo top of tlie ridge, and 
mortars wore brought into play, and tlio orator became a terrible 
loone of slaughter. Meade, seeing that Airthor attempt to tak« 
the ridge would bo not only usoloea, but a wa^te of life, por^ 
mittod Burnsido to withdraw his troops at discretion. Vet to 
retiro was to run the gauiUlot of almost certain doatli. The 
ipAoe betwoon tlte abyss and Bumsido'a brenstwurks was swept 
by a orots-flro &om the enemy's artillery luid infantry. To re- 
oi&ln iu the cmter was sure doiitructton ; to advance was iu> 
poMihlo ; to rotroat tho only albjniattvu. Permission was given 
Iho troops to retire. By degrees thoy lied lo the roar ; but il 
was two o'clock In the afternoon boforo Llie place was wholly 

Porty-«ovon ofilcers and tlirce hundred and sevonty-two sol- 
diors were killed, one hundrod and twenty-four offioors and 
6neeu hundrod and fif^y-tlre soldiers womidod, and nuieteen 
hundrod missing ; a total loss of over four tlioutiaud men, and 
00 substantial advantage ticuincd- 




The losB of tho Robots bj tlie eiplosion waa t>3jj greats ti 
also bf the baary artillory firo. 

The causes of tlio failuro, as docidod b; the Ooaunittoe oo 
tlie Conduct of tbo War, wore : the iojudicious rormatiou of 
Ciie troope aasaulUug ; llie halttug of Ledlie ; lock of proper 
engineers ; and tho want of a compotont bead at the scene of 

rhe reawofl whj Uio attack ought to have been succosiful 
an thus stated : — 

" 1. Tbo Avident Hurprise of the enemy at Ums time of tbe ftrpkMloa 
t/ tho mine, and for Bams titU'C aAer. 

**8. The comparativL'ly small forc« in llie enemy's works. 

"8. Tho ineffectiTe Ore of the enemy'B artillery and mtuketry, tl'.ara 
being scarcely any for about thirty mioutee aOer the exploaioD, and our 
■rtiUery being just tho revene ai to time and power. 

■* 4. The fi&cl lliat our troops were able to get two hundred yards b»> 
yond the crater, towards the wv«L, but could tiot remain there or prooee^ 
hrther for want of aupporta." * 

It was a bumiliating, disgracoful fiuUiro, which filled the 
Xorth wjtti mourning. Tho Bobols manifested their hatred of 
the colored troops by shooting some of them oven ador tltey 
had surrendered. Tlio Richmond Enquirer said that tho a» 
saulUng column was led by colored troops, who niEhcd on with 
the ory of ** No quarter," but the asEortion is not true. The 
colored troops were not ordered forward till late in Uio morn- 
ing, and then advanced but a few stup8 Iwyuud tlie crater. The 
Rmquirer of August 1st doubtloes gave ozpression to the sentl- 
iuent« of the Hnuthoni people respecting tlio treatment to be MV 
corded to colored soldiers. Said that |>apor: — 

" Grant's war cry of ** No qoarter," ehouied by his negro soldiers, was 
returned vrilh interml, we ref^t to hoar not so heavily as it ought lo 
have been, since Bomn negroes were captured instead of being shot. .... 
Let every salient we are called upon to defend be a Fort PilloWi ar.d 
butcher every negro that Grant hurls against our brave troops, aod per- 
mit Ihera not to »oil tbmr huudH with the capture of one negro." 

It was the opinion of many officers who saw the advanco cK 
the ooloree linsion, that, had tlioy been permitted to lead the 

* BtfMn ( rCoBmittMi. 




assault, tiio crest would ImTo bcon Eolzod and bold. Saoh it 
tbo opiuiou of tlic Lieutouaut-Geuoral already given. 

The oneot promised to l>e euccessful, but ended in one of 
the severest disasters of the war, without auj compeDsatitMi 
worthy of mention. 

Sad Uie scene ou that aflernoon. The ground was tliickly 
ittrevD with dying aiid dead. Tlie bud blazed IVooi a cloudloH 
•ky, and the heat was intense. The cries of the wctmded were 
heart-rending. Ofticors and men on botlt sides stopped tboir 
ears, and ttimcd away hcaxt-nick at the sight. It was an exhi- 
bition of tlio horrible features of war which, once seen, is for^ 
oTor romemberod. 

Tbo OfKiradon of Grant upon the enemy's linos of commtmi- 
cadon was beginning to be felt in Richmond. Wilson and 
R.aut7 on Iho Danville and Woldon roads, .Sheridan on tlie Vir- 
ginia Central, and Hunter in ttio vicinity of Lynchburg, alto- 
gether had caused an interruption of communicadon which 
advMioed the prices of produce ut tlio markets of that city. 

It is amusing to read the papers published during tlio sum- 
oicr of 1864. All of Grant's movements from tUo Rapidan 
lo Petersburg were retreats. Leo, in his despatches to Jeff 
Davis from tho Wildomess, said that Grant was retreating to- 
wards Predcrickslmrg. It bappouod, however, that Leo found 
Grant attackijig his lines at Bpott^lvania on Uio following 
morning. "The enemy is falling liark from SpottsyWania," 
said tho Examiner, when Grant moved to ihi^ N^orth Anna. 

" Orant is floundering hi tlie swamp of tho Chickahominy ; 
he has reached McClellan's graveyard," said tho Rebel prosa, 
when ho was at Cold Harlwr. 

** Grant's attitude before Petersburg Is Umt of a baffled, if not 
a ruine«I man," said tho Richmond Eru/uirer. 

** Wu can fitand &uc1i a siege iis Grant thinks ho has esiab- 
lishcd for twenty years to conio," was tbo language of the 
Petersburg Express. 

Another uumbor of tho Enquirer, commcndng upon the 
Richmond markets, rovoalod more clearly the truth. 

•* Tho extortion note practised upon Uio people," said the 
Vnquirer of Jims BOtli, " in urory department of iiecossary bup- 
pljt is frightful. It is a pitiable hight tn see Uie families of this 




citj sw&nuiug in tlio markots for food, and sut^ootod to the 
merciless ozactious of tbls uurcstrained avarice." 

Tbe fortunofi of Uio Coufudunicy wore becoming dosporate. 
^Iiemiiut bad advanced from Clmttauooga, driving Joliustoii to 
Atlanta. The removal of Jolniston, aiad tlio sppoiuimeut of 
an officer iu his etoad who would fight Iho YaiikcoB, van 
demanded. JaS Davis heeded tlie cry, romorod Johiietou, 
ud appointed Hood to succeed him. The Ehuiuirer wai 
jubilant. Said that shoot : — 

' There must bo an end of Retreating, and cbo risk of defeat must be 
aovountored, or victory caa nevur bo won. The rulu of Cunctalor moat 
have »n end, Tor the nulmeM of Sctpio can only end (hit war. If G«n 
eral JohnKton haa b^en relieved, the eoiinlry wilt accept thia action of 
the PresidcDt ns a delermiDAtioD benoeforth to accept the risk of battle 
IU involving tbe fate and fixinji the deatinj of the Confederacy. To g< 
forward and to fight ig now ibn motto of our arrnies, and sinra? .lohnMnr 
would oot advance. Hood has no otbur altvmative, for liis appoiotmciif 

baa bat one meaning, and that 14 to give battle to tbo foft Grant ff 

bopelepsly crippled at Petersburg, and Lee has but a few da>'8 age 
thundered bin artillery in the oorporati! limiUi of Washingfon City. 
Grani, while apparently advancing, has been really retreating, and M» 
day is in a position from wbkh he can advance do farther, and fVon 
which his retreat is only a question of ume. Grant in ezliauatZng the 
malicr of diBappoiiitmi-'ni and tbe chagrin of defeat in Iximbarding Pe- 
tersbur^ ; but Sherman, unless defeated by Uotvl, must marcib into 
Atlanta. The movements of General Lm liave mj wuakeD(^d the army 
of Grunt, that it ia more an object of pity titan of foar." * 

Early in tho campaign Grant, scoiug tho necessity of keoping 
the rauks of tbe Army of the Potomao full, had ordered the 
.Viactoouth Corps, thou on the Mississippi, to take transports 
foi tho James. His policy was concentration oombinod with 
AOtiTity. His foresight and prudence in tliia matter wore of 
Inwtimftble ralae, as will be seen iu tlio ensuing chapter. 

• Rkkmood A'nTwnr, Jdj l«. 1M4. 






Thi ftrmies of tlio Union in Virginia, in the Weet, bcyof.d 
the Miesifisippi, and along tho Gulf woro controllod by Gonoj-al 
Oraut. Tlio chcBft-board was coiilincntal in its dimoiiiiionff, 
but OTerjrthing upon it soomod within reach of his hand. He 
had two orniios under his immodiato direction, — the Arm; 
of the Potomac and tlic Army of tiie James. Ho was in con- 
Btant commtinication with Shormmi at AtluntAf and his orders 
reached the forcos ii thousand milos distant on tlie Missisaippi ! 
The details were Iclt to llio conimandcre of die various anuios. 
but all important Bchomos wore submitted to him for approval. 
But hiH beet plans KonieLimos miBcarriod, iVom tho uegloct or 
inability of his tiuhoi'dinatoH to carry them into elocution. 
Before starting from tlie Rapidnn, Ooncral Qrant ordered 
Hunter, who had Eucccodod to the command of Kigcl In tlie 
KhenandoaJi, to procood up tho rolloy to Staunton and Gordous- 
rille. Wlion Oi-ont was on tlie North Anna, he odriscd tliat 
offioer to move on Cliarlottosville and Lynchburg, live on tlie 
coiujtry as he marcliud, and destroy tlie ruilroads, and, if po&- 
siblct the James Rivur Goual. Acoomplishiiig tliot, he was to 
return to Gordonsvillc, and there Join Grant. Hunter advanced. 
Shoridan was sent witli tlic cavaliy, while Grant was ot Cold 
Harbor, to aid him. Shoridan broke up tho Virginia Central 
Railroad, moved to Gordonsvitlo, but hearing nothing of Hun 
tor returned to the ^^^li(c House, and rc^oinod Grant at Potors- 

Hunter moved up tliu valley. At tlLO same time Oenorali 
Crook and Averill, leaving Westom Virpnia, mot Huntor near 
Staunton, whore they had a butUi: with tho Rebels under Gon 
eral Jones, who waa killed, and his force routed, with a loss 
»r throe guild and Hfteeu hundred prixonorB. 

Huitter, instead of a|)proac)iing Lynchburg by Qurdousrillt 




And Cliarlottosnllc, took tho rood leading t^irougb Lozingtou 
and thus missed Shohdan. 

He roachod Lynchburg on tho 16tli of Juno, at tho sam 
timo that Grant was moving from Cold Harbor to the Jamei 
Leo, sooing tho danger which threatened him at tbe back- 
door of tho Bebel capital, threw rciuforocmente into LTucb- 
burg, and Hunter was obliged to retreat, being far from his 
ba»o, and having imt a Umitod fupplj of ammunition. Having 
advanced upon Lpichburg from the vest, instead of iVom the 
north, he was oMigcd to retreat in tlic same direction through 
Wostom Vii^iiia, a country wellnigh barren of supplies. This 
left tlio ShoDondooh open. Thero was no foroo to opposo the 
Rebels who wore at Lynchburg. Tho decision of Hunter to 
go forward by Lexington instead of by Gordouavillo disar- 
raugod Gnuit's plans, who did not direct him to moro b} 
Charlottesville. His letter to Halleck of tho 25th of May 
reads: 'Mf Hunter can po^ibly get to Charlottesville and 
Lynchburg, he sltould do so, living on tlto country. Tho rail 
roads and canals should ho destroyed beyond tlic possibility o! 
repair for wooks. Comploliug this, ho could find his way 
back to his original baso, or from Oordonsville join tliis army." 
No mention was made of hi» advancing by Ijoxington ; but 
taking that routo, and hoiug uompoUod to retreat by the Great 
Kanawha, gave Loo an opportunity to strike a blow at Wash- 
ington. Ho was active to uuprovo it, but Grant was quick to 
discover his intentions. 

EwuU was sick, and Early was appointed to command the 
Rebel troojie in ihc Valley, ilrockonridge was sent up from 
Richmond. Thu troops took cam and moved up tlie Lynchburg 
ruad to GordoutviUe. Early found himself at tho bead of 
iwouty-fivo or thirty thousand men. Mosby, with his baud of 
guerillas, was scouring the VaUoy and Western Virginia. He 
reported a clear coast towards Washington, but that Sigel waa 
at Martin<iburg. 

Early passed rapidly down the Valley, drove Sigel across the 
Potomac, and followed him to Hagurstowii. Tlie peoplo of 
Western Maryland and Southern PcunBylvania, who had al 
ready received two impleosaut visits from the Rebels, fiod ia 
baste towards Baltimore and Harrisburg. The jianio wa» 



THK B0V5 OF '«. 


iridespreatl. Extravaftaiit etories wore told of Uio foroe of the 
enemy : IjCo's wtiolu army was advancing ; he liad out^nor- 
ailed Grant; lio had sixty thotisaud nion across the Fotomao, 
Watiliington and Baltimore wore to bo captured. All of which 
traa received with oxcoediog coolness by the Licutenaat-Ocneral 
ill command at City Point, who dotachod the Sixtli Corps, or 
derit.f; Rickctts's division to Baltimore and tlio otlier two divis- 
flus to Washiiif^n. The Ninctecutli Corps, which had arrived 
at Fortress Monroo, was despatched to Wasliington. 

Tlio news was startling. Leaving the army at Potereburg, I 
hastened to City Point, to proceed to Washington. There was 
no commotion ut Geucrat Oroni's head-<]uarter8. Tho chief 
quartormofrtor was looking over Ids rcportu. The clerks wore 
at their regular work. There wore numerous transports in the 
stream, but no iudicatious of the embarkation of troops. Ooa> 
oral Grant was out, walking leisurely about, with his thumbs 
in the arm-holos of his vest, t^moking his cigar so quietly and ap- 
parently unconcerned, Umt, had it not been for the throe btara 
on his shoulders, a strougur would have passed him witlioul s 
thought of liis being tlio man who was playing the deepest game 
of war iu modern timoi). Tho members of his mUitary family 
were not iu the least excited. Calling on Colonel Bowont, 
Qnuit's adjutant-general, 1 foiuid him attending to the daily 

" They oro haviug a Uttlo scare at Washington and in the 
North. It will do them good,*' said ho. 

" How largo a forco is it supposed tho Rebels have tu Mary- 
Uuid ? " 

'* Somewhere about tweuty-five thousand, — possibly thirty. 
Breckenridgo has gone, with his command. And Early has 
nked and scraped all the troops possible which were outside 
of Ricluuond. Mosby is with him, and the irregular bauds of 
the upper Potomac, and the troops which met Hunter at Lynch- 
burg. It will not affect operations hero, Lee undoubtodly 
oxpected to send Grant post-baste to Washington ; but the siege 
will go on." 

On tho wall of his room was a map of the Soulberu folates, 
showing by colored lines the various gauges of all the ralV 
roads. Grant came in, looked at it, said '* Good moruiii^.* 




and went out for another stroll about tlio grouude, thiukiufi; ftll 
Uie while. 

On board our boat was a liTcly oompauy, |»rincipally composc^i 
of the soldier? of the MELssachusotts Sixteoiitli, wlio had sorred 
three jears, and were ou their way liome. Thoy were in tho 
Poninsular campaigns. Thoir commaudor, Golouel Wymau, 
W08 ^ed at Glendalo, whore thoy held tlio ground when Mo- 
<7aU'B line was swept away, ills rugitires ran tlirough Bo(Aer*ft 
and Sumner's lines, but the men of the -Sixtoonth stood firm In 
their places, till the drift had passed by, and morod forward to 
meet ttie exuluuit enemy, pouring in such a fire that tlio Rebel 
column became a mob, and fled in haste towards Richmond. 
They wore in Grover'e brigade at the second battle of Manaa- 
eas. There hare been few bayonet-charges pushed wiUi such 
power as theirs in that battle. The Rebels wore on Milroy's 
iefl flank, which was bonding like a bniisod reed bcfbre their 
advance, when Grorer moved to tho attaclt. 

" Wo Btood in these llnoa," said a wounded officer of the 
Second Louisiana, a prisoner at Warrcnton, two months after 
that battle. "They fell upon us lUco a thunderbolt. They 
paid no attention to our volleys. Wo mowed thorn down, but 
they wont right through our first line, then through our sec- 
ond, and advanced to the railroad embankmentf and tiiore we 
stopped them. They dirl it so splendidly that wo could n'l 
help cheering tliom. It made mo feel kiaJ to fire ou such 
bravo fellows." 

Thej wore roduced to n squad. Their comrades were lying 
OB nearly all t)io battle-fields of Virginia. 

*' Wo have had a pretty rough time of it, and I am glad ve 
arc through; hut I would ti't mliid having another crack at 
the Johnnie's round Washington," said a soldier, lying on the 
deck with his knapsaek for a pillow. 

t lie whole regiment was roady to volunteer for the defence 
of Wasliington. 

The cannoneers of the Twolftli New York battery wore of the 
company. Tliey were in Wilson's raid, had lost tlieir guns, 
and felt sore. Even when their loss is oiring to no fault on the 
pert of the artillerists, tliey usuaUy feel lliat it is humiliating. 
They givo [>ot namee to tlie dog» of war : and when a good shot 
■oaa been mad*), affectionately pat their braseu lips 

TBI BOTft Of -81. 


'T\imn wen mMnben of the SaniUiy and Christian Com- 
mSntons, taking care of the sick and wounded ; also a fomilf 
of rofngees from Prince Qoorgo Coun^, on tho way to Mary- 
land, to find a new linino (ill Uio war was uvor. 

Karljr was making tlio ouMit of his opftortiinity. His canilry 
moTcd at will, with no force to oppose them. 

Tiioy divided into Bmnll bodies aiid overran the country from 
Predenck to WiliianiajMjrt, dcHlroying tlic Haltimoro and Oliio 
Railroad, Lnirning coaal-ixAtB, seizing horses, cattle, and sup- 
plies from the fanuora, ransacking houwni as tlioroughly as tba 
soldiers of Uie Union hod done in Virginia. 

Tlie first invasion of Maryland, in 18ti2, was a political aa 
veil as a military movement. It was supposed by tho Rebel 
loadom that tlio State was ready to join the Confodcracy, Utat 
tite people were bold in subjection by a military despotism. 
" My Maryland" was tlion the fiopular song of the South, sung 
in camp, on the moroh, and in parlon> and concert-balls. 
" TliB dcajMit's h(.t)l ti oo thjr than, 
Maryland ! 
ILi torch ij at tby tenple-door, 

Avimifi] Um patriotic gqm 
That wept o'er ^loni Bftltimorai 
Ainl l* the t^attle-<)ui>«fi otyoit, 
MftiylADd t Mr Moiylnail I ' 

When Jackson's corps croRsed tlie Potomac, liis troops sacg 
It wiLli enUiusiatitic dotuuiihtrations, tossing up their cape. 
They come as liberators. Jackson's ordors wore strict against 
pillage. All projiorty taken was to bo paid for in Confoderata 
notes, — at that time ostocnicd by tlio Rebels to bo as good as 
greenbacks, though uot Tory acceptable to Uie Marylanders. It 
was an invasion for conciliation. The troofis rcspodcd the 
orders, and, aside from tho loss of a few horses, tlie people of 
Maryland wore well treated in that campaign. Gut in the 
ii!Cond invasion, when Lee passed into Fennsylvania, no favor 
waa shown to Maryland. Houses, btoros, public and private 
buildings alike wore sacked and burned. Tho soldiers foraged 
at will, and the one who could secure the most clothing or food 
was the best follow. In this third and last invasion, offioen 
and ioldion pillaged indiscriminately. 




" Pay me twenty thousand dollars or 1 will burn your town," 
said Early to the oiLizens of Hagerstuvu, who iidvauced llx* 
money or its equiroleut. 

General Low Wallace was in command at Baltimore. He 
Hut what troops he could collect to the Moaocacy, whora ho was 
joined by Rickotts's dirisioo of tlio Sixth Corps. Wallaoo formed 
his line across the railroad aud awaited Early's advance. With 
the exception of Kicketts's division, Wallace's troops wore men 
enlisted for one hundred days, also heavy artlUorosts taken 
fh>m the Baltimore fortificatious, invalids from the hospitals, 
aud volunteers, numbering about nine thousand. The Bebela 
forded the stream aud began tho attaok. They wore hold b 
check several hours. Wallace, after losing about twelve hun- 
dred men, was obliged to retreat. 

His defeat, and the stories of the magnitude of the Rebel 
foiYU), put Baltimore and Wa-shington in great ozcitement. Tlie 
battle at Monocacy was foiiglit on Saturday. On Sunday morn- 
ing the cburch-boUa in Baltimoro woro rung, and the citizens, 
(iistcad of attending worship, made hasto to prepai-o for the 
^ncmy. Alarming reports reached that city from Westminster, 
B«istcrstown, and Gookoysvillo, that tho Ilebcls were in posse* 
fflon of those places. Couriers dashod into Washington from 
fiockville, only twelve miles distant, crying tliat iho Rebels 
were advanomg upon tlio capital. On Monday uiomuig tlioy 
were near Havre-do-Oraco, at Gunpowder River, whore Ihey 
burned tho bridge, cut tho telegraph, captured trains, and 
robbed passengers, entirely severing Baltimore and Washington 
from tho loyal North. Only five milas from Washington, they 
burned tho house of Governor Bradford, and pillaged Mont 
icomory Blair's. Govonunont employooe wcro under arms, and 
troops wore hastening out on tho roads leading north and west, 
when I arrived in Washington. Loud chocrs greeted Wright's 
two divisions of the Sixtli Corps, and still louder shouts the 
veterans of tlie Nineteenth Corps, from tlie Mississippi, as tliey 
marched throngli tlio city. It was amusing aud instruc^Jve to 
watch tho rapid chango in men's countenances. When dis- 
aster throatenb, men are silent ; tho danger past, the tongue 
is toosenod. 

On Tuesday the Rebel shorpsliootors woro In IVont of Fort 


7BK BOVS or '*1. 


SteTeo" ' thej picVo*! off ponie uf the guunen, tmt a cbargv 
b/ a brigade dislotlgO'J tiiom. They tied, leanng a)x>ut od* 
'-•iprtred dead aud wounded. Forces were gatlieriug around 
tJarlj, aud ou Weduet^day moniing ho liastily retreated. He 
recrossed Ibe Potomac at Edwards's Ferry, and made liis waj, 
U;rougb Snicker's Oap, into the Sheiiaiidoali Valley, with an 
immense train of plunder, oon!«i*<ting of ibragu. grain, hoif>cs, 
cattle, bogs, elieop, groutiries, clothing, and a forced contribution 
eftvo hundred thousand dollars from the people of Frederick. 
leTiod tindor threat of ourning the town. 

Early had no serious intention of attncking Washington, but 
the inTasion was designed primarily to raiae the siege of Poteo 
burg, and secondarily to replenish the commissariat of the 
Bebel army. 

Grant comprehended the movement, and instead of abandon* 
lug Petersburg, made preparations to seiste the Weldon rood. 
which, oAer a .^ovcro struggle, was accompHsbod. A few weeb 
later Sheridan defeated Early in the Valley, which ended the 
Mmpaign of 1864 in Virginia. 

/. - 





1864. J 





Toe army under General Sliorman fought its waj (Vom Obft«> 
tauooga to Atlanta, and then marched to the sea, capturing 
Fort McAllister, and oponiiig communicatioa vith the fleet 
undor Dupotit on the 13th of Dccombor, and a few days later 
made its grand eiiir^e into HaTannah. A brief review of Shor- 
man's campaign is necessary to a clear undorstoiiding of what 
afterward transpired in his department. 

Wliilc the Army of the Potomao was pushing Uirougli to the 
Boutli side of tlie James, tlia Army of the West was moving 
upon Atlanta, hanng driven the Rebels under Julmstoii A-om 
Tunnel Hill, Buzzards' Roost, Resaca, Kingston, Allatooua, and 
Keuesaw. Johnston fought only on the defensive, and was 
oonstaiiUy iMmten, ahandoning stronghold after stronghold that 
the Rehols hod declared impregnable, and whose surronder 
they felt was humiliating and disgraceful. 

There wok a clamor throughout the South for his removal, 
and tlio appointment of a general who would take the offensive. 
Jeff Davis disliked Johnston on [lorsonal grounds, and ap- 
pointed Hood his suocossor. Tlmt ofTiccr hurled )iis troops 
agaiust Hhermau's hreastworkb, and sufiered a damaging do 

Lfeat. Shennan in turu mado a flouk movcmoHt, and compelled 
Hood to evacuate Atlanta, whicli Sherman uceupiod un the 
2d of September. Jeff Davis hastened West. He conceived 
the idea of forcing Sherman to retreat from Atlanta to Xash- 
villo, by iuvading Tennessee. As Ilood's army liad boon driven 
from Chattanooga to Oalton, losuig all its strong positions, thia 
plan is one of tbo most remarkable in miUtary history. It is 
hardly within tlio si^ero of sohor criticism, but appropriately be- 
longs to the comic page. " Tour foet shall again press the soil 
of Tenuusseo, witliin thirty days," said Bavis to the soldiers. 
" The invader Bhall be driven from your territory. The rfr 
treat of Sherman from Atlanta shall be like Napoleon's from 


THE 110Y5 OK "«. 


ShomiAn had already contemplated a movemeut to Savaimah^ 
tnd liad oponod oorrcspondoncc with Grant. 

"Until w« can repopuJate Gvorgui it is ut«I«u lo wxnpj it; but tte 
ntterdostructioD of iu roads, bou«<!«, and p«opto will cripple their miliury 
nwourcCK. By aucinpling [o hold tho roada wo will los« a ibouiiaiMl 
cnuii tnontlily, and will giiiu no result. I cau mako tbc uiardi and mako 

G'rargia Jiowl Hood maj- turn into Te^lIlelt^e« kdiI Kentucky, but 

I believe he will be forced to follow me. IiiMead of being on the 
defeojire, 1 would be on the ofleosive. Instead of guesaiug at what he 
mcana, he would haf« lo gaeu at my plaDA. The diflcr«noo to war in 
fiilly twcnty-fivi> percent. I can make Savasrjih, ChaHuBtoti, or the 
mouth of the CKaliahoochev, and prefer to nuircb throagh Georgia, 
•maBliing things to the sea." 

Qmiit authorized the moTomoat. Hood was propariug to 
moTo north. 

Rlierman't) right wing, commandod bj Howard, was com- 
posod of Ostorlmiis's F^nnonth Corps and tlio Soreutflenthy 
ooder Blair; Slocum had his loH wing, con tauiing the Pour^ 
tcunth Corps undor Joff. C. Davis, end the Tvontioth with 

Tho Twoiitioth was consolidated fh)m the Elorooth and 
TwohUi Corps of tho Anny of tho Potomac, which had fought 
at Prodoricksburg, ChaiiceUorsviUo, and GottyBburg. 

ShonnaQ sent his last despatch to Woshingtou on tlie 11th 
of Novombor. On the 17th, tho day on which HhertnaD lefl 
Atlanta, Ilood crossed Uic Tcimossoo River, lo mako llio movf> 
ment which was to compel Shonnan to evacuate Georgia! 

Sherman's southward marcli was a surprise to the SsboU. 
Thoy ail'ected joy, and prodictod his dostructiou. 

Said tho Augusta CtmtiiiiUhnaiUt : — 

■* The band of God is in iL The blow, if wt. can give it aa it shoald 
be giveti, may end the war. Wc urge our frieuds in the track of the 
adviDOB to reaiore fomge and provi«ionft, borK«, mtdes, and negroes, 
and Block, and bum tbc balonoo. Lot the invader 6nd tbe duolalion 
he would loaTO behind him staring liiin in tho (kce. .... Cut treoB acroaa 
all roads in front of the enemy, bum ihe bridges, remove everything 
p<>4ible la timo, and, before the enemy arrives, i>um and deMroy wlial 
csonot be renored, — leave nothing on which le can subsitt ; and bids 
Ibe milUtoDe* and machiwrv of iho mills. . . . Tho RuMiana d&itroyed 




UM gimnd annj of Napoleon, of Bre hundred tJiotuaod man, hj iImuo^ 
lag their c»unliy, by the futnew of Ore a|ipUe<] to tiieir own eitim, 
bouam, mill granariea. Let Georgians imitate tlieJr uiwelfUhneM nud 
lore of countrj' for a few weekn, and the mrmj of Sherman will bant 
tbv fiite of the anny of J^apoleon." • 

Said the SaTann&h Wnvi : — 

" We baT« oolf to arouse our whole Hrm»-bearing people, — borer oa 
till front, h» flanlu, and pear, — removA frooa hiii reach or destpoy ©refj 
tiling that will Buhaist man or beaftt, — retard hia prugreHa by evefj 
tiieans id our power, ^ and, when the prop«r time comes, fall apoD bifli 
with the relentleiB Tftngeance of an insulted and outraged people, »b4 
there need be no dotibt of the re«ult." t 

" If it be true," said the Examin/^r of Richmond, " that Sber> 
BUID IB now attemptiug Uiis proiUfi^oiis dosifi^, wo ma; nafel; 
predict that his march will lead him to the Paradise of Fooli, 
and that his magniiiceat schomo will heireafter be reokoned 
* With all the good deeds that nav«r were done.* " 

Almost without opposition Stiornun reached the aea, and 
(breed Hardee to ovaoiiate Savannah. 

Oeneral Sherman is regarded hy many people In the Hontli- 
em States as the AttUa of the niuotoentli ccntui^, because hie 
patli &om Atlaata to the Roanoke isu wido-spreod scene of der- 
aetation. Yet he did only that which the loaders of the Rebel 
lion and the newspapers of the South urged the people to do. 
They proposed to make tlio countr; a ruiu in self-dofenoe. 
Sherman did it to sborteu the war. He says : — 

** W<3 consumed the <Y>m and fodder itt tbo region of cotintry for thiT' 
ty milen on either side of a tine from Atlanta to Savannah ; alfto tb« 
Bwe«t potatoes, bog^ iibc«p, and ponltrr, and carried off more than t«n 
tfaouBand horsos and mulus. I cstimatu the damage done to tbe Htata 
of Georgia as one hundred million dollan ; at leafit twenty million dol- 
lan of which ennred to our advantage, and the remainder wafl simpJf 
WMto and dettructioD." t 

Tills Lb a frank avowal. It is the official utterance of th« 
commaader who was instrumental In causing such wbolesalo 
destruction. To what end ? What was gained bj it ! Was 

' Avgattm Cmitit^tiamalut, Narember SI, 1*64- 
Am, MotMibw 29, 1164 I SbmuB'a Bipa 


THl DOTS OF ■«. 


moh destructioD varrant«d ? What will be the rordict of hi»> 
tory ? llietie are questious which force thcmselros apoa t^trj 
itiiuldiig mind. 

Oeuorul Shomian's vindication of himself is found in hit 
oorroRpon donee with tlio Mayor of Atlanta and with General 
Hood eoQceruijig iho expulsion of the non-combatants from 
that city. 

Afl ho ooiild not Riibdist liin anny and the citizens also, he or 
dorcd that every person not oonnoctod with the army should 
leave the place. The people of that town had done what they 
cnuld to oTortlirow the govommont of tho United States. They 
hud given groat matoriol aid to Llic Rebellion. They liated the 
Union as bitterly as ever, hut wore willing to ho consument of 
the fo<Kl disporiBod hy a govonimeiit which thoy wore not will- 
uig to recognize as holding rightful authority ovor tliom. The 
Mayor set forth the sulTcring which would be entailed upon 
women and childron, Uio poor and sick, by the onibrcomont of 
itio order. 

** You know tbe woe, tliu horror, and the auflvriiig cannot be de> 
•crilwd ill wordu," uui) the Mayor. " loiaginauou t-an only oonoMTtt 
of it, and we b>k you to taku thvae things into coitBideration. .... We 
•olemnly petition you to recousidur Ibis on)«r, or mudily it, and soffar 
this unfortuniitv poopl« to remniii At home and 6DJoy what little meaaa 
they hsTif." 

Tlie roply of Oouerul Sherman was clear and decisive. 

" OEMTLKHtR : I hnwe your letter of the 1 1 ila. in the nature of a pe- 
tition to n^Toke my order* removing all th« inhabiiAnt-i from AlJant*. 
I have read it carefiiJly, and give full credit to your ttaiementa of the 
diatrtM thnt will be occftiiooed by it, and yet •ball not revoke my order, 
•imply beeaute my ordore arts not dtuigncd to mc4JL iho bumanitiea of 
the oue, bat to prujiare for ibe future mruggloa in wbidi nuUionii. yea» 
buiMlredtf of millions of good people uut«ide of Atlauta, have a dt.-ep in< 
tereat. We muit have peace, cot only at Allunta, bat in all Americb 
To secure tbia we must ^top the war that now defolntee our onoe haiipy 
and favored ooontry. To utop the war^ we muit defeat the Rebel ar> 
miea that are arrayed against the laws and OoiuAiuitioa, which all must 
reepeet and obey. To defeat tbe anoie^ we must prepare the way lo 
reach them in their reoeaaei, provided with the arms and iMlrumenti 
which enable an to accomplish our purjMise. 

" NdWi I know tbe viodiciive nature of our enemy, and that w« nay 




hare nuuij jeari of military operations from tbis quarter, and therefbr* 
deem it wl*« ^nd prudent to prcpaK in time. The use of Atlanta for 
warlike piurpo-^ed is inconf^istont with itd chancior as a home for faim- 
Ilea. There will be ao manufiicturM, oommeroe, or agncultare b«M 
for the EnainteitAnc« of ikmiliea, and sooner or later want will compel 
the inhabi:aDU to go 

" War IB cruelty, and you cannot reOne it [ and those who brought 
war on our oountry defKrve all the cursM and malcdictiona a people 
can pour out. I know I had no baud in making itiia war, and I know 
1 will make more sacrifices to-day than any of you to secure peace. Bnl 
fou cannot haTO paaiix and a division of our country 

■* You migUl aa well appeal af^asl the thuiider^tonn as against 
tbeae terrible hardships of war. They are inevitable, and the only way 
the people of Atlanta can hope once more to live in peace luid i|uiet at 
home, ii to stop this war, which can alone be done by admitting llmt il 
began in error and is perpetuated in pride. We don't want yoor ne- 
groea or your boraos. or your houscH or your land, or anylhing you 
have ; but we do want, and will have, a juet obedience to the law* of 
the nniled Sut«ft. That we will have, and tf it inrolves the destnto* 
tion of your improvements, we cannot help it. 

'^ Too have heretofore read public ientiment in your newspaper*, that 
live by falsehood and exetiement, and the qubcker you seek for truth io 
other quarters the better for you. I repeat, then, ibat by the original 
compact of government, the United Stales had certain right! in Qoorgia 
which have never been relinquinhud, and never will be ; that the South 
began the war by seliiug forta, aneiiaU. minta, custom-bousea, etc., ebc, 
long before Mr. Lincoln wax iciiiitalled, and before the Sotith had one jot 
ur tiitle of provocation. T mvHdf have peen. in Mifleouri, Kentaeky, 
Tennessee, and MiiuiBsippi, hundred'^ and thounnda of women and chil- 
dren fleeing from your armies and desperadoes, hungry and with bleed- 
big leoU In Mempliim Vickaburg. and Mitwieaippi, we fed ihowtands 
OpoD tbomanda of the familiea of Keliel )toldier« le(^ on our hands, and 
whom we oould not see r<tarve. Now that war oomen home to you, 
you feel very differently, you deprecate itj» horror*, but did not feel 
them when yon sent car-loads of soldier* and ammunition, and moulded 
iheUa and »hol to carry war into Ketuut'ky and Tonnesfee, and detwtate 
the bomea of huudreda and thousands of good people, who only aaked to 
Hve in peaoe at their old homes, and under the government of their in- 
beiitaooe. But tbeae oomparisons are idle. I want peace, and believe 
h can only be reached through Cniuo and war ; and I will ever oon- 
Aaec war purely with a view to perferi an early sncceea. 

" But, my dear sin, when that peaoe doM come, yoa may call opM 




n« for uiylhtDg. Th«i) will t sliare willi yui the l«&t cracker, knd 
watch with you to !tbi«l(l your hooio mid fninilir-'a afTKiiui danger frnn 
«T«ry quarirr- Now, you mtut go, and Ukv with you tb« old aod fee- 
ble ; feed and onrM them, and build lor them in more quiet pUiOW propar 
bnVitaiionis to shield them agaioiit the weather, until the mad paauona 
of moil cool down, and allow the UdIoq aod peace once more to saltte oa 
jrour old bomea at Atlanta." 

General Hood protested agaiost the order. Bj a flag of 
truce bo eeut a letter, sajiug: — 

" Permit me to say, the unprcreiiented meaiDre you prc^wee tr« .• 
■oendfl in ftludied and iniquitous cruelty all acta over before brought Ut 
my attention in this dnrk history of the war. In the name of Qod and 
buDUtoJty, I proLesL, betiering you are expelling from home* aod Qi*- 
ndee wives and cliildren of a bmve people." 

To Lhia Shornuui answered dd the same date : — 

"You style the meaBureti proposed, 'unprecedented,' and appeal 
to the dark hinlory of war for a parallel, &.4 an act of ' studied aod 
iniquitooB cruelly.' It la not unpreoodanlad, for General Johnflt«n him- 
Mir very wuely and properly remored the ramiliea all the way rram 
Dalton down, and I see do reasou why Allania should be azcepted. 
iVor LI it neoe^eary to appeal to * thn dark history of war,' when recent 
uid modern examples are no band;. You youiwtf burned dwelling- 
iii>use« aloug your parapet ; and I have seuu, to-day, fifty bouAet that 
you hare rendered unintiabitablo bocauao they utood in the way of your 
forb« and men. You dflfoud'ed Atlanta uu a Uuo bo ctoae to the tewn 
that every canoon-flbot and macty muskot-vhots from our line pf inveni- 
mcnt, tbatovervhol their mark, wont into the hnbitJittonB of women and 
childnm- General Hurdeu did the same thing at •loDeeboro*. aod G«r- 
eral Johnston did the same last summer al Jackson, MiMisaippi. 

** I have not accused you nf lieartlefiB cruplly, but merely tnatanoa 
tbo!4 cases of very recent occurrence, sod could go on and enumerate 
hundreds of oibers, and challenge any fair man to judge which of ua 
has the heart of pity for the faujiUee of * brave people.' 1 aajr it k 
kwlafW (o these ftuniUea of Atlanta to remore tfaem mt once from 
KeiMS that women mid childr^ru should duI be expoitod to; aud the 
'brave people' ehonld ncam la commit ibeir wivejt and children to the 
rude barbHriaus who ibus, a» you say, violate the rules of war as iUtu- 
iratod in the pages of iu* * dark history.' 

■^ In [he namt- of oommon sense, I ask you not to * appetd to a juM 
God' in socb ■ aacril^ouii manner, — jou who in the middt of peaoe 




tnd pro«)>orily liave plunged a nation imo wnr. dark tuid cruel wu-| 
who dATcd And badgered ue into bHtUe; insulted our flug; seized our 
aneukb and forlt that were U^d in Uie honnrable cuKtod^ of h peHoef^l 
ordniincn sergeani : ocizei) and ma<Ie prisoncre even the very Oret gar* 
risOQi icnl to protect yoiir people ugainst nagroee and Indians, long be- 
fore any other net ww coramittci by ilie, to you, ' haiaful Lin<»(n 
govommenl,' tried lo force Misaouri oud Kentucky into rebellion, in 
ipite of tbemselres; faJtiiled the vote of Louitiona: tuniud loofto youi 
privaC(-erft to plunder unarmed ahips ; expelled Union fHiniliee by tlw 
Uioumnde, burned tliuir liousos, and declared by acts of your Con^reit 
the coDlU<^'Btioti of all <)i'bUi due Northt^rn men for goods bad and r»- 
oeircd. Talk thus to ibu Marinca, but not lo me, who have seen theae 
thiugfl, and wbo will Lliie day mukv ua much i^«crilj<.-o for tlic poaoe and 
boiiOi* of lUe Soulb a.4 the bc-^t-tmn) Suutliorner among yr>u. If w« 
must be gnamiaB, let ua be men, and llgbt It out as we propose to-day 
and not deal in ftucb bypocrilii.'U apptruh to God ami liunmnity. 

" God will judge ui in due lime, and be will pronounce wbetber it 
will be Immano lu Ggbt with a town full of women and the (kmiltes of 
'■ brare people' at our back, or to remove them in time to places of 
•afety amon^ their own friends and people." 

Notft-itlistaadiiig the exccsBos which wore committod bj the 
foragers on Sherraaii's march from Atlanta to tlio sea, his army 
maiiituinod its discipline. The soldiers wliile in aiid around 
Savannah were orderly and quiet. Xo woman waa insiUted ; 
tlicre was no dolmuclicry, no breaking open of houses. CltizouB 
could walk the etroots and engage in businesti without moleeta- 
tion. Life and property were respected. General Slienn&n 
in his oflicial report thus spoke of the conduct of his sol- 
diers: — 

" Aj to the rank and file, they »eem bo fuU of confidence in tbem- 
aelves that I donbi if tbey want a compliment from me; but T must 
do ihaui the Juilice (d say that, whether called on lo figlil, Lu oiareh, to 
wade fltreama, to make roads, clear out obolruct iou^ build bridge", make 
'corduroy,' or (ear up railroHds, they have done it with aliiority and a 
degree of cheerfulness uciBurpaued. A little looee in foraging, tbe> 
'did some things they ought not to have done,' yet, on the whole, they 
have supplied the wantA of the army with b» little violeucu aa oould 
be expected, and as tittle toss as I calculated. Some of lhe«e foragtog 
parties bad cnoouniers with the enemy which would, in ordinary timw, 
tank aa respectable battles. 

** The behavior of our troops in Savannah haa been so manly, M 




qniei. lo perfect, ibiit t take It u the I>e«t ertdeDce of dladpnoe kimI 
tru« CDur*^ Never wu « hostile oty, filled with wom«ii aii<l cliiU 
dreo, ocoopied by a Iiu^ army with Ima diMwder, or RKire gyatsm. 
order, and good gov«mmeDt The same graeral and gcQeroui tpirit 
01' oonfldenM and good fMling pervndei the ami; which it haa ev«t 
affttrdcd me especial pleasure to report on fomter or<ca«ioaj)." 

Although Shcrmau's army w&a composed of four ccrp», the 
Poiirtcouth, Piftoenth, Seveuteouth, aud Twontieth, ho had 
another made up from all of these, vhich, though unknown 
in iho war oflico, was of much sorrico to him and of groat 
damngo to tlio oiiomy. It was known as the ** Bummer " 
Corps. Tho word is not to be found in oithor of tlio Amori 
can unabridged dictionaries, though it has become historic. 
Who made it, or how it come into use, is not known. It may 
have boon derived from tho word bum-baSiff, which is a corTU|y 
lion of bound -bailiff, a subordiuate civil officer appointed to 
serve writs and to make executions, aud houud witli sureties 
fbr a fiiithfUl discliargo of his trust ; or fk-om hum-boaiy a boat 
used fbr conveying provisions, fVuil, and supplies from shore to 
■hip. From the two words wo got tho fUU moaiung of the 
term BumjTur. 

Sherman could not start from Atlanta with suflScient anp- 
pliee of bread, moat, and corn fbr his groat march. Ho mu&t 
live on the country. Hence ho marched in four porallo) ool- 
umus. near enough to aid each other if attacked, yut tkr 
enough apart to mow a swath forty or fifty miles in width. 

Tlie fongiug party, numbomig over five Uiousand, always 
on the alert, over in tlie advance, kopt altood of Kilpatrick 
with his cavalry. 

"* It I come to a town or village or plantation, aud stop to 
obtain forage, I fiud tliot the infernal bimuuors have been 
there," said Kilpatrick. 

Daviug autliority to take provisions, the bummers were not 
tardy in executing their trust. They wcut in squads, fought 
the Rebel skirmishers, aud defeated Wheeler's cavalry in several 
oucouutors. No matter how rich a prize there migfat be of 
poultry in a farm-yard, the appearance of a Rebel brought them 
Into line for mutual defence. 

Sometimes they came in with a doxen fresh horsee loaded with 


SHEmAirS ABlfT. 


ohickoQB, turkejBf and pigs. In one instance a eqiud, witli 
live fowls dangling at their saddles, was conironted hy Bebal 
CBYairy. Tlioy formed in lino, ftred a volley, and Btarted upon 
a charge. The galloping of the horses, acoompaiiiod hj tbe 
flapping of wings, tlie cackliiig of hens, gobbling of turkeys, and 
squealing of pigs, stampeded the horses of the enemj, and gave 
the bummers &n easy victory. 

Farm wagons wore confiscated and filled with provisitmB,— 
jars of jolly, preserves, picklee, and honey, baskets of sweet 
potatoes and 1(^ of bacon. They often rode grandly in familf 
carriages, accompaiiiod by crowds of grinning nogroos, who had 
pointed out the placos whero the planters bad secreted provi- 
tioas, and who watched for Rebels while the bummer secured 
his plunder ; and then, when the master was out of eight, bid 
good by forever to the old plantation, and witli light hearts 
leafjod the fences, on their way tc IVeedom. 

There were two classes of bummere, — the r^ular soldier 
of the corps, who kept tiis comrades woU supplied with good 
things, and the irregular member, whose chief care was to 
provide for himself. 

Tliey were of great service, not only as foragers, but m 
Bankers and scouts, keeping Sliorman well informed of tlie 
whereabouts of the Rebels. Tet their lawlo^ssuess had a de- 
moralizing tendency. Some were teuder-hearted, and took 
only what was needed to eat, while others ransacked houses, 
ripped open fcatlior-bods, smashed looking-glasses and cruck- 
ery, and tiunbled tables and obairs about unceremoniously, 
frightening women and children. But a btuumer outraging 
a woman would have been hung by lits fellows on tbe neareol 
tree, or if not by them he woxild have had short respite of 
life from the soldiers in the ranks. 

While in Savanuali they bad no occasion to ply their voca- 
tion, as provisione were abundant. Noticing full-grown chick- 
ens picking up corn in the streets, I expressed my surprise to 
an officer of the Twentieth Corps. 

"The fact is," he replied, " we have lived ou chickeua all 
tbe way Irom Atlanta. We have had roast chicken, fried 
chicken, and stewed chicken, till we are tired of it." 

But when Sherman resumed his march through South Can> 


THE B0T8 OP 'flU 


Una, l3ie mmmors wore keener than CTor. Tlie wholo fcrmy 
TU oogor to begin the march. Eacli regiment, when it croesed 
tho ^Ttiniialt River, and sot foot in f^uth Coroliiio, garo ft 
choor. Tlicj were in tho Iiot-V»od of Secession. 

" Wo 'II make Boiith Carolina howl ! " tlicy said. 

I saw an unoccupied mansion, upon tlic floors of which 
wore Brussels and tapestry carpeting, and mirrors of Froiich 
pUto-glass adorned tJio parlor. There was a lihrarj with 
well-filled sholvos, and in tlie drawing-room a costly rose- 
wood piano, — all of which tn an hour wero licked up by 
the flames. 

Far away to tlie north, as far as the oyc could reach, were 
pillars of smoke, ascending from other plantations. 

" We 'II purify their iSccca-sion hate hy fire," said one. 

The soldiers ovidontly folt that tlioy wore commissioned to 
admiiilKtor justice in tho promises, and commenced by firing 
the promises of tlie South Oaroliniana. Tlicy wore avengers, 
and clieir path through tliat proud State was marked by fire 
and desolation. '* South Carolina began tlio Rebellion, and she 
■hall suffbr for it. If it had not been for her there would hare 
been no war. She is rcsponaihlo for all tho misory, woo, and 
bloodshed." Such was tho universal sontimont. 

Although Sherman's troops carried the torch in one bond 
and tho sword in tlio other, and visit«d terrible retribution 
upon tlio Rebels, they were quick to relieve tho wants of tho 
truly loyal. A few days before reaching Savannah tlicy came 
to a plantation owned by a man who tlirough all the war 
bad remained faithful to the Union. He had l>oen hunted 
through tho woods with bloodhounds by tho Rebel conscript 
officers, Ilearing tlio Yankees had arrived, ho came out from 
his hiding-place, and joined the Twentieth Corps, with tlio 
intention of accompanying it to Savannah. Tho soldiers made 
up for him a purse of one hundred and thirty dollars. When 
it was presented he burst into tears. Ho could only eay, bo 
great was his emotion, " Gentlemen, I most heartily tliank 
you. It is a kindness I never expected. I have been hunted 
through swamps month after month. My wife and children 
have been half starved, insulted, and abused, and all l>eoauM 
we loved the old flag." 






Whkn Shormaii's army entered Savannali tiio people of thai 
oitj were on the ^ergo of starvation. Hio Rebel autliorities 
bad not acctimulatod sufTiciont sujipHcs for a long dofoiice. T\iej 
were ignorant of Uic intentions of Sherman when ho loft Atlanta, 
and wero unable to see througli liis plan till too late to put the 
pUoc in condition to withstand a siege. Breastworks woro hastily 
thrown up on the west tnde of tlio city. Tlie eastern approaches 
wero strongly protected by a scries of forts^ turrets, and bat- 
teries hiiilt by slaTos at the beginning of the war, in which wcra 
heavy guns oommanding the river and the roads. No one had 
dreamed that the Vankee;) would come from tlie wcet. Wlieo 
Hlionnan was fairly on his march there was consternation in 
all the ettiofl along the coast. Cliarloston expected him. 
Would be not aim din^ctly towai Jio cradle of SocosBion ? 
Ttie people of Mobile Iraliorod that the fleet whieli was gatlier- 
ing in the Oulf was destined to co-uporato witli the " ruthloes 
ioTader" in an attack upon tliem. Tlio inhabitants of Bnins- 
wick expected to see him tliore. The citizens of Haratmafa 
wero equally alanned. rroclomations and manifestoes wera 
inued. GoTonior Brown called upon ttio Georgians to rise 
in ttiair might ; but their former might was woaknem now. 
They had lost heart. Tliey saw that tlieir cause was failing. 
Tlieir armies, successful in the Iwginning. had woo no rictory 
for many months. The appeals of the Governor, the mauifea- 
to«8 of the Rebel generals, the calls of municipal authorities, 
and Uie exhortations of Davit!, awaJEoncd no enthusiasm. The 
planters did not hasten lo the rendezvous, nor respond to the 
call to send provisions. Tlie Rebel quartennasterB and com- 
mifariee wore active in making forci<d levies, and tlie con- 
Kriptioii bureau was vigilant in bringing in reluctant recruits; 
but liofbre preparations for defending the city wore completed 
Uberman was thundorini; at the door. 




Wboii be saw the destituUoD, ho made aa appeal to the bu- 
matiitj of tlio people of tho North. Boston, New York, aud 
Philadelpiiia wero quick to rospoud. In Boston thirty thou- 
■and dollars wore contributed in four days, a stcamor chartered, 
loaded, and dospatchod on its errand of mercy. Tlio occasion 
being »o unuBual, I dcemod it worth while to visit SaTaunali, 
to bo an oyowituees of tbe roceplion of the timely aud muuifi- 
coat gift. 

Tho employment of the steamer Greyhound on such a mif* 
lion added to the intorest. Slie was a captured blockade* 
runner, built at Greenock, Scotland, in 18(><3, purposely to ruu 
the blockade. Sho made one trip into Wilmington, and wa« 
seized while attempting to oscape iVom that port. Id every 
timber, plfink, rivet, and brace was England's hatred of the 
Nortlt, support of ilio Souxh, and cupidity for tliomsclves ; but 
now she corriod i>caco and good-will, not only to the people of 
Savannah, but to men of OTory clime and lineage, race and 
nation. Tho Greyhound speeding her way wa^ a typo and 
symbol of the American Republic, freighted with the world's 
best hopes, and sailing proudly forward to tho fUturo cen- 

Among the passengers on board at the time of her capture 
was Miss Belle Boyd, of notoriety as a spy, — bold, vonturs- 
some, and dashing, unscrupulous, bitter in licr hatred of tbe 
Tankecs, regardless of truth or honor, if sho could but serve 
the Rebels. She was of great scrvico to tlicm in the Shenan- 
doah. Being within tho Union lines, sho obtained information 
which on several occasions cimlilcd Jackson to make those sud- 
den dashes which gave Inni his early faiue. 

It was nearly dark on i^aturday evculug, January 14th, when 
ft the Greyhound discharged her pilot off Boston Light. The 

I weatlicr was thick, the wind southeast, but during tho night it 

I changed to tho northwest aud blow a gale. The cold was intense. 

B Sunday morning found us in Holmes's Uolo, covered with ice. 

I At noon tho gale abated, and wc ran swiftly across the Vineyard 

■ Sound, shaping our course for Hattoras. OfT Charleston we 

I passed through tho blockading tloci, wiiicU wns gayly dcco- 

I rated in honor of tlio taking of Fort Fisher. Tho Rebel flag 

^ was floating defiantly over Sumter. On Thursday ovouiug wc 

■^_ . 


THr BOYS or "M. 


dropped anclior oQ I*ort Ro^&l, where a halMaf was lost !& 
ohtaininK permission from Lhe custom-bouBe to proceed to 
Savannah. The obstrucUoua in Saveuuiah Rivor made it ne- 
cessary to entor Warsaw Sound aiid go up Wilmington Rivor. 
With a colored pilot, — the only one obtainable, rocommoudod 
bf the Ilurbor-Miistor of Hilton Dead, — the Grejliound put to 
sea once more, ran down the coBBt, and ou Sunday morning eu- 
ttired tlio Sound. Our pilot professed to know all the crooki 
and turns of tho river, but suddenly wo found uur«elvo9 faat od 
a mud-bauk. It was ebb-tide, and ttio iucumiiig flood floated 
us again. Tlion the engines refused lu work, the pumps having 
bcCDUio foul, and tlio anchor was dropped just iu season to sav« 
the steamer from drifting broadijido upon a sandbar. It wu 
t«n miles to Tlmnderbolt Battery. The captain of a pilot-boat 
was kind enough to send Messrs. Briggs and Baldwin, of the 
committee of tho citizens of Boston in charge of the suppliet, 
Mr. Qliddcn, of tho firm owning the Greyhound, and the 
writer, up to that point. Wo lauded, and stood where the 
Rebels haid made sad havoc of what was once a pleasant Tillage. 
Some Iowa soldiers, on seediest horses and sorriest mules, were 
riding round on a frolic. Shiftless, long-hairod, red-eyed meu 
and womeu, lounging about, dressed in coarsest bomespau, 
stared at us. A score of horses atid mules wore in sight, and 
h'-ce were collected old carts, wagons, and carriages which 
tihorman's boys had brought from tlie iuteriur. 

^ We want to get a horse and wagon to lake us to Sarab- 
aah," said one of tho party to a little old man, standing at 
the door of a houso. 

'* Wal, 1 reckon ye can take any one of these yere," he said, 
pointing to tho horses and mules. Such animals! Ringboaed, 
spavined, knock-kncod, wall-eyed, sore-backed, — mere hide* 
and bonos, some of them too weak to stand, others nnabl« 
to lio down on account of stiff joints. 

" How ftu> is it to Savannah ? " we asked of the reeidenta of 
the village. 

'* Three miles," said one. 

*'Two miles and a half, I reckon," said a second. 

** Three miles and three quarters," was the eetimace of • 
third pervott. 




A woman, dressed in a plaid petticoat, a suuff-colored luiaay 
woolsej tunic, villi a tawny countenance, black hair, and flash- 
ing black eyes, smoking a pipe, said : " I '11 tell yer liow flir H 
t>e. Savannah be a rrying-pan and TlmudorUolt be the handle, 
and I live on tlic oeiid on it. It Iw four miles long, lacHj." 

Two colored soldiers rode up, both on one horse, with "55" 
on tlioir caps. 

" What regiment do you belong to ? " 

"Tlio Fifty- PilUi Massachusetts.'* 

Their camp was a milo or so up rivor. A stoambnat captain, 
who wished to conunuiucnt« with tlio quartermaster, came up 
stream in his boat and kindly offered to take us to tlio Fiflj* 
FiAh. It began to ruin, and we landed near a &no old mansion 
nuTOUiided by live-oaks, their gnarled branches draped with 
festoons of moss, where we thought to find accommodations for 
tlie night ; but no one answered our ringing. The doors were 
open, the windows smaehod in; marble mantels, of elaborate 
workmanship, marred and dofaced ; the walls written over with 
doggerel. There wera hunks in the parlors, broken crockery, 
old boots, — cUMs everywhere. 

The conunittee took possesEiou of the premises and made 
tliemselves at home before a roaring fire, while ilio writer went 
out upon a reconnoissoiice, bringing back tlie intelligence tJiat 
tlio camp of tlie Fidy-Piflh was a milo farther up the river. It 
was dark when wc reached the hospitable shnnty of fjioutcnant- 
Colonel Fox, who, in the absence of Colonel flartweU, wai« 
commanding the regiment, which had been there but twenty- 
four hours. The soldiers Imd no tents. 

One of the committee rode into Savannah, through a drench- 
ing rain, to report to General Grovor. The niglit camo on 
tliick and dark. The rain was pouring in torrents. Colonel 
Fox, with groat kindness, ofierud to escort us to a houae near 
by, where we could Bnd shelter. We splashed through the mud, 
holding on to oacli other's coat-tails, going over boots in muddy 
water, tumbling over logs, losing our way, being scratched by 
brambles, foiling into ditches, bringing up agunst trees, halting 
at length against a fence, — following which we reached th^ 
house. The owner had fled, and the occupant luul moved in 
because it was a free country and tlie place was inviting. Ho 




bad no bed for ua, bnt quickly kindled a fire in one of the 
chambcra and spread somo quilu upon tho floor. ** I havo n't 
much wood, but I reckon I can pick up somctliittg tliat will 
make a fire," said he. Hicn camo tho pitch-piuo s^tstvea of m 
rico-cask ; thon a bedstead, a broken clioir, a wooden flowor 


Tlio morning dawned bright and clear. General Grovor 
» out horses for ua, aud so we reached tho cit]- after mauf 
vexatious dolajs and rough oz])oricnces. 

Tlio people in Sarannah gouerally wore ready to live once 
more in the Union. TIio fire of Secession hod died oul. 
Tliero was not much sourness, — less even than I saw at Mem- 
phis when that city foil into our hands, less than was numl^ 
festod in Ijouisville at tho beginning of tho war. 

At a mooting of tho citizens resolutions expressiTo of grati- 
tude for the charity bestowed by Boston, New York, and Phfl- 
adolphia wore passed, also of a desire for future fellowihip 
aud amity. 

A store at the corner of Bay and Barnard Streets was taken 
for a depot, tho city canvassed, and a registry made of all 
wliu were in want. I passed a morning among tho people who 
came for food. Tlie air was keen. Ico Imd formed in the 
gutters, and somo of tlio jolly young negroes, who had pro- 
ridod tlicm.'iolros with old shoes aud boots from tho cam|>- 
grouuds of Sliorman's soldiers, were ciguyuig tho luxurious 
parUme of a slide on tho iuc. The barefooted cuddled under 
tlio sunny side of the buildings. There was a motely crowd. 
ITtuidrcds of both sexes, all ages, sizes, complexions, and cos- 
liimos ; gray-haired old men of Anglo-Saxon blood, with bags, 
liottles, and baskets ; colored patriarchs, who hod been in bond- 
age many years, suddenly mode fhjemon ; well-dressed women 
wearing crape for their husbands and sons who liad fUlen 
while fighting against tlio old flag, stood patiently wailing their 
turn to enter the building, whore through tho open doore 
tlKy could see barrels of flour, pork, beans, and piles of bacoL, 
hogsheads of sugar, molasses, and rincgor. There woro wo- 
men with tattered dresses, — old silks and satins, years before 
In fashion, and laid aside as useless, but which now hod b^ 
come valuable through dcstitntioD. 




There wera wumon in liusey-'woolsoy, iii uegro and gunaf 
olotb, ill ganoontti mado from meal-bi^p, and uea in Coufed* 
erato graj and butternut brown ; a boy with a crimsOD phish 
jacket, mado from the uphobterUig of a sofa ; men in ehort jack- 
eta, and littlo boye in long ones ; tho caat-off clothes of aoldien ; 
tlio rags vhich had been picked up in tlio streete, and exhumed 
froai garrets ; boots and shoes down at the heel, open at the 
instep, and gaping at tho toes ; old bonnets of eveiy descrip- 
tiou, some with white and crimson feathers, and ribbons onco 
bright and flaunting ; hal« of OTery style worn by both sezea, 
palm-lear, foU, straw, old and battered and well ventilated. 
One witliout a crown was worn by a man with red hur, sug- 
gestive of a chimney on fire, and flaming out at the top! It 
was tho ragman's jubilee for charity. 

One of the tickets issued by the city authorities, in the band 
of a woman waiting her turn at the cotmter, road thui : — 

IS lU. Flour, 
7 " Bacon, 
t " Salt, 
» qU. Vinegv." 

AndersonriDo, Belle Islo, Libbj Prison, Hillou, and Salia* 
bury will forever stand in suggestive contrast to lliis Oitj Stort 
in Savanuah, furnished by the (ree-viU ofiering of the loyal 
people of the North. 

" At Libby," reads the report of tho United States Sanitary 
Committee, " a process of slow starratioa was carried on. 
Tho corn-bread was of the roughest and coarscbt description. 
Portions of tlie cob and husk wore oftoii found grated in with 
the meal. Tho crust wat> so thick and hard tliai the prisoiien 
called it ' iron clad.' To render tlie broad eatable they grated 
it, and made mush of it; but tlio crust they could not grate. 
Now and then, after long intervals, often of many weeks, a 
Uttlo moat was given them, perhaps two or three mouthf^ili). 
At a later period they received a pint of black peas, with some 
vinegar, ovory week ; tho peas were often f\ill of worms, or 
maggots in a chrysalis state, which, when they made soup. 

Boated on tho surface But tho most unacooniilablb 

and shameful act of all was yet to come- Shortly after thii 


THE M>TS OF '«1. 


general diminntion of rations, in the month of January, tbe 
iioxes (sent bj friencU in the NortJi to the prisoners), which 
(•afore had been r^ularl^ doliTered, and in good order, were 
vithheld. No reason was given. Three hundred arriTed every 
week, and were received by Colonel Ould, Conunisrioner <rf 
Exchange ; but instead of being distributed, they were retained 
and piled up iu warehouses near by, in full sight of the tauta- 
liied and hungry captives."* 

Wliile these supplies were being distributed to the people ol 
Savannah, thir^ thonsacd Union prieooers in the hands of the 
Rebels in Southwestern Georgia wore starving to death, — not 
from a scarcity of food, but in accordance with a delibemtely 
formed plan to render ihctn unfit for future service in the 
Union ranks by their inhuman treatment, should they live to 
be exchangod. 

What a page of darkness for the future Ktstorion ! 

On the otlicr hand, tlio Rebel prisoners in the North received 
Invariably the same rations, in quality and quantity, given 
to the Union soldiers in the field, with ample clothing, fuel, 
and sholtcr. fkt unexceptional wus their troiilmenl, that ainoe 
the war a Soutliom writer, desirous of removing tlie load of 
infamy resting upon the South, has advertised for statements 
of unkind tnsatment in Northern prisons !f 

Of the treatment of Union soldiers iu the Southern prisons 
the United States Sanitary Commission says: — 

"The prisonere wer« nlmoil invHriMbly robbed of everything vftluabl* 
m their po»eessioD ; nometimes on tbe Held, at ihe instant of eaptnrei 
WDietiniM by ibe priion authorities, in u qua'«i-offlcia1 way, witfa the 
promise of return when exchanged ov puroled, but which promise was 
never fulfilled. 'Fliiii robbery Hmountvd ofiun to a stripping of the por- 
•OD of eron nt'CCSMiry clothing. Blnnkcls utd ovt-rvoatA were atnunl 
always taken, and aometimos other articltis ; in wliicli case damaged 
ones were roluniod in their gtend. Tbix preliminary over, the citptivcf 
were ti»ken tn prJBon." 

At the trial of Wins, tlie oommaiidaiit of Aiidersonville, Dr. 
John 0. Bates, a surgeon of tlic Robol service, testified as 
follows: — 

* R«pon of Ihe Uolced Sum Sudtarj CommlHlon 
t Bm Uw iVatcimia, New Fork. 




* H^ atlantkni wai called to t patient in mj ward wbo WM ontf 
flfteen or sixteen ^e&nt of r^ I took much interest in him, owing to 
tuB yoQlh He would ask me to briitg btm a potato, bread, or biscuit, 
which I did. X pat them in my pocket He bad Kurvy and gangrene. 
I adriaed him not to cook Urn potato, but to eat it raw. He becama 
moni and muru omaclatcd, hid Bores gaugreined, and for want of food, 
and froin lice, be died. I underBl4>oc] thai it was H(^iiiH( orders to take 
anythiog in to the priBonors, and lienoe I was shj in slipping food into 
my pocketi. Otben ia the wurd came to their death from the MiDfi 
catuei. When I went there, there wore two thoQAand or two thouaand 
five hundred sick. I judge twenty or tweniy-five thousand [leraoni 
were crowded together. Some had made holes and burrows in the 
earth. ' Thoie onder Uie sheds were doing compamtiroly well I law 
but little shelter, excepting what ingenuity bad devised. I found them 
•uSeritig with icurry, drop<iy, diarrhoea, gangrene, pneumonia. And other 
dueafieft. Wfaeu pHwnerei died, they were hiid in waf^ns, head fore- 
most, to be carried off. I don't know how they were buried. The 
•fflnvia from the hospital was very offensive. If hj aoodent my hatid 
was abraded, I would not go into the hospital without putting a plaster 
over the affected part If pernom whotie lystenu were reduced by 
Inanition should by chance stump a toe or «crai«h the hand, the next 
report to me was gangruue, so potent was the regular ho«pilal gangren& 
Thu prinouere were cuore thickly oontluod in the stockade, — like aots 
and b«ca. Do^s were kept to hunt down the pri.«3ner8 who escaped. 
Fifty yfr cent of those who died might bave beon saved tiad the patienta 
been |>rn|KirIy cared for. Tlie effect of Ibo treatment of the prisontr* 
was. morally as well u phyttieally, injurious. There was mach stealing 
among them. All lived each for hiinseir. T suppose this was super 
induced by their starving condition, Seeing the dying condiiioD of some 
of thorn, I remarked to my student, ' I can't resusciiaio them ; the 
weather is chilling; it b a matter of impoiu;ibiUty.' I found persooi 
lyin{j dead nonwitimM among the living. Thinkin:; they merely tdept, 
I went to waK^ them up and found ihey had taken their everlaaCing 
sleep. This wiu in the ho^pitat. I judge it vfod ai)out ihe same in the 
stockade. There being no dead-houM, 1 erectvd a tent for tlie purpose, 
but I soon found that a blanket or quilt had been clipped off the canvaA i 
and as the material could not be readily sujiplied, the dead-house war 
abandoned. I don't think any more dcad-houw^ were ercct«d. Th« 
daily ration was lass in September, October, Novr-mbor, and December 
than it was from Lbe Ist of January to the 2C)th of March. The mei 
liad not over twenty ounces of food in the twenty-four honrs." 

The prison at AndorsottTilU was established b Januaij, 




18&4, and ww ueed a little moro tiiau a year. It was iu tht 
form of a quadrangle, 1,2{J''J feet long, 865 feet wide. A 6mali 
ttream, miiig from uoigliWoriug epriugs, flowed tlirougb the 
grounds. WiLltin tlio encloi^uro, scvcutoea foot from the stock- 
atlo, tho dcad-tiuD w&a C9tabtii>liod, marked bj email posts, to 
which a shght tttrip of board was uailod. Upou the iimer 
Ktockade wero fifty-two seulry-Wxett, In which th« guards 
>t*x>d with loaded muskets ; wliilo orerlookiug the eucloBure 
were several forts, with field artillery iu posttioD, to pour grape 
aud cuiiister upon the perishiug men at the Urst ngn of iiuiur- 

Uiss Clara Bartou, tho heroic aud teudor-hearted womaa 
who, iu tlio employ of govunuuLMtt, risited this cliariiel-houM 
to idontifj Oio graves of Iho victims, thus reports: — 

** Under the mott fiivonble circiimsUutoei luid bwt possible tOMDafe- 
tubat the au\ip\y of water would bave boeo icmufflcieiit lor half tlie num- 
ber of perMDS who tiad to use iL T\te oxisiing arrangQawnts musi 
bare aggnvated tbe evil to the utmoet exbeoL Tbe sole e»labliabm«DU 
for cooking anti baking were pUu^ on Ihe bank of the etr«>am immedi- 
atelj above and between the two inner hnrs of the pallisadK. The 
grease and refUae fWim ibem were found adbenog to the banks al lbs 
time of our visiL TIm guarO-s to (be number of three Ihotwaod six 
buodred, were prindpally encamped on the upper part of the stream, 
and when the iiea^'j' raio^t washed down the hillsides covered with thir- 
ty ihoiiMuid buman beings, and tlie outlet below failed to discharge the 
tuod which backed and Oiled the valley, the water must have b«conie 
so foul aiid loftibiome that every i^talaoMat I have seen of its oOenslve- 
Bcte muftt fall ihurt of the rcaUty ; ud yet witluo rifle-sbol of tbe prisoo 
flowed a vtroam, fillMtn feet wido and three ft«t derp, of pure, delicious 
water. Had the priftoo been placed som to include a section ot ' 8waM 
Water Creek,' tbe inmates nugbt have drank and bathed to tbeir bearu' 
oouleoL** * 

Tho prisoners had uo shelter from tho fierce Bim of summer, 
the [>elciug autumu rains, or tlie oold of winter, oxcept a few 
tattered tents. Thousands wero doetituta of blankets. For 
refuge they dug bxirrows iu the ground. 

Ui&% Barton says : — 

** Tba bttJs oaves are scooped out and arched b the form ot oveoa. 

• Uii* Bu-u>a'( Bepori. 




floored, ceiled, ud Btrenglhened, so far &» the ownen hiid meims, with 
■ticks •[><) pi«c<!« of Iwurd, nad t<oiii« of tti«m are provided with flrfr 
plaoM uid chimDeji. It would leem ttwt there were csmb, during lli« 
long rajna, where the hoiwe would bceomo ihe gmre of iU owner bj 
fidjing upOD liim in the nighL .... During thirK'-^'n long moalht ihcj 
kD«w neither shelter nor protection from the cUuigeabtc skiea abov^ 

Dor the pitiless unfocUog carib beneath 

** Think of ihirt; IhouBaud men peuoodbf clow stockade upon twfotj- 
•ix acre* of ground, from which every tree and ahnih had been uprnoU 
ed for fuol to cook thvir ncanty food, huddled like cattle, without •belter 
K blauket, half clad and hangry, with the dew^ oigbl setting io after a 
day of antumn rain. The hilltop would not hold them all, the valley 
waa 611ed by the iwollon brook. SereDteen feet from the ttoc^aiie ran 
the fatal dud-Uoe, beyond wbivh no uiau might ttef and lire. Wba< 
did they do P I need not ask wherQ did ttiey go, for on the ttee of the 
whole earth there waa no place bat thig for them. But where did they 
place tbemBelrea ? How did they tiro ? Ay I how did they die ? " 

Twelve thouEaud nine huDdred aud uiuoty graves are uvua- 
besvd au Uie nuigli boring liillside, — thu elarved aud murdered 
of thirteen muuLlis, — one tbousaod per moiitb, liiirty-throe per 
day 1 Murdered by Jeff Daris, Bobert £. Lee, Jameti Seddoo, 
and Juhii C. Breokenridgu ! Murdered uudor official Kauctioo, 
in acuurdauce with j>rx.>mtiditated Uu^igii. Davis, Luu, Suddun, 
and Breokeuridge may not have issued ordon to starve liie j)ri»- 
(jiiere ; but if cogiiizuitt of any inhutuaiiity, it was la tiio povrer 
o( Davis to stop it, atid of IjOO, ait comtuaiidor-iii-cliiof of ibe 
army, as also of Sodden, aud aAor bim Brockonridge, secratuieii 
of war. A word from oitlior of tbeee officials would have se- 
cured bumaDQ troatjuout. 

Ooneral Loo is bolovcd by the Soathem people for his ami- 
ability, his gcittlcucsa aud goneroaity, as well as hie uusoIQbL 
devotiou to the cause of Secession. But the bistoriaa will 
doubtlesB keep in miud that to be amiable is to b« worthy of 
esteem and confidence. Those who bare cfpoused the cause 
of the Union caimot diiicover much amiability in one who re- 
mained in the service of the gover. mant as the ooulidant of the 
oommandur-in-diief of Uil' army of tlio United States till hostili- 
ties were commenced, and tbun, tlirce days after hitj resignation, 
accepted Uie command of the Rebel forcee in Virginia. Fori 




Sumt«r was firod upon April 12, IHiil. Ooiiaral Lee resigned 
his coininisftion in tho 8(.*rvicc of the United HiAieB on the 
19tti, and on tlio 22d took command of Robe] troops at Rich- 
mond. T3io State 1 1 ad not then seceded. Tho ordinance of Se- 
cession was passed hy ttio convention on tho 17th of the same 
montli, to bo rabmittcd to popular vote for rnUficAtton on tho 
tliird TuoBday of May. Without waiting for the action of tho 
pooplu of his State, Oc3icml locc Issued hi» military orders and 
waged war against tho United States. 

Tho future historian will not overlook tlio ^ct that General 
[jOo, if not iB»uing direct ordoni foi* the .starr.ition of Union pri» 
oiiere, made no remoustranco tho hnrliariticit of Aiidor- 
funrillo, or of the course token to dohaucli tlic [uitriotism of tlie 
Uniou soldiers. Jl was promisud thai wlioonir would acknowl- 
edge alli^aucc to tho Confederacy, or coiisont to make shoes 
or haracBS or clothing for tho ReUsla, should have the prinlege 
of going out from tho stockade, and fmding comfortable quar- 
ters and plenty of food and clothing. Tlius tempted, some 
fhlterod, while otherfi died rather than be rcloasod on such 
terms, preferring, in tlieir love for the flag, to bo Uirown like 
logB into the dcod-cart, and tumbled into the shallow tronchea 
on tho hiUaido I 

Among ttio priBonors was a lad who pined for his far-off 
Northern homo. Olleu his boyish heart wont out lovingly to 
hie father and mother and fair-lmircd sister. How could ho 
die hi that prison ! How close his oyos on all tho bright ye&rr 
of tho future ! Dow lie dowiL in death in that loatlisomo plaoe^ 
when, hy taking iho oath of allegiance to tho Southern Con* 
feAicriicy, ho could obtain frcudomV His comrades wore dying. 
Every day tho dead-cart came and bore ihem away by fworos and 
hundreds. Wliat a sight their Rtuny oycs, sunken cheeks, and 
swaying lunbs! Around liini was u crowd of living tikolotons. 

*' Take tho oath and you shall livo," said tho tempter. What 
b trial ! Life was sweet. All thai a nmn hath will ho giro for 
his life. How blessed if ho could but hear once more tho voice 
of his mother, or grasp af-,ain a father's hand I What wonder 
that hunger, despair, and death, and tho example of some ot 
bis comrades, made him weakly licsitate ? 

Too feeble to walk or to stand, ho crawled away from the 




dtfing ood the dead, over the ground reeking with filth. H« 
hid almost reached the gate beyond which werd life aiid libertj. 
A. comrade, stronger and older, suspected his purpose. Tlu^>ugh 
the long, weary monttiK this bravo soldier had solaced his heart 
by taking at times from liis bosom a little flag, — the stars aud 
stripes, — adoring it as the most sacred of all earthly things. 
He held it before the boy. It was thu flag ho loved. He had 
Bwom to support it,— never to forsuke it. lie had stood b^ 
OMtfa it in the fjorco conilict, quailing not when the death* 
Itwrn was t]iicko<<t. Tears dimmed his eyes as he beheld it 
ouoc more. Trumbtlugly he grasped it with his skeleton ^• 
gOEV, kissed it, laid it ou his heart, aud cried, " Ood help mo! 
I oan't turn my back upou it. comrade, I am dying ; but I 
vaat you, if over you get out of tUie horrible place, to tell mj 
motbor that I stood by tlie old fUg to flie last!" 

And tlien, with the flag ho tuved lyiug ou his heart, he closed 
his eyes, and his soul passed on to receive that reward which 
awaits those to whom duty is greater titau life. 

" On Fnme> eWmai camping-ground 
Tlieir ailent teuU are ipreAd, 
And GI017 {^uartls, with >olenin round. 
The biv-ouac of the dewl." 

This is the contrast between Christian charity and barbano 
hate, — not that all the people of the South were inhuman, or 
that men there are by nature more wicked than all others ; but 
the barbarity was the legitimate outgrowth of slavery. 

The armies of the South foiight bravely and devotedly to 
establish a Confederacy with slavery for its comor-«tono ; but 
not their valor, sacriBcc, and endurance, not Stonewall Jack- 
son's religious enthusiasm or intrepidity, not I^ee's militar7 
eiploitfl, can avail to hlot the horrors of AndersonTille from 
the liistoric record. Their cause 

** Hatb Ui« priiiul, e1<l«ft cotm upoa it* 
A brother*! marder." 




" II is a dream, sir, — a droam! Toara like 1 doii*t know 
whore I am. When Gonoral Hliormau como aiid said wo wera 
free, I did ii't botiovo it, and 1 would n*t bolicve it till the min- 
Uter (Rev. Mr. French) told us that wo wore free. It don't 
seem aa if I was free, sir." She Looked into the fire a moment, 
and sat as if Ijx a droam, but roiii>ed horsolf as I said, — 

" Yob, you are free." 

" But that dou't give mo back mj childrou, — my childroo, 
Uiat I brought fortli with pains Euch as white women have, — 
that liaro boon toru from my breast, and sold from mo; and 
when I cried for them was tied up and had my bock cut to 
piooes ! '* 

Slie stopped talkiog to me, raised her eyes at* if tookiiig 
into heaven, — reached up her bauds imploringly, and oitod 
in agony,— 

" Lord Jesus, have mercy 1 How long, Lord ? Oomo, 
Jesus, and help mo. Tears like I can't boar it, door Jjord. 
They is all taken IVom mo, Lord. 'Pears like as if my heart 
would hroak. blessed Jesus, they say ihat I am froo, but 
whore are my cliildron ! — my children ! — my children ! " 

Her hands fell, — tears rolled down her chocks. She bowod 
her head, and sat moaning, wailing, and sobbing. 

" Tou would n't boliero me," said Aunt Nellie, speaking to 
ber. " You said Ihat tlioro was nu use in praying for dell^ 
erance ; that it was no use to trust God, — ttial he had for- 
gott«n us ! " 

She rose and aj)proaclicd her sister, evldontly to call her 
mind ttom the terrible reality of the post. " You used to 
oome in hero and go worry, worry, worry all day and all 
night, and say it was no ubo; tliatyou might as well die; that 
you would be a groat deal hotter off if you wore dead. You 
would n't boliovo mo when I said that ttio Lord would give de- 
liverance. You would n't believe that the Lord was good ; but 
just BOO what he has done for you, — made y'>u free. Aren't 
you willing to trust liim now ? " 

The sister made no reply, but sat wiping away her tears, and 
■ig^iug over the fate of her children. 

" Did you not foci sometimes like rising against your nu»- 
lers 7 " I asked of the Imshand. 




'* Well, sir, I did feejil hard somotimoa, and I reckon that if it 
had u*t beuu for Uio gracu vtucli Josua gave us wo should have 
doae bo; but Uo had compa&siou ou us, and holpod us to b«ar 
it. Wa kuow that he would hear xis somotimo." 

" Did jou ever try to escape ? *' 

" No, ar. I was ouce interested in colonlzatiou, and talkeo 
of going to Africa, — of buriug mjsolf, aiid go lliore and be 
(t^. B«t. Mr. Qurlo}* came here and gave a lecture. Be 
was the agent of the Colonization Society, 1 reckon ; but just 
then there was so much excitement among the slaves about it, 
that oMT masters put a stop to it." 

" The good people of Iloston are heaping coals of fire on tbo 
heads of the slaveholders and Rebels/' said Aunt KoUie. 

"How 90?" I asked. 

" Why, as soon as General Sherman took possoseion of the 
city, you send dowu ship-loads of prorisiooB to them. They 
hare fought you with all their might, and you whip them, and 
then go to feeding them." 

" I 'spect you intended that black and white folks should 
hare tliem alike," said her sister. 

" Yes, that was the intention." 

** Not a moutJiAil have I had. I am as poor as white fblks. 
All my life I liavo worked for them. I have given them houses 
and lands ; tlicy bare mdo in their dno carriages, sat in ihoir 
nice parlors, taken voyages over the waters, and had money 
enough, wliieh 1 and my people earned for Uiem. 1 have had 
my back cut up. 1 have boeu soot to jail twcauso I cried for 
my cliildrou, which wore stoleu from mo. I havo been stripped 
of my clothing, exposed lieforo men. My daughters hare been 
compelled to break Qod*s commandment. — they could n't help 
themselves, — I could n't help them ; white men have done 
with us just as tliey pleased. Now Uiey turn me out of my poof 
old cabin, and say they own it. dour Jei^us, liolji me I " 

" Come, come, sister, don't take on ; but you just give thanks 
for what the Lord has done for you," said Aunt Nellie. 

Her sister rose, stately as a queen, and said, — 

" I thank you, sir, .'or your kind words to me to-night. I 
thank all the good people in the North for what they have doo* 
for me and my people. The good Lord be with you." 



THE BOYS or •«!. 


Ab shti and her liusbond lofl the room, Aunt NoUle said, — 
" Poor girl ! sbe can't forgot her children. She 'b criod for 

theoQ day and uight." 

N'over till then liad I felt the (\ill forcd of Whittier's buminc 

ham; — 

" A groan frxMU EutaM'g liaunCed wcn>], — 
A wail wbwe Cumlen'f martyn fcU, — 
Bj erery duios of patriot bluKxl. 
FtoiD Moultrie^ mil uml JwfN'r'a mil I 

By itoriet] hill uid Wlowed grot. 
By moMy woo<l uid nuimhy gLon, 
Whcncti rang of old the ril]e-«hot. 
Anil Liiinying jilinut of MArinn't toKb, 
The grci&n of breaking heart* i» tli«r«,— ■ 
Tb« fklling laib. the rett«r'i claok I 
Siatitt, 0LATX« Mia brvatiiing in that air 
Wlich old Du Kalb and Sutnt«r drank I 

What, hoi our muntryinen m rbaitia! 
Tb« whip on woman's alirinktng Acah ! 
Our Mil yet reddentog wicb tbe bImob 
Cau|;ht Iroui hr-T •cour^iiif^, wnnn iukI ftnab I 
Wbot! motben from tbvir cbildren nvea I 
Wbatt GodV owu iai»g« bought and »ldl 
AcKtricana to market drivBti, 
And bart«r«d, u the brute, (br gold I " 

The uight of tho 28lh of January was a fcarftil ono in Hvna- 
uah. Tho inbahitaDtti experioacod all tho torror of a bombard 
mout combinod with tho horror of a groat cotiflagratiou. A fire 
broke out a little bcforo midjiight in a long row of wooden build- 
IngB at the west end of the city. Tlie wuid was fresh from the 
northwest, and the uight oxcoediiigly cold. My rooms were in 
the Puhulii House. I was awakened by a tcudden exptotiioni 
which jarred tlie house, and heard the cry that the arsenal waa 
on fire. 

Tliere was anothor explosion, — then a volley of sheila, and 
large fragments came whirring through the air, striking the 
walls, or falling with a heavy plunge into the street. 

" There are throe thousand shells in tlie building," said • 
soldier running past, fleeing as if for his life. 

" There are fifty tons of powder, which will go ofl" proeently," 
•ud another, in breathless haste. Fifty tons of powder! Savui. 




nab would be racked to its foundations ! Tliere would be ■ 
general crmobling of walla. Men, women, and ctiildron were 
ruuniug, — crying, and in fear of being cnislied bencatb the 
ruins of falliug buildings. 

It was ttio Rel>ol arsenal. I could not believe that the BebeU 
would store &fij tons of powder in the city, and waited for tho 
gcDorol explosion. It did not come. Gradually I worked my 
way, under the shelter of buildings, towards the fire. The fir* 
engines wore deserted, and the fire was ba-ring it« own way, 
licking up the buildings, one after another, remorselessly. 

It wag ft gorgeous fight, — the flames leaping high in air, 
thrown np in columns by the ihirtccn-inch shells, filling the air 
with burning timbers, cinders, and myriads of sparks. Tlie 
streets wore filled with fugitives. The hospitals were being 
cleared of sick and wounded, tho housoa of furniture. 

It was grand, but terrible. General Grover at once took 
measures to arrest the progres.'! of tho flames, by tearing down 
buildings, and bringing up several repments, which, with the 
dtizcns and negroes, succeeded in mastering the destroying 

In the momiug there was a witdemcss of chimneys, and the 
streets were strowu with furmturo. 

It was amusing to see with what good humor and rumchalanct 
the colored people and the soldiers regarded tho conflagration. 

Two negro women passed me, carrying great bundles on 
their beads. 

" I 's clean burned out," said one. 

" So is I " ; and they both laughed as if it was very ftumy. 

** Ijet 'em bum : who cares ? " said one soldier. " They 
have fought us, and now lot 'em suflxir." 

** Wc liavo got to do guard duty, and it is a little more coiii- 
fortable to be quartered In a house than to sleep in a shehcr- 
tent, so lot us save the place," said another; and the two went 
to work ttith a will to subdue the flames. 

General Sherman's Special Held Order No. 15, dated Janu- 
ary 16, 18i3o, permitted the frccdnien to take possession of the 
abandoned lands. A meeting — called by General Sozton, 
who had been appointed In.s[>ector — was 'btM in tlie Second 


THE BOYS OP 'fll. 


AOicaii BaptUt Clittrch, a largo Imiltling, vliicli was crovded 
to its iitmoBt capacity hy tlic colored people. It was Uie firvt 
mooting ovor hold in HaTaiinab liaving in view tlie ozclusiva 
iotoreetfi of Uie colored pooplo 

Tlie organist was playing a voluntary when I entered the 
clmrcli, Uo was a free colored man, a native of Cliarlos- 
ton, having a bullotrtrliapcil Itoad, l)nglit, sparkling eyes, and 
a pleasant voice. He had lirod in Savannah uiuo yeara, and wai 
a musio-toachor, — giving instruction on Uio violin, piauo-forte, 
and organ, also vocal music, to portiODS of his own race. He 
was in the habit of putting in clandestinely eomo of tlio rudi- 
ments of the EagliBh language, although it wae againet the 
peace and dignity of the State. He dared to open a school, 
and taught in secret in tlie evening ; hut a policeman disooT- 
ered tliai he was au Inoeudiary, and he was compelled to l>ide 
tQl the matter was forgotten. 

When the voluntary was completed, the choir euug Bev. Mr. 
Smith's American hymn,— 

" Mjr country, 'I ia of Ihee, 

Sweel Uiid of lib«rt]r, 
or tbee I Bing." 

Their country! Their liberty ! Tlie words were uo loug«r 

Py roqiii-at of (lonoral Saxton, tliey al»o sang Bishop H&- 
b«r's Missionary hymn, — 

■* FroDi Ot'oenlancr* icy idoudUlIim, 

Protii Imlia'i (.-oral strnnJ, 
Wluru Afrio'B lunay fountain* 

Boll down their golden tand. 
From miiny an luicicnt river, 

From iiuutjr • pkloijr plsb, 
They call aa to deliver 

Their land Tron) prror't chjuu.* 

Gooeral Raxton addressed thcra. 

" I hare como to toll you what tlie President of the United 
States tuis done for you," said ho. 

" Ood bless Massa lankum ! " was the re^MHlw of a thoa- 
•and voices. 

"Youaroall free." 

"Glory to Qod! Hollelt^ahl Amen!" they shouted In 
tumultuous chorus. 


Bonru » SAVAimAH. 


He explained the cause of the wvr: how the Rebela fired 
upon tliQ flag, how thoj hatod freedom, and wished to por^ 
petoate slavoiy, which produced the war, that, in turn, under 
C3od'e proTidenoo, had made them free mou. Thej ware free, 
but they must labor to live. Their relations to their masters 
had all been changed. Tliey could go where the^ pleased, do 
what thej ploasod, provided thej did tltat which was right ; but 
tlte; had no claim upon their masters, — ttiej must work for 
themselves. All wealth came from the i^oil, and bf culdTaiiiig 
tlio ground thof could obtain food, and tlius iiicroaso thetr 
vealth. Uti rood and explained General Sherman's order, and 
told them of the advancement wliicli the frcodmea bad made 
at Beaufort. The; had comfortablu homes, their children were 
attending school, and the mou and womou had almost forgot' 
ten that the; bad boon slaves. Quo man had accumulate 
ten thousand dollars in four years ; anotlior was worth five 
thousand. Ho advised them to go upon tlio islands aiid take 
possofision of the abandoned lands, tie also advised tlie young 
and able-bodied to enlist in the service of the United States. 
Thof were citizens, and they must begin to do their part aa 
citizons. Tlio; wore ftoo, but Lliere was still some fighting to 
be done to secure their liberty. 

Bev. Mr. French also addruGsod them. 

^ Your IVuodom," said ho, " is the gill of Ood. The Pre»- 
tdent has proclaimed it, and the brave mou of Qenoral Sher- 
man's army hare brought it to you.*' 

" God bless Goneral Sherman ! Amen ! That 's so ! " were 
the enthusiastic responses. They clapped their bauds and 
gave expression to their joy in emphatic demonstration s. It 
was a strange sight, — a sea of turbaiiod heads iu the body of 
the house, occupied by tlie women, wearing brightest colored 
b&udkerchiofs, or bonnets witli flaming ribbons ; while aboTO, in 
the gollerios, were two sablo clouds of faces. Every window 
was filled by a joyous, enthusiastic crowd. 

" You are to show your late masters that you can take care 
of yourselves. If I were in your place T would go, if I had to 
live on roots and water, and take possession of the islands," 
•aid Mr. Froocb. 

** Yes, sir, dat is what we will do. We *re gwine." 


THE HOTS or n. 


** Shov your old mastors that you can work as hard to keep 
oat of slitvery as they did to keep you in boudugs. And you 
must haro but one witb, inatead of two or throe, as jou used 
10 do." 

Tlioro was a groat sontiatiou at this point, — an outburst of 
lau^tor ochoing and ro-echoing from floor to oeiUug. 1 wu 
utterly unablo to undcrstaud how the romark was received, but 
UiQ sable audience evideuUy looked upon it as a very fuuuy 
oflhir. The negro race liaa a quick aud natunU approciation 
of anything bordering u|>ou the ridiculous. Tliey boil over 
with uncoutrolluble merrimuut at a very small matter. 

** Treat your old masters wiib all respect ; bo generous and 
kind to them. This Is your day of rejoicing, aud they are 
drinking tliuir cup of sorrow. Do ihom good, — help tbem. 
Break off bad habito, — bo good citizens, truthl\il and honeat. 
Now, all of you who are ready to scratch for a living, — who 
are resolved to oaake your own way in the world, — hold up 
your hands." 

Up wont a thousand hands. 

" You owe your liberty to tlie mea of the North, to Presi- 
dent Lioooln, to the tiwusands who have died, — to Jesus 

Deep and solonm was the Amen, — a spwitanoous outburst 
of gratitude, welling up from their sympathetic and afToctionato 

A prayer was ofierod by Rev. Mr. Uouston, of the Tliird 
AfHcan Baptist Ohurch, It woa impassioned, fervent, and 
earnest, in which there were thanksgiving, confession of sin, 
and a pleading fur Qod's help. The President, the Union 
army, the Federal government, wore remembered. Be prayed 
also that God would bring the Reliels to see that they ought to 
lay down their arms and be at peace. 

Then in conclusion they sang the hymn, — 
" Eternal v« ihjr mflrcie*, Lord. 
EbtmaJ truth KtUnili thy word." 

Bow gloriously the grand old choral of Luther rang ! Old 
men sang, — tottering upon the verge of the grave, their heads 
white, their voiceo tremulous, their sight dim ; women with 
warre) backs sang, — who hod toiled unrequited in tlio maXor 


floKHBS nf SAVAmua 

rioiu rico-swomps, vho had pmycd iu duiigcous and prisonA, 
wlio had wept oiid moauud for thoir stolon babos, — for their 
husbandSf moogled and torn bj bloodhounds. But tliat was 
all of tho past. The day of jubiloo had dawned. Tliej had 
cried day and night, ** Lord, how long!" But now the/ 
had only thanks^ving and praise. 

AStoT tho meeting there was a general shaking of . ands- 
"BlesB de Lord for dis yore day." "May do good Ijord be 
wid you." '*! never 'spected to eoe dis yere day; but de 
praise belongs to do good Lord ; be be wid you, bruddor.'' 

Such wore tbe cuugmtulations. There were none of the 
whito people of Savaiiuah proBeut. Before the men of the 
West entered the city, such a gathering, even for relipoua 
worship, would havo been incendiary unless attended by white 
mra. But it was an inauguration of a new era, — a be^nning 
of tlie settlement of the question over whicti philanthropists, 
politioians, and stausmen had puzzled their philosophio brains: 
** What shall we do with them ? " 

Rot. Mr. Houston acoompaniod me to my room, and gare me 
a hiBtory of his life. He was forty-one years old, had always 
been a Blavo, and roceived his fVeedom at tJio hands of Gouerel 
Bbennau. Wlion a boy his mostor hired him out to tho Marine 
Hospital. Waiting upon tho sailors, ho had an opportunity to 
hoar a great doal about tho world. Tfaey had books and papers. 
He liad a desire to loaru to read, and tiioj, not having tho black 
laws of Georgia before their eyes, taught him his letters. Then 
obtaining a Bible, and other books, ho read witli great zeal. 
Ho wanted to be a preacher, and aflor examination by the Bap- 
tist Association, was ord^ed to preach by wliite men. He 
purcliasod his time before tho war, paying fiily dollars a month 
to his master, and became a prorision-doalor, yet preaching on 
Sundays. Ho leased tho lower story of a building fronting the 
market, where be sold his moat and where he lived. Above 
him, up two flights, was the slave-mart of Savannah. He used 
to go into the ooimtry, up tho railroad to tho oontre of the 
State, to purcliase cattlo, and became well acquainted with tlie 
planten. He heard their discussions on current aHairs, and 
thus received iuformatiou upon the politics of tbe country. He 
gave an account of the state of aifain, of opinions bold in th« 




North oud m tlie South at tlie time wliou Fremont wu a can- 
didate for tlte Presidunoj. 

" Wo knew that he was our fritiiid," said Mr. HouBtoo, " and 
we wanted lurn elected. Wo were rory much difiappointed ol 
the result of that olectiou ; but we kept hoping aud praying 
that Ood would haro mercy on us as a race." 

" Did your pooplo understand tlie (loiiitfi atiseue between Uia 
8outh and the North, when tho war begun ? " I asked. 

" Yes, eir, I think wo did. Wliou South Carolina fired oa 
Bumtor we understood ttuit tUc Nortli was fighting for tb« 
Duiou. The flag had been insulted, and wo thought that jou 
of the North would have spunk enough to resout tho insult. 
Those of us who could read the papers knew that the poiuta 
at issue reallj were between Freedom and Slavery.'' 

" What did you think when we were defeated at Manassas T 
Did you not despair 'i " 

** No, sir. I kuew that the North would not give in for ooo 
defeat. Some of our people were dowu-hoarleO. but I had 
faith in God, sir. I felt that the war must go ou till wo wwe 
made Iree. Besides, we prayod, sir! Tliore have been a great 
many prayers, sir, offered up from broken- hearted men aud 
Tomeu, — from negro cabins, not iu public, — for tho suooew 
of the North. They could uol offer such supprcationa at 
church ; thoy were offered to a Ood who sees iu secret, but 
who rewards openly. We are receiviug all wo ever asked for. 
Bless his holy name." 

" You have seen people sold in the market, I suppose V " 

** O yes, sir, thousands of them. 0, sir, it seems as if 1 now 
oouid hear tho groans aud crios of mothers and fathers ai Uiey 
marolie<i down tliose stairs out into Uie street iu gangs. — their 
cbaiiiH rattling and clanking ou the stairs. It was hell, sir ! 
The H'ailuigs of llio damned oau never bo more heartrrondiiig, 
as they were driven out, cryuig, ' Lord ! have mercy ! 
.nuna, don't ! don't ! my poor children ! ' " 

His oyos shone with a strange light. The muscles of his 
;hand^ ti^rlitonod. EJe arose and walked the room, wiped the 
t«ars from his eyes, but composing himself sat down, and said: 
** Iniquity was at ita height when the war b^an, aud it con- 
tinued till General .Sherman came. O, it was terrible ! lorri 



ble ! to 1)0 there in that room ou the lover floor, and see the 
hundreds taken out, — to see them uabbed in the streets, or 
takou from llioir bods at dead of iiigtit b; the shoriflT, and sold 
at onco ; for suico the war began white men have been obliged 
often to raise money suddenly, and slave property being eopo- 
cinUy iuBocuro, wo wore liable to be sold at any moment. Run- 
away stavoe were wliipjicd unmercifully. Lost summer I saw 
one recelro five hundred lashos out on tho Quif Railroad, bo 
cause he could n't give an accoxint of Iximself. Tho man who 
kept the slave-market lef\ Uie city wltli a largo number of slaves 
just before Sherman came, taking them South ; but he is back 
in tlio city. Bq is a bitter old Rebel." 

Mr. Houston and a party of froedmou hod iKten to Skidaway 
Island to lake possession of lands under Oeuoral Shermatt'o 
order, and oommonco a colony. 

They laid out a village, also farm lots of forty acres, .set aside 
ooe central lot fbr a cimrch, another for a ; thou 
placing uumbers iu a hat, made the allotment. It was I'lymoutli 
Colony repeating itself. Tliey agreed tliat if any others came 
to join them tlioy should have equal privileges. So the May- 
flower was blooming ou the islands of the Srniuth Atlantic! 

** We shall build our cabins and organize our town govoni- 
neut for tlie matutonauce uf order.'' ^aid Mr. Houston. 

" 1 told you that I hired my time of my master," tiaid he. 
*' My master hired my money, and when I asked him fur it be 
refused to pay me ; aud as I had no power before the law, I 
could not compel him, and have lost it. I have about five 
hundred hides, which I would like to send North. 1 want to 
purchase a portable saw-mill. We shall need lumber, — must 
have it to build our houses and our church." 

Such yt&B his plan. — iudicating a foresight which gave prom 
t4d of a prosperous future- 

Passing by a church, I saw tlio Boxtou, witli brush iu baud, 
sweeping the aisles. The edifice was a suUtauiial, ancient etruo- 
ture, with a mahogany pulpit of Ihu old style, a broad aisle, 
cbaudelier pendent from the orclied ri>of, fiUgroe and panel- 
work around thu galleries. Old and aristocratic families liad 
ut iu the cufebiooed pews, — men of vast wealth, owuiuy 




"Can you road and writo?" I askod. 

" A lilUe, sir. I iiover had any niic (o bUow mo, but 1 uiod 
to ait down hero in tlio pews mid tako up tlie hymu-book, and 
ipell out Uio words, and ono tiixy muHtor Bob sot me a copy 
In writiug, &ud so I have loanicd a iJttlo. 1 can read Uie 
nowB|japorB, sir, and have kept track of tho war." 

Upon the finit battle of AlanusBOS, tho ronhmilor campajgna 
Uio blowing up of tliu Morriniac, the battles of Aii;iotum, Gtjttyit- 
burg, Viok^l'urg, New Orluaiis, and Stionuou's campaign, Iw 
was woU informed. Ho had a brother who was fighting for tk« 

'* no ie a hrarc follow, and I know ho won't ehow tho white 
foathor," Raid ho. 

Wo tallied upon tho prospects of tho colored people now that 
thoy were fVoe. 

" I reckon, sir," said ho, " that a good many of *om will b« 
disapimititcd. They don't know what froodom is. But thoy 
will find that thoy have got to work, or olse thoy won't got any- 
tiling to eat. Tliey aro poor, ignorant oreaturos; but I rackoD, 
flir, that after a while, when thiiigH got settled, tliey will learn 
how to tako caro of themsolTca. Rut I think tlioy aro mighty 
foolish to cloar out and leave thoir old master?, wliou they can 
have good situations, and good pay, and Utllo (o do. Thon, 
dr, it iB kind of ungratoful like, to go away and loavo llicir old 
mastOFB when tho day of calamity comes. I could not do it, 
rir; beeidoB, I reckon I will bo bettor off to stay horo for tlie 
present, eir." 

i informod him tliat I vae from MasBaclmsetts. 

"I know something about MasBochusetts, and 1 reckon It la 
a mighty fine 8tate, flir. 1 liavo hoard you abuuid, and tho 
pooplu of Boston also. SaraJinalt pooplo Kaid hard UiiiigB abouL 
you: tliat you wcra aboUtionista, and wanted Uio ncqproes to 
ha^e equal priTileges with the white men. My father, whoa 
1 waa in Norfolk, undertook to get to MofiEtacliuscttB, but he 
wa^ hunted down tu the swamps and sold 8outb, away down 
to Alabama, and that is tlio tost I haro heard of him. I have 
always liked Mattsachueotte. I reckon you uro a liberal people 
ap thore. I hear you hare sout a sliip-load of proviaions to ui 
poor people." 



1 gave him informatiou upon tho suWjoct, and spoko of Mr. 
Grerott, who made a speech at tho meeting iu Faueuil Hall. 

" Mr. Everett ! I raofaoo I heard him talk about Oeooral 
Vaahmgtou odco horo, five or six years ago. Ue was a mighty 
fine speaker, air. The house vaa crowded" 

Tho sail was sotting, and the nexton had other dutiea. 
As I left the chorah, he satd: '*Gome round, sir, eomc afVr- 
noou, and 1 will take you up to the steeple, so that you can gel 
a flight of the dty^ and may be you play tlio organ. 1 love to 
hear rauaic, sir." 

How strangely this will read ftfly years honco ! The words 
•^ve, — matter^ — told, — hunted down, will make this prosent 
time seem on impossibility to thoEO who lire after us. Tbia 
MxtoD — a slaro — heard tho minister preach of tho loosing of 
Ibe bonds of the oppressed, and of doing unto othors as thej 
would be done by, yet he found in his own uxporicuco mtcb a 
Gospol a lie. Qitj bouds wore not Loosened ; and tho boys of 
the Sunday scltool, iho petted sous of Savannah, wont out from 
their aristocratic homes to perpetuate that He. At last through 
war Cftme dcliroranco ; and yet there was so much geutleuess in 
tite heart of this man, that in the day of calamity which camo 
to his master, when his sous one by one wore killed in their 
endeavors to sustain that lie ; vhcn hJi^ property disappeared 
like dew before the morning sun ; when his pride waa humili- 
ated ; when his daughters, who were expectants of immonM 
fortunes, were compelled to do menial service, — this servant, 
though a ft'«e man, could not find it iu his heart to leave them, 
and take the liberty he loved ! It may have boon an excep- 
tional cAse; but it shows an interesting feature of Southern 
life. The words of this sexton of Savannali will adorn the 
historic page. " I reckon, sir, that it is tlio Lord's doing, and 
that it will bo a blessing to us in die end." 

Booiety in tho South, and especially in Savoimali, had under- 
gone a great change. The oxtremes of social life were very 
wide apart before the war; they were no nearer tlie night 
before Shennau marched into the city ; but tlie morning after 
there was a convulsion, an upheaval, a shaking up and a 
settling down of all the discordant olomonts. The tread of 
that army of the West, as it moved in solid column throiigfc 


TUB ftors Ol' '9i. 


the strootA, whs ItVe a moral earthquake, ovortumm^ aristoaratie 
prido, privilege, aud power. 

Old booBcs, witli fomiiiatiouB laid deep and strong in the ceo* 
tarioB, fortified b; wealth, name, and influence, went down bo- 
□oath the shock. Thu gonorEil diBniptJou of the former rela* 
tions of master and slave, and forced submission to the Unicn 
arms, produced a common lovol. A roveraol of the poles of 
the earth would hardly have produced a greater physical con* 
nilrion than tliis sudden and imexpcotod change in the social 
condition of thu people of the city. 

On Uio night boicro Hhormon outerod the ploco tliere were 
citizens who could enumerate their wealth by millions ; al sun- 
riso tlie next morning they were worth scarcely a dime. Their 
proporty had been in cotton, negroos, houties, land, Coiifodorale 
bonds and ourroucy, railroad aud bank stocks. GoTornmeut 
bad seized their cotton; the nogroos had posRessioii of their 
lands; thoir slaves had become fVeomon ; their houses wore 
occupied by troope ; Confederate bonds were waste paper ; their 
nulroads wore destroyed ; their bonks insolvent. 'Fhey had not 
only loet wealth, but ttioy had lost their oausc. Ai i *hore 
were some who were willing to oonfoss that they hau joop 
fighting for a system of iniquity. 

One could not ask for more courteous treatment than 1 
received during my stay in Savauuali. I am indebted to 
many ladies and gentlemen of that city for kind invitations 
to pass an evening with them. There was no concealment 
of opinioD on either side, but with tlie utmost good feeling 
hill ezpression was given to our dlfiering sentiments. 

*' We went into Uio war in good fiuth ; wo thought we were 
right ; we coufidonily expected to ostablish our independence ; 
but we are wliippod, and have got to make the beet of it," was 
the irtmk acknowledgment of eeroral gentlemen. 

'■* 1 bate you of the North," said a young lady. It came 
■qoarely, and the tone indicated a little irritation. 

» 1 am very sorry for it. 1 can hardly think that you really 
hate ufl. You don't hate me individually ? " 

**0 no. You come here as a geatieman. I should indeed 
be rude and unladylike to say that I hated you ; but I mean 
the YanlEeee in general. We never can Uve together in peace 
again. For one, I hope to leave the country." 




** If I were to roeido here, you of course would treat dm 
oourtoously so long as I was a gontlomai) in my doportmont? " 

" Certainly ; but you are aa iudividual." 

" But if two individuals can live poacefViUy, why not ten, — 
or a buudrod, — a tliousaud, — all? " 

She hositated a moment ; and then, with flashing eyee antf 
fiufiliod oouutenauce, which added charms to her beauty, said, 
*' Well, it 16 bard — and you will uuL Ihiuk any worse of me 
for saying it — to have your frieudB killed, your eerraute all 
takou away, your lands conftscatod ; and Uion know that you 
have failod, — tliat you hare been whip[^)od. I witdi tliat we 
had the power to whip you ; but wo have n't, aud must make 
the best of it. What we arc to do I don't know. Wo bare 
beeu ablo to bare orerytbiug that money could buy, and now 
we ha?e u't a dollar. I don't care anything about keeping the 
negTYX)!! io slavery ; but there is one fooling which wo Soutlioru- 
ers bare that you cannot enter iuto. My old mamma who 
Duned me is just like a mother to me ; but there is oue tliiug 
that I nOTcr will submit to, — that the ucgro is our equal. 
Ho beloi^ to aji ijiforior raco." 

She laid down the argumeut iu the palm of her baud with a 
great deal of omphasis. 

" Your energy, boldness, aiid candor are admirable. If uuder 
defeat ajid dieaster you sat down supiuoly and folded your bauds, 
there would be little hope of your rising again ; but your deter^ 
mination to mako the best of it shows tliat you will adapt your- 
■elf readily to the now order of things. There noTor will l>e coid- 
plete equality in eocicty. Political and social equality are 
Kparate and distinct. Bowdios and ragamuffins hare natural 
righta : they may have a right to vote, they may be citizens ; 
but that does not necessarily entitle them to free enttauce into 
our homes." 

Tlie idea was erideutly new to the youug lady, — and not 
only to her, but to all in the room. To them the abolition of 
slavery was the breaking down of all social distmctioiis. So 
long as the negro was compelled to outer the parlor as a set- 
Tant, they could endure bis presence ; but freedom implied the 
possibili^, they imagined, of his entrance as an equal, entitled 
to a place at their Presides and a seat at their tables. Tbfl 
ihouKht was intolerable. 




The poor vhites of the South are far below the colored 
people In aljilitj aud force of character. Thoy^ arc a class 
from which thero ia littlo to liopo, Nothing rousoa their am- 
bitioQ. Liko tho ladiaiiH, tlioy oro contout with food for to- 
daf ; to-morrow will take caro of itsolf. lu the cities tbej 
riwarm along the aidoa of buildings ou suuiijr days, oud at 
night crawl into their miserahlo cabius with little mora aspira- 
tion than dogs that eook their ketmoU. Undoubtetlly there is 
far Ies0 BiiSoring among tho poor of tlio Houthern cities than 
among tlie poor of New York, whoro lifb is ever a Btru^to 
with want. The South has a milder climate, aature roquirei 
lew labor for production, aud ibo conimorciol couLros are not 
oTororowdeil. Tlie j>oor whites of the SouUi maititaiii no battle 
with starratioii, but surroudor resignedly to poverty. They 
oan exist without mucli labor, and are too indolent to btrive 
(0 rise to a higher level of oxistonco. Tlio war haa taken their 
beet blood. Only shreds aud droga remain. 

" Wliat can bo done for the poor wliites 1 " 

It is a momuutous question for tbe consideration of philan 
thropisUi aud •statcsmeu. 

Thoy are very ignorant. Their dialect in a mixture of 
Bugli&li liud African, having words aud phraiws l>elougiug to 
ueither language ; Uiough the patoii is not confined to this 
oUuid, bui is Bomolimes heard in sumptuously funiislied parlors. 

" I ttupjxjho that you will not bo sorry when the war is orer," 
I remarked to a lady in Savannah. 

" No, sir. I reckon tho Confederacy is done gone for," wu 
the reply. 

It is reported that a North Carolina colonel of cavalry was 
heard to address hia command thus, — ** 'Tontioa, battalion. 
Prepare to gen orto yer critter. Git ! " 

"nio order to ride rapidly was, '* Dun right smart ! " 

You hear young ladies say, Paw, for Pa, Mate, for Ua, and 
thou, curiously adding another vowel vound, they say hear for 
ear, (hear for there. 

The poor whites of the country arc called " pour white 
trash," " rrackura," "clay-ealois," " sand-hillera," aud " Hwam(> 
angels," by the educated whites. There is no homogeneity of 
white society. The plaiiiers, aa a rule, have quite as much 
napeot for the negroes as for the sluftloss whites. 



Tot those miaerablo wretches aro excoodingly bitter against 
the North: it is the bittornose of ignoranoe, — brutal, cruel, 
6oQili8h, produced b; casto, by tho epirit of slavery. Them is 
more hope, therefore, of the blacks, in the future, than of thii 
dogradod dass. Tho colored people boUeTo that the people of 
tho North are their Dionds. Freedom, food, schools, all were 
giron by the Yankees; hence gratitude and oonfidonoe od 
tho part of the f^dmeu ; hence, on the part of the poor 
whttoe, hatred of the North and cruelty toward the negro. 
Idleness, not occupation, has been, and is, their normal con- 
dition. It is iugraiued in tlieir nature to despise work. In- 
dolence ia a virtue, laziuess no reproach. Thus slavery arrayed 
society against every law of Qod, moral and physical. 

The poor wliitos were in bondage as well as Uie blacks, and to 
dl tppearanco will remain &o, while the natural buoyancy of the 
negro makes htm rise readily to now exigencies ; with froedom he 
1b at once eager to obtain knowledge and aoqtiire landed eetatoe. 

Tlio colored people who hod taken up lands on the islands 
under General Sherman's order met for consultadoo in the 
Slave Market, at tho corner of Kt. Julian Stroot and Market 
Square. I passod up tho two flights of stairs down which thou- 
sands of slaves had been dragged, chained in coiTlo, and entered 
a large hall. At tho farther end wo? an elevated platform about 
flight feet square. — the auctiouoer 's block. The windows were 
grated with iron. In an anteroom at tho right women had 
been stripped and exposed to tlio gaze of brutal men. A col- 
ored man was prayiug when I entered, giving thauks to Ood 
for the freedom of his raco, aud asking for a blessing on their 
undertaking. After prayers they broke out into singing. 
Lioulonaut Ketchiun of Qouoral .Saxton's staff, who bod been 
placed ui charge of tho confiscated lands, was present, to an- 
swer tfaoir questions. 

" 1 would hko to know what title we shall have to our lands, 
or to the improvementa we shall make ? " was tho plain quee- 
tioQ of a tall block man. 

"Ton will have the faith and honor of the United States," 
was tbe reply. 

Bev. Mr. French informed them that the government could 
aot give Uiem deeds of tho land, but that General Sherman had 


THt DOYS OF '61. 


issued llie order, aud iritliout doubt President Liiicolu wouM 
see it wu carried ciut. '' Caii't you trust the Prosideut who 
gare 70U your freedom ? " bo asked. 

A Btoul mau, witli a yollow com[iIexioD, roee in the oentn 
of the house : ^* I have a house hero iu the city. I can get a 
good living here, and I don't want to go to tlio islandfl unless 1 
can be assured of a title to the laud ; and 1 think that is the 
fiwling of four fiftlis present." 

''That's sol" "Yes, brother!" was respoudod. There 
wa» evidently a reluctauce to bocomitig pionoort* iu such ao 
enterprise, — to leaving tJie city uijIobs the guRninty were sure. 

Another man rose, " My brodreu, I want to raise cotton, 
and I 'm gwinc." 

It was a short but ofibctivo speech. With koeu, sharp in 
tellect, he had comprehended the great commercial question of 
tbe day. lie know that it would pay to raise cotton ou lands 
whioh had been held at fabulous prices whou tlie staple was 
worth but t«t or fifteen cenu. He was going to imprcve the 
opportanity to raise cotton, even if he did not become a holder 
of the estate. 

" I 'm gwine ye, brudder ! " "So will I ! " and there was • 
genera] shaking of handa as if tliat were scaling a tontract 
Having determined to go, they joined in singing " The Freed- 
mon's Battle-Uymn," sung as a solo and repeated in ohoma : - 


^ t rrrr rj ^j^ rttrt 

ru B|tii (Of ub.M - tf. 

IV Ogblftr Uk-w- 

^ ^^^m 





tr, I'D fl«ht— I'll Aght 

he lA w • 4r- 










Ma. — in fight (far T.iborty, 
1 11 fight for M)>CTty. 
Ill fight— mt figlit for Liberty. 
CkorvM. ^ lu Uia New JumMlem, 
In tbe New Jermalem, 
Id Uie New — the New Tni imlfia 

I "in not afraiJ to die. 
I 'm not ofraicL ta ctie, 
I 'm not — I 'ta not tfetiA to di». 

CTorui, — In tfaa New, 9a 

1 ih*]! m««t nijr SAviotir th«re, 
1 (hail meet my Saviour there, 
] ■faiU] meet — ahiLlI oieet mv Sarionr tbera. 
C^onu. — In thH New, Jto- 

I ■hftll woAT a itairy crown. 
I ahftU wear a atarr? crown^ 
I ahiU wcAT — I •h«]l wear a itany crown. 
CTlonu. — In Ibe New, fcc. 

Tho colored soIdicrB of Foster's armj sang it at the batue 
of Honey Hill, while preparing to go into tho fight. How 
gloriously it sounded now, sung hj five hundred froodmea in 
tho SaTtuinah slaT&-mart, whero eome of tho Bingors had boea 
•old in dajH gone by! It was worth a trip from Boston to 
Sarannah to hear it. 

The next morning, in the same room, I e>aw a sohool of one 
hundred colored childreu assembled, lauglit by oolored leachen, 
who sat on the auctioueor's platform, from which had risen 
Toioes of despair instead of accents of love, brutal corsin^ 
instead of Christian teaching. I listened to the rocitationa, 
and beard thoir songs of jubilee. The slaTe-mart transformed 
to a school-house! Civilixation and Ghriatiaiuty bad indeed 
begun their benefioent work. 


THE B0Y8 or ei. 




Oemkb^l Shehhan rowiTcd, soon aflor his arrival in Bftvuk- 
aali, inBtniotions IVom Oouoral Oraut to hasten vitli hie army 
to J&moH River. Trausporis wore tierit liown for the cihip- 
moQt of the troopa. Oraut dosired to combine tiie two great 
tnnios, throw Hhormaii upon Iiis ovni lofl flank, and sotot 
Loo's couimuiiicationB wit1i tho South, aud also prevent hii 
escape. Through all tho long months of nimmor, autumn, 
and winter, — iVom Juno to February, — Oraut had put Ibrtb 
his energies to accomplish this object, but bod not bcon able 
to cut tlic DauTillo road, Loo's chief liuc of suppl}* or retreat. 
Tho arrival of Shormau upon Uio sea-coaBt made tho plao 

But that offioer thought it better to maroh nortliward, drir- 
iDg the cnemj before him, and fmish up tlio eutire Rebel forces 
ou the Atlantic coast ; besides, South Carolina deserved a 
retributiou as severe as tliat which had been meted out to 
Ooorgia. He also bolievod that ho could thus join Oraut 
quite as soon as bj the more circuitous routo by water. Oraut 
assented to tho proposition, and having lUll confidence in tho 
ability of his liouteuant, lofl him to co-operate In tlio manner 
he thought most adnsablo. 

The BoboU expected tliat tihermau would move upon Oharlee* 
toQ, but Buoli was not hia iutoutiou. Ho dctonuinod to make 
a moToment which would compel its ovacuatiou, whilo at tlie 
■ame time he could drive tho forces of the Rebels in tho interior 
of the State northward, aud by destroying &U tlie railroads ia 
his progress, aud sovoring Loo from the agricultural regiooa 
of the South, so cripplo his resources as to [nralyzo tho Rebel 
army before Richmond, and bring tho war to a speedy close. 

□e wished to preeerve him army entire, and accordingly ■ 
diviaioa of the Nineteenth Corps, wtiich had fought under 




Emoi7 iu the Southwest and tuder Grover in tLe Shouan- 
doah, baring no oaemy to pursue ailor the annilulatioii of 
Earlj, was sent dowu to garriBoa Savaanali, OroTer boing 
madf) commandaat of tho post. 

Geueral Howard, commanding the right wing, took trauft- 
ports with the Sovcntcflnth Corpa, Blair's, tor Boaufort, whence 
ho pushed into the interior, striking tlie OharloEton and SaTau* 
uah Railroad at Pocatoligo, and establisliiug there a depot ol 
suppLies. The Fifteenth Corps, Logan's, followed, except 
Corse's diTidon, which, being prorentcd by (h»hets from 
marching direct to Pocatoligo, movod with the lefl wing^ com 
manded bj Williams, joining the Twentieth Corps, and croes- 
ing the Sfcrannab marched to Uardocvillc, on the Charleston 
BaiXroad, and opoued communication witti Howard. 

"Comewitli me," was the kind inTitalion of General Wil- 
liams; "you will see high old times, I reckon. My soldier* 
are crazy to get into South Carolina." But believing that 
Sherman's moTflment would necessitate the evacuation of 
Obarlestou , I preferred to enter that city at the hour of her 
deepest humiliation. 

Daria's oorps, the Fourteenth, with Geary's dirisioa of the 
Twentieth, crossed at Sister's Ferry, fifty miles above Savan- 
nah This detour was necessary on account of the flooding 
of the country by ft^bets. The gunboat Poutiac waa sent 
np to cover tho crossing. When Slocum reached the rirer 
at Sister's Ferry be found it throe miles in width, and too 
deep to ford, and was obliged to wait till the 7th of Febni- 
aiy before he could cross. This movoment deceired Hardee 
and Beauregard. The presoaco of Howard at Pocatoligo looked 
like an advance upon Charleston, while Slocum being at Sis- 
tor's Ferry indicated an attack upon Augusta. The Robot; 
commanders therefore undertook to hold a line a hundre<i 
miles in length. D. H. Hill was hurried to Augusta, Hardo<% 
took position at Branchvillo, while Beauregard remained at 
Charleston. This scattering of the Rebel forces made Sher- 
man's task comparatively easy, as their combined army would 
hardly have been a match for Sherman in a pitched battle on 
t ftuj field. His troops hod entire coufidonce in themselves 
and in their commander. Having fought their way from Cha( 



Lonooga to AUauta, baring marcbod to fho sea and taken F 
McAUistor aiid Savannah, they boliovcd there was no obsta 
which thoj could not overcome in marohiug or fighting. 

Wilmington had been captured, and Bborman proposed 
rocoive hi» next supplies from the coast. 

"I shall reach Qoldsboro' i^oiit the 16th of March," b 
Hborman to his cliief quarto nmaetors, wlio at once made pr 
arations to forward suppUoB from Morohcad City in No 

Shormau held a confbrenco with Admiral Dahlgron on 
22d uf January, and with Oouoral Fostor, commanding 
Department of the South. All the troope in that quarter w 
to be employed in a movemout aguinst ChHrlct«ton- Gent 
Foster being in feeble health, Major-Geuernl Oillmoro, who 1 
charge of the department dtiriug the eununer, and who 1 
conducted the enguioering operations against Wagner i 
Sumter, again took command. 

Ttte march of the right wing, under Howard, commenced 
the lit of February. Howard fbund obstructions on all 
n»d«. Tho negroes iVom the plantations had been impres 
into the Rebel serrioe to burn bridges, fell treos, and o] 
iluic»-ways ; but his Pioneer Oorps was so thoroughly org 
lied thaf such obstoctos did not greatly impede \m progr 

Tho Ralkehatchie River nus southeast, and reaohee 
Atlantic midway between Oharleaton and Savannah. How 
moved up its southern bank, northwest, till be reached Rivi 
bridge, thirty-five miles above Pocatoligo. It was a we 
march, through swamps, mud, and piiie-harrotu. lUvor's brii 
and Beaufort bridge wore held l)y the Rebels, who were stroD 
posted. Blair, with the Seventeenth Corpfl, was ordered 
carry the first, and Logan, with tho Fifteenth, the latter. B 
detailed Mower's and Corse's divisions for tlio work. The tro 
saw boforo them a swamp three miles wide, overflowed, n 
soil mire bonoalh, filled with gnarled roots of gigantic tri 
It was mid-winter. The air was keen. They knew not 
•depth of the water. The forest was gloomy. Above tli 
waved the long gray tresses of moss. There was noth 
of pomp and oircimuttuuce to inspire them. It was an 
dertaking fUlI of hazard. They mtut shiver an hour in 





water, breast deep, before the; could reach the enem;. But 
they hesitated not an iuatant -when the order was given to moTO. 
Thoj stepped into the vater jocosely, as if upon a holidaj ex* 

A Bebel brigade guarded the farther Bhore; fiaukiiig it, and 
rooobing the firm land below the bridge, the troops rushed rook- 
Lessl; forward, and quickly drore the enemy from his strong 
potntioUf losing but bovouteen killed and seventy wounded. 

Thus by one dash the Rebel liue of the Salkohatchie wai 
brokeu, and Hardee rotirod behind the Edisto to BnuichTiUe. 
The railroad from Charleston to Augusta was reached the next 
day, and D. H. HiU at Augusta, with one third of the Bebel 
force, waa severed from Hardee and Beauregard. For tliree 
days Howard's men were engaged in destroying the railroad 
mat of the Edisto, — waiting also fbr the left wing, which had 
beea detuned by freshets. 

Kilpatrick, moanwhile, had pushed well up towards Augusta, 
driring Wheeler, burning and destroying property, and threat- 
ening HilJ. The Rebels everywhere were in a state of coneter- 
oatlon. They could not divine .Sherman's mtantioDs. The 
people of Charleston, who Ibr four years had heard the thunder 
of cannon day and night down the harbor, and had come to the 
conclusion that it wa« imposaible the city could ever be taken, 
DOW thought Sherman was intending to knock for admission at 
the back door. The people of Augusta saw that their fbir town 
was threatened. Tt had bcon an important place to the CouTed- 
eratee through the war, contributing largely to help on the Re- 
bellion by its manufacturing industry. Citizens fled from 
Charleston to Cheraw, Columbia, Winsboro', and other towns 
up the Santce and Catawba, little thinking that they were 
jumping from the "frying-pan into the fire." 

Braiichville is sixty-two miles northwest of Charleston, on 
the north bank of the Kdisto. Hardee expected to see Sher- 
man at that place, and made elaborate preparations to defend 
it, as it lay in the path to Charleston. But Sherman, instead 
of tumiog southeast, kept his eye on the north star, and moved 
on Orangeburg, thirteen miles north of BraiichviUe, where also 
th» Belieh) were prepared to make a stand ; but the Seventeenth 
Corps made one dash, and the enemy fled from a long breast- 




work oi cottoii-b«]6B. This was on the 12tli of Febniarj. 
Ifeanwhlle Geaoral Ilatch, wiih a portion of GiUmoro'e troops, 
vu thr&atoning Cliarleston along the coast. 

A division under Goiioral Potter, accompauicd by a largv 
nofflbor of gunboata, went to Bull's Bay, north of Ofaarle«ton, 
M if to approach the city from that quarter. The monlton 
wore inEtide the bar. Tliero woru Union troops ou Morris's lal- 
aud, ready to move, vhile clic batteries kept up their fire, send 
ing shells into the city. Thus from every point except oc th« 
nortliom ride Charleston was throatcnied. 

It was not till Iloward was well up towards Columbia th«t 
Hardoo saw ho had been completely flanked, and that Sherman 
had no intention of going to Charleston. Tlie only fbroe In 
front of Sherman was Wheeler's and Wodo Hatupton's cavalry, 
witli straggling bands of infantry. Hampton's homo wsa Co- 
lumbia. Ho was rich, and had a palatial residence. Ho was 
an aristooret, in principle and action. He was hitter in his ha- 
tred of the Union and the men of the North. Ho hod fought 
upon nearly all the battle-fields of Virginia, and doubtless, in 
common with most of the people uf his State, Imd not thought 
It possible the war should reach his own door. Bat Sherman 
was there, and being powerless to dofend the capita* cf the 
Stale, he was reckless to destroy. 

Columbia had been a depot of supplies through the war. In 
Tlew of ila occupation, Sherman gave written orders to How- 
ard to spare all dwellings, colleges, schools, churches, and 
private property, but to destroy tho arsenals and machinery for 
the manufacture of war material. 

Howard tlirew a bridge across the river three miles above 
the city, and Stone's brigade of Wood's division of tho Fif- 
teenth Corps was sent across. The Mayor come out in his 
c^rriugo, and made a formal surrender to Colonel Stone, who 
uiarchcd up the streets, where huge piles of cotton wore bom- 
iug. Hampton, in anticipation of the giving up of tlie city, 
had caused tho cotton to be gathered, public as well as 
private, that it might bo burned. There were thousands of 
bales. Negroes wore employed to cu* tho ropes that bound 
them, and apply tlie torcl]. As Stone marched in the last of 
Elampton'e troops moved out. 1'ho wind was tiigh, and flokei 




of bunuug cottou were blowu about the kItooIk, Kottiiig firo to 
the biuldljigs. The soldiers u&<!4 thoir utmost oxortioua to 
eitrnguish the flames, workiug uader the directiou of thou 
officers. The whole of Wood's dinsioD was seut iu for the 
purposo, but very little could be doue towards earing Uie ci^. 
The fire raged ^ough the day and night. Hundreds of fam 
.lies wero burned out, aad reduced from opuleuce, or at least 
compotencjr, to penury. It was a terrible scene of sufietiug and 
woe, — men, women, and children fleeing &om the flames, 
nuTouuded by a hostile army, composed of meu whom they 
had called vandals, rufl^s, the slime of the Nortli, Uie peett 
of society, aad irhtmi they had looked upou with haughty con- 
tempt, as belonging to au inferior raoe. Indescribable their 
anguish ; and yet uo Tiolonce was committod, do instilting 
language or action given by those soldiers. ShTman, Howard, 
Logaii, Hazeu, Woods, — nearly all of Sherman's officers, — did 
what they could to stay the flames and alleviate the distress. 
They experienced no pleasure iu beholding the agony of th« 
people of Columbia. 

Oeueral Sherman thus viudicates him&elf iu bis offioial re- 
port, and charges the atrocity upon Wade Hampton: — 

** I disdaim oo tbti port of my army any agency in this fire, bat, «■ 
ifae ooutmry, clutn tbU we smrvd what of Colnmbi* remmini qdoob- 
•omfid. And without hetitAtioD I chiu;ge General Wwle HAmploo 
with baring burned hiit own city of Goluinl>ifi,-~Dot witb a nulicunu 
inumu or ai tbe m&Difestation of % silly ' Bouuui Btoicism,' bat fn»B 
folly and wknt of »en«o, in Hlling it with lint, cotton, and tinder. Oat 
officers ftnd men on diiiy worked well to extinguish the flamee ; bat 
others not on doty, including the offlcera who hnd long been impriaooed 
there, retcoed by us, may hare afisistcd in spreadillg ihe An after ll 
had once begun, and may bare iudulged in usconeaalad joy to see tha 
mtn of the c»pital o( Sooth CkroUna." * 

ThuB Oolmnbia, the beautiful capital of a once haughty 
State, became a bUckeuod waste. Ttie convention which passed 
the ordinance of Seoesaion, when called together on Ltio 17di 
of Docomber, 1H60, met iu Columbia, but after organizing ad- 
journed to Charleston, as the city was infected with small 

* Shemui'i Report. 

THE BOYS or "fll. 


pox. But it was tho moro poisonous virus of Secession which 
fiuall}' laid their proud city low. 

The people of South Carolina are bitter in tboir batred of 
General Sherman. They charge all the devastation coiumit 
led during hiu march from Atlanta to Guldsboro* upon him. 
In tlioir estimatiou ho is " a fiuud," and liia conduct not merely 
'* inhuman," but " devilish." Yet he oul; adopted tlie polio; 
whioh the Bebel leaders urged upon their adherents, and 
irfaioh was Tohemontly advocated bj the SouUicrn press. 
Rebel, not loyal torches, (ired Oharlostoii, Orangeburg, and 

It is olaimed that Sherman did not regard private property, 
out destroyed it indlBoriminatoly witli that belonging to the 
Confederate government. Was there any respect shown by the 
Etebel auttiorities ? Cotton, resin, turpentine, stores owned by 
private individuals, were remorselessly given to tlie flames by 
the Rebels tbemselvetj, and tlieir acts were applauded by the 
people of the South as evincing heroic self-aacrilioe. 

Great stress is laid upon the suBbring occasioned by the pil> 
Ugiug and burning by Sherman's troops ; but in PeuusylvaulA 
yet remain the ruins of Cbamborsburg as evidence of the ten- 
der mercy of tho Rebelt), who not only destroyed public prop- 
erty, but gave dwelling-houses and stores to the torch. 

What act so malignant, bloody, ghastly, and fiendish as the 
sacking, burning, and massacre at Lawrence ! What deed so 
daimiiug since the barbarities of Scio or Wyoming ! What woe 
so deep! — men, children, murdered, butchered, scalped, th« 
bodies of the dead towed into tlie flames! No relenting ou 
the part of the Rebels, but savage, iiiiuriate joy at the sight of 
the warm heart's blood of their victims ! Woman's prayers 
and tears availed not to stay their murderous hands or move 
their brutal hearts. 

The responsibility cannot be evaded by saying that Quantrel 
was only a guerilla. If not holding a commission from itie 
Rebel government, he was fighting for the Confederacy, and 
was ranked with Morgan and Mosby. He was an ally of Jeff 
Davis and General Iaq. When were his acts disavowed by the 
Bebel government? What restraint waa ever laid upon him 7 
He passed from the scene of massaore, lighted by the flamea of 






To AlUj oompr^heod the fitting punishment of Sonih Otn> 
Uda ire muet keep iu remembrance her poititioii bcforo the 
nr. Wo must behold her u she appeared in 1N|>0. — the 
keftder and chief conspirator against the Republio. 

She had always taken a promtnont part in tixa political 
affiure of the nation. Although a State, ftho watt liardl; a ro 
publican oonunouwoalth, and verj far from being a domocmcy. 
The Sute was ruled hj a clique, compoeed of wealthj men, of 
uioieut name, who secured privileges and prerogativca for 
themMlreB at the expense of the people, who had hut tittle 
voioe in electing their lawgivon. 

Tb« bams of rcprewntation in the Legislature wan oxcoed* 
inglj oomplox. In the House of RepreeentatiTeB it was a mix- 
ture of property, population, white inhabitants, taxation, and 
ilaTos. In the Senate it coiisisted of geographical extent, white 
and Blare population, taxation, and property. The Senate wa« 
oonstitutod ailer the " Parish Hjstem," which gave the whole 
oontrol of political affairs in the Htate Into the hands of a fe« 
wealthj men from the sea-coast. 

There are two distinct classes of people in South Carolina, 
— the lowl&ndere and the nplanders. The settlers of the low 
lands were emigrants from Kngland and Franco, gentlemen 
with aristocratio ideaa. The settlers of the uplands, in the 
wrofltem counties, were pioneers from Virginia and Norili Caro 
lino, — smalt brmerB, cultiTating their own lands. Durinfr the 
tlpTolutionary war the uplonderB were Whiga, the lowlandcre 
Turioa. The lowl&ndors had wealth, the uplandors were poor. 
When the OooBtitutiDn was formed, organizing a Htate govern- 
mcnt, the lowlandors took care of their own interests. The 
lowlands in Colonial times were divided into pariBhes, and 
with Uie forming of the Constitution each parish wu to have a 




SoDAtor. The uplands, not being parisbes, irere distrioti 
of much Urger territorial area, houco political power fall into 
thfi hands of a few indmduala along the ooaat. Ab white pop- 
ulation inoreasod iu the diBtnctB, and docroased or remained 
stationary iu the pariKhes, tho up-conutry men tried to emauci- 
pate theauelvee from political serfllom, but there was no rem- 
edy except by an amendment to the Constitution, through a 
CouTeution called liy the Legislature; and aa the lowlaudort 
had control of tliat body, there was no redrese. The Sute, 
therefore, became an engine of political power, managed and 
worked by a few men from Cliarleeton, Beaufbn, St. ijeloua, 
Edifito, OolletoD, aud other parishes along the sea-coast. 

Nature gave South Carolina suuny skiee and a genial clime. 
The sea contributed an atmosphoro which gained for luiistc 
and St. Helena islands the monopoly iu the world's markou for 
cotton of finest tibre. Wealth increased with the gatlioring 
in of each new crop, and with wealth came additional power. 
Superiori^ of political privilege made the few impatient of 
restraint aud ambitious not only to control State, but national 
aflairs. South CuroUna attempted doEauce of national law In 
18&2, aud was defeated. 

The parishes governed the State solely in the interceta of 
■lavery. It gave tliom power, to perpetuate which they made 
lUvary aggressive. Here is exposed the root from which Se- 
eession sprung. Free labor ui the North was a plant of 
Tigoroiu growth. Slavery was slow. It left worn-out lands in 
its track. Hard work, brutaUty, and sin sent its victims to an 
early grave. Freedom was gaining ground. Slavery must be 
carried into the Territories and eociu^ a ibothold in advance of 
free labor. So the struggle began, and through pride, posaioD, 
and malignant hatred of the North Secession was at last ao- 

Upon the aeeembling of the Legislature for the choice of 
Pro«idential electors, the President of the Senate, W. D. For 
tor, of Charleston, said to his fellow-legislators : — 

** An that is dear ind predoos to this pMple, — lift, fonooe, name, 
ml bvtoiy, — ftU is oommittad to oar keeping for weal or for woe. for 
hooor or for ■hmme. Let na do our part, m that those wbo come &ft«r 
w ■hBll acknowledge that we were sot unworthy of th« great traiti 




dtrotnd upon ut, uid aot ounqut] u iha f^oat eii^adM ti^ whiek 
wo w«re tri«d. .... No tiutoftti powtir can wiUutaoil or break down ■ 
Boiled people, aUuidiag upon their own soil and defi^ndiog their own 
Orcatde*." * 

Thay made tboir eleotioD. Ttiey thought it to be weal, but 
uuder Ood's prorideuoo it proved to Ih) woe. 
A 8onator said: — 

' W« ttav* two wajm before ui, — in one, wtieltier we will or cot, wt 
mtut tread : for, in the event of tfalfl iMue, thf>re wotUd be no repoaa. 
In both lie daugvre. difflouUies, and troublttt. wliidi uo liuman foresiglit 
eaa fnrrabadow or pero'Jv^ ; but thej- art^ noi <>i]iial in magnituda. One 
b be»*>t with hamiliation, diithoDor, envmU*. rebellion, — with aabmiB- 
uon in the beginning to all, and at all time*, nnd conflication aod 
ilavery in the end. Tho other, it in true, lia-i iw difflcultiM and trial* 
but uo diflgrace. Hope, duly, and honor ehino along ihe jutth. Hope 
beacooa you to the end For himself be would unfurl tho Pal- 
metto ting, flinfT it to the breeze, and with the spirit of a brave man 
determine to live aod die as became our glorious ancestors, and ring tbe 
clarion nou» of dKliauce in the face of an iQaolent fo«."* 

When assombted in Hiberiiia Hall, in Charloston, sioce called 
Becef<Hiuii Hall, tlie delegates gave froo uttoraiico to tlieir aenti* 

Said Mr Parker: — 

" It ia ])o (i{uu>modio ofTort that has oomo niiddoiily upon ua 
it has boon gradually culminating for a long )ioriod of thirty 
years. At last it has oomo to that point whoro one maj aaj 
the matter is entiroly right." 

" I haro boon engaged in tliis moroment ever Bince 1 entered 
political life," said Lawrence U. Keitt. 

'* It is not anything producod by Mr. Lincoln's eloction or bj 
the tion-oxocution of Uto Pugitivo Slave Law. It boa boea t 
m&ttor which baa been gathering head for thirty yean," aaiil 
R. Barnwell Rhott, 

It was tho Ere of 1832 flaming anew. No rights bad been 
mraded. That Secession was inaugurated wittiout caiue muit 
ever bo tho verdict of history. And liistory will for«T«r hold 
John C. Calhoun, H. Barnwell Kliott, Right Rov. Bishop £lUott, 

* ftocwdiiigi of Soatb Carolina LmfaUtan. 
T BpMcta of Beaaior CbMUnL 




Bev. Dr. Tiiomwell, aud other sUteemdD, editors, muusterB,- 
members of the sUveboldiug forum, bar, and piilpit, — reepot^ 
dble for all the suObring, bloodohod, and dcaolatioii which haT« 
ooiue to the country. 

Proud in spirit wu South Garolma just then. The cottou 
crop WM laxuriant. Plaoters vere plethorio with mouej. 
The iiitoruBl slavo-trade established ita marts of human flesh 
all through the South. Yirgiuia became slave-breeding, aud 
Soutli Carolina slaTe-consumiog. In former years slavery wm 
deemed an evil, a curse ; but tlio call for cottou, ite rise in mar* 
ket value, vitb increased pro5t of culture and a cousoquent 
demand for labor, transformed it into a blessing, to bo porpet 
natod for the host good of the. hnman race. 

It was found to bo in perfect accordance with the teachings 
of the Bihle. The system itself was right; the abuse of the 
good was only evil. Rev. Dr. Thornwell, Professor of The- 
ology in the Presbyterian Seminary at Columbia, came boldly 
forward to advocate slavery as a Divine institution, ordained 
of Ood for the vel&re of the human race. He preached 
thus: — 

■'Onr sUtm are our solemn trost, snJ while we bave a right to 
me and direot tfaur labors, we are bound (o feed, clothoi, &Dd protect 
tliAin, to grra them Cbn comlbrta of thii life, fend to introduce then 
to the hope of a blessed immortality. Tbey are mom) beioga, and 
It will be found that in the cuUore of iheir morvl nature w« reap the 
largwC reward from tbeir Mrvice. TJu rtlaiion iUttf it moral, and 
in tli« tender affectioDB and endoaring Aympathiee il ci'oke.'* it gives 
•oope for ibti most altractiva graces of human cUaracier Strange as 
it may sound to those who are not familiar with the ay.<)(cm, slavery i« 
a acbool of rirtiH, and no clau of men have fbmi«tied sublimer iutanoea 
of heroic devotion ihao slaves in their loyalty and love to their ma»tera. 
We have seen them rejoice at the cradle of the infant, and weep at th« 
bier of the dead ; and there are few among us who tkave not drawn their 
nourUhmeot from their generoui breaats." * 

Such was the teaching from thoee who c&Uod themselves 
appointed of Ood to preach the Oospol of purity aud ]>eace. 
(Rinfoh and State, morals and religion, everything that could 
give itr«ngth aud reepeotiblUty to their cause, were brought in 

• SoBtberB 

in &rww. Jaaowy. IMl. 




Co aid the wut» of the oonfipirators. So thorough were tha 
teaohiiigB, that South O&rolina became ahuoet a unit on tbt 
queetion of Seoeesion. 

The people of the South oharge the Union armj with dem- 
oratiug their church edificea. Is it a wonder that ooldiurB, 
reasoaing from cause to eSeot, coaoluded that the religion 
which was foremoet iu precipitating a Rebellion which bu» 
taiued such an inttuman system was not worth serioue consid- 
eration ? Is it a wonder that, after experiencing the horrors 
of Bebel priAons. tbej lost reverence for a reUgiou which could 
apbold a govemmout guilty of such Qeudish cruelties ? 

Slavery was the comer-«tone and foundation of the Confed- 
eracy. Never was ttte trade in slaves between States so thriv- 
ing as during the wintor of 1860. And the leaders of the 
BebcUioD wore looking forward to the time when the commorco 
with Africa would bo roopenod. Mr. Jjamar of Savannah, who 
daring the Rebellion was agent of the Confederacy in Loudon 
for the purchase of army supplies, imported in the bark Wan- 
derer a oargo of native Africans, some of whom were sold in 
Charleston. There was a large party in the Confederate Con- 
gress which advocated tlie resumption of the foreign trade, the 
abolition of which in 1808 was sot down as one of the grier 
anoes of the South. 

It is the province of history to make a record of the bad as 
well as the good, shameful and humiliating though it may bo. 
Sin and wickedness are horrible facts. To view them as suoh| 
to oontemplate them in contrast with holiness aud righteous- 
ness, and draw useM lessons from such oontemplatiuu, is far 
better than to say that they have no place in histoi;. Poster- 
ity will wonder that a Church which called itself Olmstiau 
ever gave its support and advocacy to an institution which 
daily brought its victims, like cattle, to the auction-block, which 
made no distinction of age, which was remorseloss aa death, and 
which from tho cradle to tlie grave hold its victim as with a 
tiger's gripe. 

On the opposite page is presented a sample of an auotjouetf*! 
handbill, which I found upon the floor of the slave-mart, wfib 
the prices paid by the buyers marked in pencil against the 
names of the " chattels," and now appearing in parentfaeM*. 



^^^^^^ Admlnlatrator's Sale, by Order of the Ordtnarr. 




^V 68 Long Cotton Field Negroes, ^B 

^^^1 BeleBsing to ib« Ecuie of ibe lata Cbjlrtopber J- WbaJ*;. 


^■^ WIIiBUH & SON 


^^^^^^ WUI gel] at PUBLIC AUCTION in Cbu-lMUm. 


^^^B At the Mart in Ohalmers Street, 


^^^^^^B On Tboradnr. f eb. isa, ISQO. 





Who ara old te b* r^ufksMj pria*. u4 nrflt M Mid M r* OaMtf*^ 





Jjmuij, driver, 80 



Fbrs, MiuutreM, 34 


Racliel. (ft 7*0.) 


jAmrs. A 


Chari««, (ft 1X6.) 1 



A uguat, At 
UsOiiai^ (tl.KO.) 18 

FkrU, (»^iiO,) 




Sandj, 16 



John, IS 



Tom, ro 

Billy. (•»•«.) 


Jock, M 



Jama, 1 



Leali, i 



Flora, > 



Andrew, 49 

Tboinw, (ftSSO,) 


Binah. 40 



PhilliR, 10 

Edwavd, flocjiwan. 


Mxrr, U 

Teoeb. WMhar. 


Lvmtui, 10 


Abrui), (ftlTA,) S 



Binftb, 1 BO!. 



An'lr«w, 19 



^^^ Hagftr, IS 



^^^^K D«viiiaa, 
^^^1 CoOy, 



LoiiiM, (ft TM,) 


^^B Hagv, (SLIM,) » 



^^^H Hai^guvt, U 

8«in, niptar*d. 


^^^H Lxuiy, eripplfi, 60 

Andmw, dropac*!. 


^^^^1 JfJau, 



^^H Ellick. (fti^eo.) IS 




Luejr, nnne. 



^^^^P OM-ttaird OMh; baksM la om tod two yeuv, wenrvd by bond, aad aorffBi* of At ^^^H 

^^^^^H oapoM, with apiTOfad panoosl ••coiltr PoichaMn to pmj u fbc jmfttn. ^^^^| 




THE BOYS or 'fli. 


Tlio Oliarleflton Mrrcuiy was tlic orf^aii of Uio SooessionistR 
t)roia the start. It not ouly odrocatod Secession as a [X}linc4l 
pmiciple, but EUled ita culuimu with articks holding up to ridi- 
cule and ooutompt tho people of the North. The epirit of hate 
veemed to seise the whole cutnmuuity, in which women otod 
exceeded their hu&baads. Thus wrot< a Southern lady : — 

" I wotild rather die thau hold a ponitioii of inferiority unil 
rassalaf^ to the Nortli. and the dominant feeling of mj heart 
it to leave a Stat« whoro men are too cowardly to protect tholr 
womon and too mercenary to risk tlioir money."* 

" The question has thrust itself into our domestic fireside, 
and you find all clas^R, — men, women, and children, — uk- 
ing what tliey must ilo to be saved," said W. F. Ciillock, Col 
lector of CharlcHtoii, in a speech at tlie Pulaaki Houho, Savan 
nah, ou the opening of tho Ohorlestnn and SaTannoh Railroad. 

*' Fight! Soccdo ! " was the roepouBO &om the drunken 

The South Carolina Mu&o tuned her lyre and sang, - 

" Vie 'U unfurl the U>tie-8tu- bftciMr, 
And wall keep it Havinji liicbi 
For iiwMaioQ w« an pli-df[wl, 
For SecmOD w« will liie." 

The city of Charloelun was foremost for Secession, When 
the news was rocclTed that Mr. Linatlo was olectad Prenldent, 
a rod flag, with tho [latmotto-troo and a lono star wrought upon 
it, was raised. Say^ the Mtreuri/ : " A shout and twice three 
cbeen greeted ita apitearance. The Association of IHttO assem- 
bled. Tho feeling was for prompt action." 

The Legislature was in session at Oolumbia. Ou the 11th 
of the montli a hill was passed calling a State conTentiun. 

" Uentlomon, hats off! " said tho Sfereury. " Then hip-hip- 
hip-hurrah ! — and hip-hip-hip-hurrali — hurrtth — hurrah — 
hurrah — for the homes we love ! " t 

Then moro soberly the editor added : — 

" like Dewn of the passage of the cooveDtioD rasohttioos by la 
alUKMl URftQimotis vote, at Coleunbia, wsi r«c«ived in thla dtjr un Sab- 

• Cksrlenon Mmrmy, Nowntwr S. ISSQ 
t JCnwy, Nonnlwr It. IMO. 




arday night with dtimuaBLraiiooB which have, perhapc never been 
equaled io the political liiHtory of the countrj. Our shole comma- 
qUj wemed to breathe frmr and draper, and upon etGry brow aai 
ooofldenoe and hope- li was as though Urn gluriouA i»ua had xuddwl; 
duiperaed cloud and mint and rapor, and wot its iUuminaling nyn to 
flTrry heart and home. Men looked each other in the face na tnen 
abonld do who f«vl thai under God their de«IJni« are in their own 

Tbtu a " daughter of South Carolina " iDfiamod her eisiore: - - 

" Lifltan, dnught^n of South Carolina, to th<* voice of a ftuthtul aialer 
Shoold our Stale hack rvut now she would be disgraced forever. .... 
Shlfaik DOW, and wt^ are crui^bed forever- Tlien there will be do end 
of thA trouhtr? you r<?ar. AboUtinn emUAan«A will be at work all over 
the South, inciting the nogroea in every dtroctioo. Triali must come, 
bat let Ihem come in th« ngbt waj, nod a]i will be well. Secede, ptil 
oartelve* io t stalo of dofcDce -, be readj for anj emergency. Should 
(he goTenuneiit coercv. our ei^ter States will cx>me to the rescue. Let 
H be M- Belter |wmh lieneatli (he ihock than to Uve degraded. . . . 
O women of South CaroUoa I Uotheni, aiBlen, wiTee 1 do not wear 
tke white feather now, tialess, like that gatlant king of okL it wavet> oo 
oar men to tb« war." * 

Said aDotlier : ^ 

" Let uH wonea of CWrolioa prove that the same noble spirit whicb 
Tinted the mothers and matdeuA of '76 in alive, and glowing iu the 
^Irita of their deooendaQts. I am myself a widowed mother, but I 
have said to my three aonf, that if any one of tbetn shall be crane 
eoongb to desert the Slate now, to temporise in luetr coancils or ba 
backward if her lumor calls them to the Beld, let him never look upon 
ny \itce again." t 

What had traaspired to produce this wlute heat of pasncmt 
Simplj that a party was coiuiiig iuto power opposed to the ox- 
taorioti of slavery over free torritory. Tnio this party had 
also disavowod any intontion of lutcrforeitco with slavery in 
tbo Statei; but roBtriction was loes of power, — paralysis and 
death at last. The grioTance of Boutli Carolina arose wholly 
from slaTery. She claimed die right to traffic in human bo- 
ingfl. She beliered it wui a natural right, authorizod by the 

• Mmamf, tin' !■! ■ % INOi 

f CkarlsMoi Vvtwj, VeTaalnr IT, lua 


TUX Bors or si. 


Croatoi of the utiirerBe, tiaviog tlie sauctiou and solomiiitj of 
Uie patriarchs, prophots, bpostles, aud Cliriet UimMlf- It ira« a 
Datuxal, moral, and Bcriptural right for a master to rob hU 
brother iii tho Lord of hie earuiugs during tho wook, commuao 
iritl] him on Sunday, vhip him on Monday, and sell liim on 
Tuosday. Tlie infltitutiou being misinonary in it« nature, and 
designed to carry the Gospel to Africa, ho had a right to sepa- 
rato husbandfi and wives, parents and children, break the 
marriago relation, and eetabUsh new aUiancen at will. No 
doubt they were eincere in their belief that the eystem waa 
not only good in it«elf, but that it was a benefioont arrange 
mflnt for tho woU-boing of Uio human race. Certainly it waa 
bonotioial to tho master ; vhy should it not bo to tho slave T 
Hon can bo as Hincoroly eoalous for Wrong aa for Right. 
Eighteen hundred yoara ago a man zealous for the truth fiUod 
tho prisons of Syria with GhristianB, and thought he was doing 
righteously In the sight of God ; and human nature is the same 
now as Uion. Men and women who advocated tho rightoousueas 
of slavery were scrupulous to a penny in Uioir dealui^ with one 
another, and with colorod poople who wore ft-oo, — but the loss 
of fh)odom gave tlio right to commit robbery ! Htrango, also, 
the oonfusion and delusion of moral idoas. Society prided 
itself on its rirtue. Mon and women of Caucasian blood de- 
pArtiug fhim morality found the door of society shut against 
(hem ; but slavery being patriarchal it was not a crime, not 
evoo an oflbnoe against moraUty, for a planter to choose a 
Bagar trom his slaves. Society placed no bar iu his way, the 
Church no ban upon his action. Uagor could be taken into 
the master's household, appear in s